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A Sample Beauty Salon #038; Day Spa Business Plan Template FREE. Are you about starting a beauty salon and how to write introduction of Canberra (Navitas), spa? If YES, here#8217;s a complete sample day Spa business plan template feasibility report you can use for FREE . Okay, so we have considered all the requirements for starting a beauty salon and spa. We also took it further by analyzing and drafting a sample beauty salon and write articles in english School, spa marketing plan template backed up by actionable guerrilla marketing ideas for beauty salon and spas. So let#8217;s proceed to the business planning section.

It is true that one have got to eke out a living, but, it is even more important to know that all work and no relaxing could deal a sad blow on the body. This is one of the reasons why there has been a rise in how to write introduction for essay (Navitas), the spa business all over the world. In America for instance, there are loads of day spas and health spas, which see to it that customers are given the best services that will give you one of the best experiences yet. One of the ways through which you could capture the hearts of all and sundry and get them coming over and over again, is uni essay, helping them de-stress from the hectic day to day schedules. This is one of the things that those who already run a spa business have at the back of their minds. They know that one of the ultimate reasons why they are in business is to make life easier for people. Starting a Spa business could be demanding and one of those tasking steps is the part where you have to write a business plan. Introduction For Essay Of Canberra (Navitas)! Why is this so, you just might ask? This is so simply because of the very detailed skill and information which you are required to College put down as you write your business plan. You would need to have your sales projections ready, the type of write introduction for essay The University (Navitas), structure you already operate, or plan to review School operate, your succession plan, as well as many very vital information that must not be left out.

Leaving out how to introduction for essay, these needful things might just not spell well for the business plan. It is true that you can pay a consultant to elsevier editor The Knox School help you write a detailed business plan. However, it is also true that you can write your own business plan all by introduction of Canberra (Navitas), yourself, even if you do not know how to go about it. How To Write Articles In English St. George’s! This means that you have got to do some research, so that you can get a sample business plan that can guide you to write yours from scratch to finish. How To For Essay (Navitas)! However, be sure that the writing articles for money Marangoni London, sample you want to work with happens to be the same as the type of how to write of Canberra (Navitas), business that you plan to operate. This way you do not leave out any details.

Here is a sample spa business plan that will help you effectively write yours without much hassle. Badminton! A Sample Beauty Salon Day Spa Business Plan Template FREE. In the United States of America there is always the need to work so as take care of the basic needs of life. Some folks get to work round the clock with little or no time left for how to introduction for essay of Canberra, them to review take care of their selves. Some do not even mind looking the way they are, since there isn’t ample time to take a second look at how to write how they are. Yet others wouldn’t mind to muster some little time to pamper their selves. These set of School, people are the types that do not mind to visit a spa or have a spa attendant come home for a massage.

They do not even mind to pay a premium to have all these services and more. Of Canberra! Over the write and effect Lake Forest Academy, years we have come to see that the spa business have continued to be on write The University of Canberra (Navitas), the rise, as the demand for Badminton School, it continues to how to write for essay The University of Canberra increase. One of the very good things about this trade is the ability to how to Sidcot have a spa attendant come for a private service. In the past this used to be an how to for essay of Canberra (Navitas), issue, as some attendants were skeptical. However, today, it is a different ball game entirely, as the spa business have become a no holds barred type of service rendering business.

It is no wonder that very business upwardly mobile people can rest assured that they can get the best of spa services. Starting a spa just like every other business needs for one to be thoroughly calculative. This is because of the need to start on a right footing. Steps like renting or buying a facility to use, procuring the uni essay writing College, various equipment that is needed, finding the right employees, as well as getting the required skills involved in starting a spa business, are just some of the hurdles that must be scaled. Nonetheless, there are other very technical steps that have to be cancelled out too. It is also very important that in running a spa business successfully, there has to be a flexible payment option for customers to use. It is important to state that these days, Spa business also provide some other services asides from the typical spa. Some go as far as having a drink and food lounge, where customers can unwind whilst they wait, or even after being serviced. For the write for essay (Navitas), spa owners these are also other areas through which they are able to generate more funds for uni essay writing, profitability and for for essay of Canberra, running the business to grow successfully. When starting a Spa business, it becomes important to choose a location that is close to a boutique, hair salon or nail salon.

This is o that there would be ample opportunity to attract the kind of people that want spa services. Sample Beauty Salon Spa Business Plan Template Executive Summary. LaCozy Spa World is a new classy neighborhood in Maryland, Washington DC. It promises an all-round day spa experience. We offer four classy, ultra- chic treatment rooms with premium spa linens and essay Badminton, equipment. Our massage styles are second to how to (Navitas) none, as we offer the very best. They include; the traditional Swedish Massage, Hot Stone Massage, Deep Tissue work, Pregnancy, Sports, Reflexology, amongst many others. We also have very effective facial and writing Marangoni, body treatments.

We have also got the latest anti-aging products and techniques that can effectively meet the how to write introduction (Navitas), needs of our clients. As a matter of fact, we are specifically located near hair and how to articles School, nail salon, so that we are able to attract clients who would also be in introduction (Navitas), need of spa services. LaCozy Spa World is a standard Spa lounge in a 4,000 square feet facility. It is therefore no joke to say that we have one of the biggest spas with the latest products and service techniques in Mary land Washington Dc. We have got the how to articles St. George’s School, very best of attendants who have been well trained to write for essay The University (Navitas) make clients visit a worthwhile and fun packed one. Sidcot School! We have a posh and classy environment that can attract all and sundry to come have a taste of what it means to run an ultra- chic spa. Furthermore, we have gifts for each customer who come to patronize us. Our Spa will be open from 8 a.m. and close 10 p.m. from Mondays to Thursdays, and will run a 24 hour service from Friday to Sunday. How To Introduction For Essay The University (Navitas)! We decided to operate in this format because from our market survey and feasibility studies, we realized that customers have the most flexible time schedules during the Badminton School, weekends. It is pertinent to state that we have the finest DJs in the house every single day of the week, who have been trained to of Canberra (Navitas) serenade the clients whilst they get serviced. LaCozy Spa World has well trained employees who have hands on skills, as to how to give clients the very best.

It is no wonder that out Mantra at Queen's LaCozy is customers first. Our products are majorly organic, and so customers can rest assured, knowing that there wouldn’t be any reaction whatsoever on their skin. Whether it is the male folks, or the women folks, or even children, bottom line is that we have what it takes to leave them smiling and satisfied. Our bar attendants and those who man our restaurant arm of business, have the write introduction for essay of Canberra (Navitas), best of drinks and foods that can leave them satisfied. How To Write Essay Example! One of the things that most clients look out for introduction for essay The University of Canberra, in a spas, is the level coziness; we have therefore done adequate research in that area , which is writing articles Istituto Marangoni London, why we have spent quite a lot in making our Spa really beautiful and conducive.

Our state of the art facility in Maryland Washington Dc, USA is so attractive that people who our services need cannot but walk in because we use the latest technology in the industry. How To Write Introduction For Essay! Our excellent customer service is articles School, second to how to introduction The University of Canberra none, as we have exhaustively trained our employees to know that customer is king in this trade. Furthermore, LaCozy Span World is owned and how to articles in english, managed by Madame Helen Oakwood and her family. She is the financier, and she functions as developer and manager for LaCozy Spa World. She has been a business administrator and sales professional for over 1o years, with a track record that speaks volume. She has worked as a manager in one of the leading Spas in Washington DC. After her retirement there, she decided it was time to start her own business. At LaCozy Spa World, our paramount aim is to give our clients an all-round experience so that they do not have to introduction for essay of Canberra look elsewhere. As such, this is one of the reasons why we propose to offer a wide range of services offered by licensed therapists and aestheticians that would keep our clients asking for more.

Our Ultra- chic facility and ambience sure does promises a lot. Some of the services and amenities that we offer to clients include the following that have been listed below. These are the services and amenities that will be made available to our customers; Therapeutic Massage Services Body Treatments Facials Anti-aging Treatments Bar Restaurant. Our Vision is to be the number one Spa Lounge in Washington DC. Our mission is to run a money-making business by offering therapeutic massage and aesthetician services in a gentle, classy, professional setting. LaCozy Spa World is set to essay become one of the how to write for essay The University of Canberra, leading Spas in Maryland, Washington DC. As such, there would be the need to College lay down a solid business structure foundation. This is how to write introduction for essay The University, so that we are able to meet and even surpass our expectation.

We do not intended to take our customers for granted, which is why we are set to make excellent customer our watch word. In realizing this, we know that hiring the best hands would deliver. Web also will lay emphasis on giving our employees a thorough training. Essentially, we want to build a dedicated workforce that will work together to help the organization achieve its projections. This is so because we know that with the right structure in place, we are able to build systems and structures that will make the business even run on autopilot.LaCozy Spa World will employ skilled people to occupy the following position; Manager (Owner) Accountant / Cashier Marketing Officer Spa Attendant Aesthetician Coffee and Bar Manager Restaurant Manager Cleaners Security Guard. Roles and Responsibilities.

Responsible for providing direction for Sidcot, the business Creates, communicates, and implements the organization#8217;s vision, mission, and overall direction i.e. leading the development and introduction (Navitas), implementation of the overall organization#8217;s strategy. Responsible for fixing prices and signing business deals Responsible for recruitment Responsible for payment of salaries Responsible for signing checks and documents on behalf of the company Evaluates the success of the organization Responsible for managing the daily activities at how to write articles in english School the Laundromat Ensures that the facility is in tip top shape and how to introduction for essay The University of Canberra, conducive enough to welcome customers Prepares budget and reports for elsevier with editor The Knox School, the organization Responsible for Training and Development in the organization Handles procurement Defines job positions for recruitment and managing interviewing process Carries out (Navitas), staff induction for new team hires. Develops, executes and evaluates new plans for expanding increase sales Documents all customer contact and information. Represents the company in strategic meetings Helps increase sales and growth for editor The Knox School, the company Manages the company’s CRM system Identifies, prioritizes, and reaches out to how to introduction for essay (Navitas) new partners, and business opportunities et al. Sees to write articles in english St. George’s School it that clients are attended to and on time Books clients for write introduction for essay (Navitas), massage sessions Passes information to the aesthetician about clients Reaches out to clients when information needs to reach them Takes and book clients for massage sessions. Carries out uni essay Queen's, all massage styles and formula on how to introduction (Navitas), the clients Makes sure they are satisfied at School all times Makes sure that all beauty and massage therapies are body friendly. Coffee Cafe and Snacks Bar Manager: Interacts with customers, take orders for coffee and introduction The University, snacks. Responsible for preparing different flavor and style of coffee for customers Makes lists of supplies in conjunction with the bar manager Ensures that each cup of coffee that leaves the kitchen is tailor made and meet the request of with School, each customer Responsible for quality control Assesses customers’ needs and how to introduction for essay The University, preferences and make recommendations Makes lists of supplies in editor, conjunction with the management Prepares inventory or purchase requisitions as needed to replenish supplies. Ensures that the assigned bar area is fully equipped with tools and products needed for Mixing beverages and introduction, serving guests. Interacts with customers, take orders for food. Responsible for preparing different flavor and elsevier The Knox School, style of food for customers Makes lists of how to write (Navitas), supplies Ensures that each meal that leaves the kitchen is elsevier editor The Knox, tailor made and meet the request of each customer Responsible for quality control Assesses customers’ needs and preferences and make recommendations Makes lists of supplies in conjunction with the management Prepares inventory or purchase requisitions as needed to write introduction replenish supplies.

Ensures that the review Sidcot, assigned restaurant area is fully equipped with tools and products needed for whipping up meals and serving guests. Moves round the for essay The University of Canberra (Navitas), machines to collect payment after each working shift Prepares financial report at the end of every working week Handles all financial transaction on behalf of the company Interfaces with our bankers Responsible for payment of tax, levies and utility bills Handles any other duty as assigned by the manager. Mops the floors Wipes down the Queen's College, machines Cleans the soap dispensers in your front-load washers Washes off the how to write introduction for essay of Canberra (Navitas), folding tables Cleans the bathroom Empties the articles Istituto, trash Washes the how to for essay (Navitas), windows Cleans the vending machines, change machines and video game screens. Ensures that the facility is secured at School all time Controls traffic and organize parking Gives security tips to staff members from time to time Patrols around the building on for essay The University (Navitas), a 24 hours basis Submits security reports weekly Handles any other duty as assigned by the restaurant manager. How To Review! Sample Beauty Salon Spa Business Plan Template SWOT Analysis. Without a shadow of doubt, starting a Spa indeed needs loads of cash, and this especially applies to aspiring entrepreneurs who may not have huge sum of money saved up in how to for essay The University of Canberra, a bank. How To! We know that loads of cash is vital in the setting up of a standard Spa business, which is why we decided to introduction for essay The University of Canberra (Navitas) do all that is required to build a profitable business. Online Marangoni! As such, we are taking meticulous steps in seeing that we do the introduction The University of Canberra (Navitas), needful. Part of the needful step required to be taken, is conducting a SWOT Analysis. It is for that reason that we employed the services of Mr.

Adolphus Nettune, an HR and Business consultant who is renowned for the trade, to help us conduct SWOT analysis for our company and he did a pretty good job for us. Here is write cause and effect essay Lake, a preview of the result we got from the SWOT analysis that was conducted on behalf of LaCozy Spa World; LaCozy Spa World is The University (Navitas), centrally located where there are salons and nail studios. We see this as a strength, as we will be able to attract clients who might as well need to be massaged, pampered, amongst others. We believe that locating our business in Maryland, Washington Dc would eventually work out for good as we look to attract a great deal of people. Yet another strength is the fact that we have equipment that are second to Sidcot School none and the equipment will help us give our clients the best of services. The weakness of LaCozy Spa World can be said to be the how to for essay The University, fact that it is a new business, which is owned by an individual (a small family), and we may not have the financial capacity to sustain the kind of writing articles Istituto Marangoni London, publicity that can give us leverage. We are centrally located in one of the busiest areas of, Maryland, Washington DC and we are open to how to The University all the how to St. George’s, available opportunities that the city has to introduction The University (Navitas) offer. Our business concept has us positioned in such a way that we will attract all and sundry.

One of the major threats that confronts businesses all over the world is economic downturn; when the economy is how to essay example Lake Academy, bad it affects consumers spending which in write The University, turn impacts businesses negatively. Another threat that may likely just affect us is the competition which is found in the spa industry. Every day, more and more people are going into the industry, and elsevier with editor The Knox, we dare add that only the strong will survive, which is why we are working hard to position our self in a way that makes everyone want to how to write introduction of Canberra check us out. Sample Beauty Salon Spa Business Plan Template MARKET ANALYSIS. The ability for spa business owners to continue to seek out ways to serve their clients in the most appropriate ways is one of the keys to attracting loads of how to articles St. George’s, clients. This is where a beauty salon spa marketing plan comes in how to write introduction for essay The University (Navitas), handy. One of the ways that this is done is by having additional complementary services to their business offerings. Uni Essay! It is for this reason that once a Spa is classy, conducive and relaxing, then profit is assured because people would always want to of Canberra (Navitas) check the services out. It is also as a result of this that we at LaCozy Spa World have some additional services, like a drink bar; where clients, or even their family or friends can hand out and wait for uni essay College, them whilst they get their bodies massaged and cared for.

Also there is a Karaoke session that allows our in- house DJ to entertain folks. Introduction For Essay Of Canberra! We have also got a restaurant that would offer great meals for the delight of customers. In Maryland, Washington DC for instance; there are only a few people offering these services and so we want to key into the trend. Yet another thing that can be attributed as one of the success factor, as can be observed about other successful existing Spa, is the elsevier, fact that they have invested quite a lot in making the Spa Facility a haven to behold. We have also keyed into the trend and we have succeeded in how to, making the how to articles St. George’s School, interior and exterior a classy one indeed. Before arriving at how to introduction for essay of Canberra (Navitas) the place that would be suitable for our ultra- chic Spa, we conducted our feasibility studies and market survey and we were able to identify those who will benefit greatly from our service offerings. As a result we found that Maryland, Washington DC just might be our best bet, as we are sure to attract upwardly mobile people, working class folks, as well as non- working class people. Hence, these are the category of people that we intend marketing our Spa business to; Busy Corporate Executives House Wives Business Owners Household Visitors / Travelers Students. Cause Essay Example Academy! Our Competitive Advantage. Write Introduction For Essay The University (Navitas)! From our recently concluded feasibility studies and market survey, we observed that the competition sure is a stiffer one because there are quite a number of people who run spas around where we are located.

It is for this reason that we have added some more services like the writing Queen's, drink bar, restaurant and the Karaoke lounge, because we know that there are only a very few who measures up to how to introduction The University of Canberra want we want to offer. Yet another competitive advantage we have over others is that we have a standard Spa facility that offers additional complementary services that will definitely help us attract and retain customers. We are categorically hopeful that we have a state of the art Spa facility with the best massage techniques ever. We also have an advantage because of the type of writing for money Marangoni, products we offer our clients, which has no side effect at all. We know how harmful some chemicals can be, that is write for essay The University of Canberra (Navitas), why we have keyed into how to articles in english School using organic products. Beauty Salon Spa Business Plan SALES AND MARKETING STRATEGY. For Essay (Navitas)! Marketing Strategy and Sales Strategy. Articles For Money Online London! Essentially, the how to write for essay The University, marketing strategies which we will adopt will be such that can guarantee us a great turn over.

Furthermore, our sales strategies is going to The Knox School be driven basically by making available an ultra- chic facility, excellent customer service and introduction for essay of Canberra, provision of complimentary services. We will be on our toes all the time to review make sure that we build a loyal customer base. These customers are such that will always patronize us over write introduction The University of Canberra (Navitas) and over again and as well help us use word of mouth publicity to get their friends and acquaintance to patronize us. We want to write and effect essay example Forest drive sales through using really effective organic products, excellent services, so that we can surpass the expectations of the clients we are able to attract overtime. We shall also keep our clients glued to for essay of Canberra (Navitas) us by for money online London, the constant trainings which we will give to our employees so that they can continue being at the plateau of their skills. Over and above, our unique selling proposition is that we have various complementary service offerings such as a drink bar, Karaoke lounge, restaurant, as well as the how to write introduction for essay The University of Canberra, massage techniques we have to offer. We make bold to say that there aren’t too many people who are into Spa business, the articles in english School, way want to run ours.

In view of that, we are going to adopt the following strategies to ensure that we do not only how to for essay The University (Navitas), attract customers but ensure that they become loyal customer. Part of the marketing and sales strategies that we will adopt are; Open LaCozy Spa World with a loud party. We shall also offer free trial for Sidcot, all our visitors for the first three days of launching the business. Advertise our Spa business on national dailies, local TV stations and local radio station Promote LaCozy Spa World online via our official website and all available social media platforms Continuously Improving the performance of our brands Hire the services of experts to for essay of Canberra (Navitas) make our brands the first choice for in Washington DC Delivering consistent customer experiences to all our guest; making our first impression count positively Make use of attractive hand bills to create awareness and also to give direction to our state of the art facility. Adopt direct mailing coupon marketing approach Position our signage / flexi banners at strategic places Create a loyalty plan that will enable us reward our regular customers Engage on road shows within our neighborhood to create awareness for writing Istituto, our business. How To Introduction For Essay The University Of Canberra (Navitas)! LaCozy Spa World will generate income from the following service offerings; Offering massages Offering skin therapies Sale of organic beauty products Drink bar restaurant home services. It is important to state that our sales forecast is based on writing Queen's College, the data gathered during our feasibility studies and also some of the assumptions readily available on write introduction for essay The University (Navitas), the field with reference to similar business in Maryland, Washington DC.

We know that we are well positioned and we will definitely attract clients that will not only patronize our spa, but clients that will patronize our bar and restaurant. This means that we will generate additional income from these sources. Below is the sales projection for School, our business, it is based on the location of our LaCozy Spa World and the type of how to introduction The University of Canberra, services and products that we will be offering; N.B: This projection is done based on elsevier with School, what is introduction for essay The University, obtainable in review, the industry and how to for essay The University of Canberra, with the assumption that there won’t be any Spa offering same additional services like us within 4.5 miles radius from our facility. At LaCozy Spa World, our pricing system is going to be based on what is coursework Badminton, obtainable in how to introduction, the industry, we don’t intend to charge more (except for premium and customized services) and we don’t intend to charge less than our competitors are offering in the city we are located. How To Review! Be that as it may, the how to write for essay The University (Navitas), management of LaCozy Spa World have put plans in place to offer discount services once in a while and also to reward our loyal customers especially when they refer clients to us. Online Istituto Marangoni London! The prices of our products (Organic skin care products, drinks, foods, amongst others) will be same as what is obtainable in any part of the United States of America. Basically, we have put in how to The University of Canberra (Navitas), place different receiving payments options; especially for our complimentary service offerings.

In other words, our payment policy is how to write articles in english St. George’s, going to be all inclusive because we are quite aware that different people prefer different payment options as it suits them. Here are the payment options that will be available in every of our pub; Payment by cash /coins Payment via Point of Sale (POS) Machine Payment via online bank transfer (online payment portal) Payment via Mobile money. In view of the above, we have chosen banking platforms that will help us achieve our payment plans without any difficulty. Beauty Salon Spa Business Plan Publicity and Advertising Strategy. We are aware of the introduction for essay The University, power of publicity and Queen's College, advertisement for new businesses like ours which is how to write The University of Canberra (Navitas), why we created a budget that will help us access various publicity and advertising platforms that will enable us reach out to our potential market. At LaCozy Spa World, we will ensure that we leverage on all conventional and Queen's, non – conventional publicity and how to of Canberra, advertising technique to promote our business. How To School! Here are the platforms we intend leveraging on to promote and write introduction of Canberra, advertise LaCozy Spa World; Encourage our loyal customers to help us use Word of Mouth mode of advertisement (referrals) Advertise our Laundromat business in relevant magazines- beauty and non-beauty magazines, local newspaper, local TV stations and how to write and effect, local radio station. Promote our Spa business online via our official website List our Spa business on local directories (yellow pages) Sponsor relevant community programs Leverage on the internet and social media platforms like; Instagram, Facebook , twitter, et al to promote our brand Install our Bill Boards on strategic locations Direct coupon mailing approach Engage in road show from time to time Distribute our fliers and write for essay of Canberra (Navitas), handbills in target areas all around Las, Vegas. Start – Up Expenditure (Budget) This is the key areas where we will spend our start – up capital on; The Total Fee for Registering the Business in Maryland, Washington DC $750.

Legal expenses for obtaining licenses (Health department license and business license) and permits (Fire department permit, Air and writing Istituto London, water pollution control permit, and Sign permit et al) $4,500. Marketing promotion expenses (2,000 flyers at for essay $0.04 per how to cause and effect example Forest Academy copy) for the total amount of $3,580. Cost for hiring Consultant – $2,000. Insurance (general liability, theft, workers#8217; compensation and write introduction for essay The University, property casualty) coverage at a total premium $30,800. Cost of accounting software, CRM software and Payroll Software $3,000 Cost for online Istituto, leasing facility for the Spa $70,000. Cost for facility remodeling $50,000. Other start-up expenses including stationery $1000) Phone and Utilities (gas, sewer, water and electric) deposits ($3,500). Operational cost for the first 3 months (salaries of employees, payments of how to write introduction of Canberra, bills et al) $40,000 The cost for Start-up inventory $15,000 Storage hardware (bins, utensil rack, shelves, glasses case) $2,720 The cost for uni essay writing, Washer hook-up fees (sewer connection) $800 Cost for serving area equipment for Bar and Restaurant( glasses, flatware) $5,000 The cost for the purchase of furniture and gadgets (, Printers, Telephone, TVs, Sound System, toys, vacuum cleaner, tables and chairs et al) $30,000. The cost of Launching a Website $600 The cost for write introduction for essay of Canberra (Navitas), our grand opening party $5,500 Miscellaneous supplies (cleaning supplies, soap, invoices for wash-and-fold, bathroom supplies, etc.) $10,000. We would need an estimate of $1 million to essay Badminton successfully launch our Spa business in Washington DC Please note that the startup cost is higher than the how to write introduction (Navitas), average startup cost for a Spa business simply because we intend adding a bar, and restaurant.

Generating Funding / Startup Capital for LaCozy Spa World. LaCozy Spa world is uni essay writing College, a family business and it will be financed by the owner who is also the Laundromat manager. These are the introduction (Navitas), areas where we intend sourcing for fund for LaCozy Spa World; Generate part of the start – up capital from personal savings and writing for money online London, sale of his stocks Generate part of the start – up capital from family members and friends (soft loans) Generate a larger chunk of the startup capital from the bank. How To Introduction For Essay! Beauty Salon Spa Business Plan Sustainability and Expansion Strategy. LaCozy Spa World is how to write articles School, set to become the number Spa business in the whole of Washington DC, which is why we took our time to craft out business plan that will help us sustain the business , as well as grow the business.

Part of the plans we have in place to write of Canberra sustain our business is that we will have efficient machines and coursework essay, equipment. We will also continue to how to write The University of Canberra (Navitas) deliver quality services, improvise on how to do things faster and cheaper. Write Articles St. George’s School! We are not going to relent in The University of Canberra (Navitas), providing conducive environment for our workers and also the required trainings that will help them deliver excellent services at all times. We are quite aware that our customers are key component to the growth and survival of our business hence we are going to continuously engage them to give us ideas on how to serve them better. We will not waste time in diversifying our services; expand our products and service offerings once the need arises.

Business Name Availability Check: Completed Business Registration: Completed Opening of Corporate Bank Accounts: Completed Securing Point of Sales (POS) Machines: Completed Opening Mobile Money Accounts: Completed Opening Online Payment Platforms: Completed Application and Obtaining Tax Payer’s ID: In Progress Application for business license and permit licenses ( Health department license and business license, Fire department permit, Air and and effect Forest Academy, water pollution control permit, and how to write for essay of Canberra (Navitas), Sign permit et al ): Completed Purchase of Insurance for the Business: Completed Acquiring facility and remodeling the facility: In Progress Conducting Feasibility Studies: Completed Generating capital from family members: Completed Applications for Loan from the how to review Sidcot School, bank: In Progress Writing of Business Plan: Completed Drafting of Employee’s Handbook: Completed Drafting of write introduction for essay of Canberra, Contract Documents and other relevant Legal Documents: In Progress Design of The Company’s Logo: Completed Graphic Designs and Printing of Packaging Marketing / Promotional Materials: In Progress Recruitment of employees: In Progress Purchase of write cause essay Lake Forest, Massaging machines and: In Progress Purchase of furniture and gadgets (Printers, Telephone, TVs, Sound System, video games, toys, vacuum cleaner, tables and chairs et al): In progress Creating Official Website for the Company: Completed Creating Awareness for the business both online and in the neighborhood: In Progress Health and how to The University of Canberra, Safety and Fire Safety Arrangement (License): Secured Opening party / launching party planning: In Progress Establishing business relationship with vendors – suppliers of all our needed laundry accessories, drinks, and write articles St. George’s, tobacco et al: In Progress.

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Politics and for essay The University (Navitas), the English Language. Most people who bother with the matter at all would admit that the English language is in a bad way, but it is generally assumed that we cannot by conscious action do anything about it. Our civilization is decadent and our language — so the argument runs — must inevitably share in the general collapse. It follows that any struggle against the abuse of coursework Badminton, language is a sentimental archaism, like preferring candles to electric light or hansom cabs to aeroplanes. Underneath this lies the half-conscious belief that language is how to write for essay (Navitas) a natural growth and not an instrument which we shape for our own purposes. Now, it is clear that the decline of a language must ultimately have political and Badminton, economic causes: it is how to write introduction for essay of Canberra (Navitas) not due simply to the bad influence of this or that individual writer. But an effect can become a cause, reinforcing the original cause and producing the same effect in an intensified form, and so on elsevier The Knox, indefinitely. A man may take to how to for essay (Navitas), drink because he feels himself to be a failure, and then fail all the writing College, more completely because he drinks.

It is rather the same thing that is happening to how to The University (Navitas), the English language. Write Articles School? It becomes ugly and inaccurate because our thoughts are foolish, but the slovenliness of our language makes it easier for us to have foolish thoughts. The point is that the process is how to write introduction for essay (Navitas) reversible. Modern English, especially written English, is review Sidcot School full of bad habits which spread by imitation and how to write introduction for essay The University, which can be avoided if one is willing to take the necessary trouble. If one gets rid of these habits one can think more clearly, and to uni essay College, think clearly is a necessary first step toward political regeneration: so that the fight against how to for essay The University of Canberra (Navitas) bad English is how to cause and effect Lake Academy not frivolous and is not the exclusive concern of professional writers. I will come back to this presently, and I hope that by that time the meaning of write for essay of Canberra, what I have said here will have become clearer. Meanwhile, here are five specimens of the writing articles for money online London, English language as it is how to write introduction for essay The University (Navitas) now habitually written. These five passages have not been picked out writing, because they are especially bad — I could have quoted far worse if I had chosen — but because they illustrate various of the write introduction for essay (Navitas), mental vices from which we now suffer. They are a little below the average, but are fairly representative examples. I number them so that I can refer back to them when necessary: 1. I am not, indeed, sure whether it is not true to say that the Milton who once seemed not unlike a seventeenth-century Shelley had not become, out of an experience ever more bitter in coursework School each year, more alien [sic] to the founder of that Jesuit sect which nothing could induce him to tolerate.

Professor Harold Laski (Essay in write for essay (Navitas) Freedom of Expression ) 2. Above all, we cannot play ducks and drakes with a native battery of idioms which prescribes egregious collocations of vocables as the School, Basic put up with for how to write introduction for essay The University tolerate , or put at a loss for bewilder . Professor Lancelot Hogben ( Interglossia ) 3. On the one side we have the free personality: by definition it is not neurotic, for it has neither conflict nor dream. Its desires, such as they are, are transparent, for they are just what institutional approval keeps in the forefront of consciousness; another institutional pattern would alter their number and intensity; there is little in them that is natural, irreducible, or culturally dangerous. But on the other side , the social bond itself is nothing but the mutual reflection of these self-secure integrities. Recall the definition of love. Is not this the how to write example Lake, very picture of a small academic? Where is there a place in this hall of mirrors for either personality or fraternity?

Essay on psychology in Politics (New York) 4. All the ‘best people’ from the gentlemen's clubs, and how to write The University (Navitas), all the frantic fascist captains, united in common hatred of Socialism and bestial horror at the rising tide of the mass revolutionary movement, have turned to acts of provocation, to foul incendiarism, to medieval legends of poisoned wells, to legalize their own destruction of proletarian organizations, and rouse the agitated petty-bourgeoise to chauvinistic fervor on behalf of the fight against the revolutionary way out of the crisis. 5. If a new spirit is to how to articles in english St. George’s School, be infused into this old country, there is for essay The University (Navitas) one thorny and contentious reform which must be tackled, and that is the humanization and galvanization of the B.B.C. Timidity here will bespeak canker and atrophy of the soul. The heart of Britain may be sound and of strong beat, for instance, but the British lion's roar at present is editor The Knox like that of Bottom in Shakespeare's A Midsummer Night's Dream — as gentle as any sucking dove. A virile new Britain cannot continue indefinitely to be traduced in for essay (Navitas) the eyes or rather ears, of the writing for money online Marangoni, world by introduction of Canberra (Navitas) the effete languors of Queen's College, Langham Place, brazenly masquerading as ‘standard English’. When the Voice of Britain is heard at nine o'clock, better far and infinitely less ludicrous to hear aitches honestly dropped than the how to, present priggish, inflated, inhibited, school-ma'amish arch braying of how to cause example Lake Academy, blameless bashful mewing maidens! Letter in Tribune. Each of these passages has faults of its own, but, quite apart from avoidable ugliness, two qualities are common to all of them.

The first is how to introduction for essay The University staleness of imagery; the other is lack of precision. The writer either has a meaning and cannot express it, or he inadvertently says something else, or he is almost indifferent as to whether his words mean anything or not. This mixture of vagueness and sheer incompetence is the how to cause essay Lake Forest Academy, most marked characteristic of modern English prose, and especially of any kind of political writing. As soon as certain topics are raised, the concrete melts into the abstract and no one seems able to think of turns of speech that are not hackneyed: prose consists less and less of words chosen for the sake of their meaning, and more and more of phrases tacked together like the sections of a prefabricated hen-house. I list below, with notes and examples, various of the write of Canberra (Navitas), tricks by means of review Sidcot School, which the how to write for essay of Canberra (Navitas), work of how to Sidcot School, prose-construction is habitually dodged. DYING METAPHORS. A newly invented metaphor assists thought by evoking a visual image, while on the other hand a metaphor which is technically ‘dead’ (e. How To Write For Essay? g. iron resolution) has in effect reverted to being an ordinary word and can generally be used without loss of vividness. But in between these two classes there is articles in english a huge dump of worn-out metaphors which have lost all evocative power and are merely used because they save people the trouble of inventing phrases for themselves. (Navitas)? Examples are: Ring the changes on, take up the cudgel for, toe the coursework School, line, ride roughshod over, stand shoulder to shoulder with, play into the hands of, no axe to grind, grist to the mill, fishing in troubled waters, on the order of the day, Achilles’ heel, swan song, hotbed . Many of these are used without knowledge of their meaning (what is a ‘rift’, for instance?), and incompatible metaphors are frequently mixed, a sure sign that the writer is not interested in what he is how to introduction The University of Canberra saying.

Some metaphors now current have been twisted out of their original meaning without those who use them even being aware of the fact. For example, toe the write Lake Academy, line is sometimes written as tow the line . Another example is the write introduction for essay of Canberra, hammer and writing online Istituto, the anvil , now always used with the implication that the anvil gets the worst of it. In real life it is how to write for essay of Canberra (Navitas) always the anvil that breaks the hammer, never the uni essay Queen's College, other way about: a writer who stopped to write The University, think what he was saying would avoid perverting the original phrase. OPERATORS OR VERBAL FALSE LIMBS. These save the trouble of picking out appropriate verbs and uni essay writing, nouns, and at how to introduction for essay The University (Navitas), the same time pad each sentence with extra syllables which give it an appearance of symmetry. Characteristic phrases are render inoperative, militate against, make contact with, be subjected to, give rise to, give grounds for, have the effect of, play a leading part (role) in, make itself felt, take effect, exhibit a tendency to, serve the purpose of, etc., etc. The keynote is the elimination of simple verbs. Instead of being a single word, such as break, stop, spoil, mend, kill, a verb becomes a phrase , made up of a noun or adjective tacked on to some general-purpose verb such as prove, serve, form, play, render . In addition, the passive voice is how to write articles in english St. George’s wherever possible used in preference to the active, and noun constructions are used instead of gerunds ( by examination of instead of by examining ). The range of verbs is introduction for essay (Navitas) further cut down by articles for money online Istituto London means of the -ize and for essay The University (Navitas), de- formations, and the banal statements are given an how to, appearance of profundity by means of the not un- formation. Simple conjunctions and introduction for essay The University of Canberra, prepositions are replaced by such phrases as with respect to, having regard to, the fact that, by how to write and effect example Lake Forest Academy dint of, in view of, in introduction The University the interests of, on the hypothesis that ; and essay, the ends of sentences are saved by anticlimax by such resounding commonplaces as greatly to be desired, cannot be left out of account, a development to how to write for essay (Navitas), be expected in the near future, deserving of serious consideration, brought to a satisfactory conclusion, and so on and so forth. PRETENTIOUS DICTION.

Words like phenomenon, element, individual (as noun), objective, categorical, effective, virtual, basic, primary, promote, constitute, exhibit, exploit, utilize, eliminate, liquidate, are used to dress up a simple statement and give an air of scientific impartiality to biased judgements. Adjectives like epoch-making, epic, historic, unforgettable, triumphant, age-old, inevitable, inexorable, veritable, are used to dignify the sordid process of how to write and effect essay Forest, international politics, while writing that aims at how to write of Canberra, glorifying war usually takes on write cause and effect Academy, an archaic colour, its characteristic words being: realm, throne, chariot, mailed fist, trident, sword, shield, buckler, banner, jackboot, clarion. Foreign words and how to write for essay (Navitas), expressions such as cul de sac, ancien regime, deus ex machina, mutatis mutandis, status quo, gleichschaltung, weltanschauung, are used to give an Sidcot School, air of culture and elegance. Except for the useful abbreviations i. e., e. g. and etc., there is no real need for any of the hundreds of foreign phrases now current in the English language. Bad writers, and especially scientific, political, and sociological writers, are nearly always haunted by the notion that Latin or Greek words are grander than Saxon ones, and unnecessary words like expedite, ameliorate, predict, extraneous, deracinated, clandestine, subaqueous, and hundreds of others constantly gain ground from how to write introduction for essay their Anglo-Saxon numbers (1) . The jargon peculiar to Marxist writing ( hyena, hangman, cannibal, petty bourgeois, these gentry, lackey, flunkey, mad dog, White Guard, etc.) consists largely of words translated from how to articles in english School Russian, German, or French; but the normal way of coining a new word is to use Latin or Greek root with the appropriate affix and, where necessary, the size formation. It is often easier to make up words of The University of Canberra (Navitas), this kind ( deregionalize, impermissible, extramarital, non-fragmentary and so forth) than to editor School, think up the English words that will cover one's meaning. The result, in how to write introduction for essay The University of Canberra general, is an increase in slovenliness and vagueness. MEANINGLESS WORDS. In certain kinds of writing, particularly in art criticism and literary criticism, it is normal to come across long passages which are almost completely lacking in meaning (2) . Words like romantic, plastic, values, human, dead, sentimental, natural, vitality, as used in art criticism, are strictly meaningless, in the sense that they not only do not point to any discoverable object, but are hardly ever expected to how to and effect example Forest Academy, do so by the reader. When one critic writes, ‘The outstanding feature of Mr. X's work is its living quality’, while another writes, ‘The immediately striking thing about Mr.

X's work is its peculiar deadness’, the reader accepts this as a simple difference opinion. If words like black and white were involved, instead of the jargon words dead and how to write introduction, living , he would see at once that language was being used in an improper way. For Money Istituto Marangoni? Many political words are similarly abused. The word Fascism has now no meaning except in so far as it signifies ‘something not desirable’. The words democracy, socialism, freedom, patriotic, realistic, justice have each of them several different meanings which cannot be reconciled with one another. In the case of a word like democracy , not only is how to write introduction The University there no agreed definition, but the attempt to make one is resisted from elsevier with editor The Knox School all sides.

It is how to (Navitas) almost universally felt that when we call a country democratic we are praising it: consequently the online Istituto, defenders of every kind of regime claim that it is a democracy, and fear that they might have to stop using that word if it were tied down to any one meaning. Words of how to write introduction for essay The University (Navitas), this kind are often used in a consciously dishonest way. That is, the write cause example, person who uses them has his own private definition, but allows his hearer to think he means something quite different. Statements like Marshal Petain was a true patriot, The Soviet press is the how to write introduction The University of Canberra, freest in the world, The Catholic Church is how to write St. George’s School opposed to persecution, are almost always made with intent to deceive. Other words used in variable meanings, in most cases more or less dishonestly, are: class, totalitarian, science, progressive, reactionary, bourgeois, equality. Now that I have made this catalogue of swindles and perversions, let me give another example of the kind of writing that they lead to.

This time it must of its nature be an imaginary one. I am going to how to write for essay of Canberra (Navitas), translate a passage of good English into modern English of the worst sort. Articles For Money Istituto London? Here is a well-known verse from Ecclesiastes : I returned and saw under the sun, that the race is for essay of Canberra not to cause and effect essay example, the swift, nor the battle to the strong, neither yet bread to the wise, nor yet riches to men of understanding, nor yet favour to men of how to write The University of Canberra, skill; but time and chance happeneth to them all. Here it is in modern English: Objective considerations of contemporary phenomena compel the conclusion that success or failure in The Knox competitive activities exhibits no tendency to introduction (Navitas), be commensurate with innate capacity, but that a considerable element of the unpredictable must invariably be taken into account. This is a parody, but not a very gross one. Uni Essay Writing? Exhibit (3) above, for instance, contains several patches of the same kind of English. How To For Essay Of Canberra (Navitas)? It will be seen that I have not made a full translation. The beginning and ending of the sentence follow the original meaning fairly closely, but in the middle the concrete illustrations — race, battle, bread — dissolve into the vague phrases ‘success or failure in competitive activities’. This had to elsevier The Knox, be so, because no modern writer of the kind I am discussing — no one capable of for essay The University, using phrases like ‘objective considerations of contemporary phenomena’ — would ever tabulate his thoughts in that precise and detailed way.

The whole tendency of modern prose is away from elsevier School concreteness. Now analyze these two sentences a little more closely. The first contains forty-nine words but only sixty syllables, and all its words are those of everyday life. The second contains thirty-eight words of ninety syllables: eighteen of those words are from Latin roots, and one from Greek. The first sentence contains six vivid images, and only one phrase (‘time and chance’) that could be called vague. The second contains not a single fresh, arresting phrase, and in spite of how to introduction for essay of Canberra, its ninety syllables it gives only a shortened version of the meaning contained in the first. Yet without a doubt it is the second kind of sentence that is gaining ground in write and effect essay Forest Academy modern English. I do not want to how to The University of Canberra, exaggerate. Articles For Money Istituto? This kind of write introduction of Canberra, writing is articles for money online not yet universal, and outcrops of simplicity will occur here and there in the worst-written page.

Still, if you or I were told to write a few lines on introduction The University of Canberra (Navitas), the uncertainty of human fortunes, we should probably come much nearer to my imaginary sentence than to the one from Ecclesiastes . As I have tried to show, modern writing at its worst does not consist in picking out words for the sake of their meaning and inventing images in order to how to write articles St. George’s, make the meaning clearer. How To Write For Essay The University Of Canberra? It consists in gumming together long strips of words which have already been set in writing College order by someone else, and making the write introduction The University (Navitas), results presentable by sheer humbug. How To Sidcot? The attraction of this way of writing is for essay that it is elsevier The Knox easy. It is easier — even quicker, once you have the habit — to say In my opinion it is not an unjustifiable assumption that than to how to write introduction for essay The University, say I think . Lake Forest Academy? If you use ready-made phrases, you not only don't have to hunt about for introduction for essay of Canberra (Navitas) the words; you also don't have to bother with the rhythms of your sentences since these phrases are generally so arranged as to be more or less euphonious. When you are composing in a hurry — when you are dictating to a stenographer, for instance, or making a public speech — it is natural to fall into a pretentious, Latinized style. Tags like a consideration which we should do well to writing for money online London, bear in introduction for essay The University mind or a conclusion to how to review Sidcot, which all of us would readily assent will save many a sentence from coming down with a bump. Introduction Of Canberra? By using stale metaphors, similes, and idioms, you save much mental effort, at the cost of leaving your meaning vague, not only for your reader but for yourself. This is the significance of mixed metaphors. The sole aim of a metaphor is to write articles St. George’s School, call up a visual image.

When these images clash — as in The Fascist octopus has sung its swan song, the jackboot is thrown into the melting pot — it can be taken as certain that the writer is not seeing a mental image of the objects he is naming; in other words he is not really thinking. Look again at the examples I gave at the beginning of this essay. Write For Essay? Professor Laski (1) uses five negatives in fifty three words. One of these is superfluous, making nonsense of the whole passage, and in addition there is the slip — alien for akin — making further nonsense, and several avoidable pieces of clumsiness which increase the general vagueness. Professor Hogben (2) plays ducks and drakes with a battery which is able to write prescriptions, and, while disapproving of the everyday phrase put up with , is how to in english School unwilling to write introduction for essay (Navitas), look egregious up in the dictionary and see what it means; (3), if one takes an uncharitable attitude towards it, is simply meaningless: probably one could work out its intended meaning by reading the whole of the article in which it occurs. In (4), the writer knows more or less what he wants to say, but an accumulation of stale phrases chokes him like tea leaves blocking a sink. In (5), words and meaning have almost parted company.

People who write in this manner usually have a general emotional meaning — they dislike one thing and want to express solidarity with another — but they are not interested in the detail of what they are saying. A scrupulous writer, in every sentence that he writes, will ask himself at how to School, least four questions, thus: What am I trying to say? What words will express it? What image or idiom will make it clearer? Is this image fresh enough to have an effect? And he will probably ask himself two more: Could I put it more shortly? Have I said anything that is avoidably ugly? But you are not obliged to go to all this trouble. You can shirk it by how to of Canberra simply throwing your mind open and letting the ready-made phrases come crowding in. The will construct your sentences for you — even think your thoughts for you, to a certain extent — and at need they will perform the important service of partially concealing your meaning even from yourself.

It is at how to write articles St. George’s School, this point that the special connection between politics and the debasement of language becomes clear. In our time it is broadly true that political writing is bad writing. Introduction Of Canberra (Navitas)? Where it is not true, it will generally be found that the writer is some kind of rebel, expressing his private opinions and not a ‘party line’. Orthodoxy, of whatever colour, seems to demand a lifeless, imitative style. The political dialects to be found in pamphlets, leading articles, manifestos, White papers and the speeches of undersecretaries do, of course, vary from party to party, but they are all alike in elsevier with that one almost never finds in them a fresh, vivid, homemade turn of speech.

When one watches some tired hack on the platform mechanically repeating the familiar phrases — bestial, atrocities, iron heel, bloodstained tyranny, free peoples of the world, stand shoulder to shoulder — one often has a curious feeling that one is not watching a live human being but some kind of dummy: a feeling which suddenly becomes stronger at moments when the light catches the speaker's spectacles and how to write The University (Navitas), turns them into blank discs which seem to for money Marangoni London, have no eyes behind them. And this is not altogether fanciful. A speaker who uses that kind of how to write for essay of Canberra, phraseology has gone some distance toward turning himself into a machine. The appropriate noises are coming out of his larynx, but his brain is essay not involved, as it would be if he were choosing his words for himself. If the speech he is write for essay The University of Canberra making is one that he is accustomed to make over and over again, he may be almost unconscious of what he is saying, as one is when one utters the responses in church. And this reduced state of consciousness, if not indispensable, is at any rate favourable to political conformity. In our time, political speech and writing are largely the defence of the indefensible. Things like the continuance of British rule in India, the Russian purges and deportations, the dropping of the atom bombs on Japan, can indeed be defended, but only by School arguments which are too brutal for most people to face, and which do not square with the professed aims of the political parties.

Thus political language has to consist largely of euphemism, question-begging and sheer cloudy vagueness. How To Introduction For Essay Of Canberra (Navitas)? Defenceless villages are bombarded from the review Sidcot, air, the how to introduction for essay (Navitas), inhabitants driven out into the countryside, the cattle machine-gunned, the how to review, huts set on fire with incendiary bullets: this is called pacification . Millions of peasants are robbed of their farms and sent trudging along the write for essay, roads with no more than they can carry: this is called transfer of elsevier editor The Knox School, population or rectification of frontiers . People are imprisoned for write introduction (Navitas) years without trial, or shot in the back of the neck or sent to die of scurvy in Arctic lumber camps: this is called elimination of unreliable elements . Such phraseology is needed if one wants to name things without calling up mental pictures of them. Consider for instance some comfortable English professor defending Russian totalitarianism. He cannot say outright, ‘I believe in killing off your opponents when you can get good results by doing so’. Probably, therefore, he will say something like this: ‘While freely conceding that the Soviet regime exhibits certain features which the College, humanitarian may be inclined to how to for essay The University, deplore, we must, I think, agree that a certain curtailment of the right to political opposition is an unavoidable concomitant of transitional periods, and that the Badminton School, rigors which the Russian people have been called upon to undergo have been amply justified in the sphere of concrete achievement.’

The inflated style itself is a kind of write for essay of Canberra (Navitas), euphemism. A mass of Latin words falls upon the facts like soft snow, blurring the outline and covering up all the details. The great enemy of clear language is insincerity. When there is a gap between one's real and articles Istituto London, one's declared aims, one turns as it were instinctively to long words and exhausted idioms, like a cuttlefish spurting out introduction for essay, ink. Review? In our age there is no such thing as ‘keeping out of politics’. All issues are political issues, and how to for essay, politics itself is a mass of lies, evasions, folly, hatred, and schizophrenia. How To Cause Essay Example Lake Academy? When the general atmosphere is bad, language must suffer.

I should expect to write introduction of Canberra (Navitas), find — this is editor The Knox School a guess which I have not sufficient knowledge to verify — that the German, Russian and Italian languages have all deteriorated in how to for essay of Canberra the last ten or fifteen years, as a result of dictatorship. But if thought corrupts language, language can also corrupt thought. A bad usage can spread by tradition and imitation even among people who should and do know better. The debased language that I have been discussing is in some ways very convenient. Articles? Phrases like a not unjustifiable assumption, leaves much to be desired, would serve no good purpose, a consideration which we should do well to bear in mind, are a continuous temptation, a packet of for essay (Navitas), aspirins always at one's elbow. Look back through this essay, and for certain you will find that I have again and again committed the how to write in english, very faults I am protesting against. Write The University Of Canberra? By this morning's post I have received a pamphlet dealing with conditions in Germany. The author tells me that he ‘felt impelled’ to write, write it.

I open it at random, and here is almost the first sentence I see: ‘[The Allies] have an opportunity not only of achieving a radical transformation of Germany's social and political structure in such a way as to avoid a nationalistic reaction in Germany itself, but at the same time of laying the foundations of a co-operative and unified Europe.’ You see, he ‘feels impelled’ to write — feels, presumably, that he has something new to say — and how to write introduction of Canberra (Navitas), yet his words, like cavalry horses answering the Badminton School, bugle, group themselves automatically into the familiar dreary pattern. This invasion of one's mind by ready-made phrases ( lay the foundations, achieve a radical transformation ) can only be prevented if one is constantly on write for essay The University, guard against them, and writing Queen's College, every such phrase anaesthetizes a portion of one's brain. I said earlier that the decadence of our language is probably curable. Those who deny this would argue, if they produced an argument at all, that language merely reflects existing social conditions, and that we cannot influence its development by how to write introduction The University (Navitas) any direct tinkering with words and constructions. So far as the general tone or spirit of a language goes, this may be true, but it is not true in detail. Silly words and expressions have often disappeared, not through any evolutionary process but owing to the conscious action of a minority. Two recent examples were explore every avenue and articles St. George’s, leave no stone unturned , which were killed by the jeers of how to write introduction The University (Navitas), a few journalists. There is with a long list of flyblown metaphors which could similarly be got rid of of Canberra (Navitas), if enough people would interest themselves in the job; and it should also be possible to laugh the not un- formation out of Istituto, existence (3) , to reduce the amount of Latin and Greek in the average sentence, to drive out how to write for essay of Canberra (Navitas), foreign phrases and strayed scientific words, and, in general, to make pretentiousness unfashionable. But all these are minor points. The defence of the English language implies more than this, and perhaps it is best to start by saying what it does not imply. To begin with it has nothing to do with archaism, with the salvaging of obsolete words and turns of writing articles for money Istituto London, speech, or with the how to write for essay (Navitas), setting up of a ‘standard English’ which must never be departed from.

On the contrary, it is especially concerned with the scrapping of every word or idiom which has outworn its usefulness. It has nothing to do with correct grammar and syntax, which are of no importance so long as one makes one's meaning clear, or with the avoidance of Americanisms, or with having what is called a ‘good prose style’. On the other hand, it is not concerned with fake simplicity and Sidcot, the attempt to make written English colloquial. Nor does it even imply in every case preferring the Saxon word to the Latin one, though it does imply using the fewest and shortest words that will cover one's meaning. How To Introduction For Essay The University? What is above all needed is to let the meaning choose the word, and not the other way around. In prose, the worst thing one can do with words is coursework essay Badminton School surrender to them. When you think of a concrete object, you think wordlessly, and then, if you want to describe the thing you have been visualising you probably hunt about write The University of Canberra (Navitas) until you find the exact words that seem to fit it. When you think of something abstract you are more inclined to use words from the start, and unless you make a conscious effort to prevent it, the how to write cause essay example Lake Academy, existing dialect will come rushing in and do the job for introduction for essay of Canberra (Navitas) you, at the expense of blurring or even changing your meaning. Probably it is better to put off using words as long as possible and get one's meaning as clear as one can through pictures and sensations.

Afterward one can choose — not simply accept — the phrases that will best cover the meaning, and writing Queen's, then switch round and decide what impressions one's words are likely to make on another person. Write Introduction The University Of Canberra (Navitas)? This last effort of the mind cuts out all stale or mixed images, all prefabricated phrases, needless repetitions, and humbug and vagueness generally. But one can often be in doubt about the effect of a word or a phrase, and how to Sidcot School, one needs rules that one can rely on when instinct fails. I think the following rules will cover most cases: Never use a metaphor, simile, or other figure of speech which you are used to seeing in print. Never use a long word where a short one will do.

If it is possible to cut a word out, always cut it out. Never use the write introduction The University (Navitas), passive where you can use the active. Never use a foreign phrase, a scientific word, or a jargon word if you can think of an everyday English equivalent. Break any of these rules sooner than say anything outright barbarous. These rules sound elementary, and Queen's, so they are, but they demand a deep change of how to introduction for essay The University, attitude in anyone who has grown used to writing in the style now fashionable. How To Lake Forest? One could keep all of them and still write bad English, but one could not write the kind of stuff that I quoted in those five specimens at the beginning of this article. I have not here been considering the literary use of language, but merely language as an instrument for expressing and not for concealing or preventing thought.

Stuart Chase and others have come near to claiming that all abstract words are meaningless, and have used this as a pretext for advocating a kind of political quietism. Since you don't know what Fascism is, how can you struggle against Fascism? One need not swallow such absurdities as this, but one ought to how to, recognise that the present political chaos is connected with the decay of language, and that one can probably bring about some improvement by starting at the verbal end. If you simplify your English, you are freed from the worst follies of orthodoxy. You cannot speak any of the necessary dialects, and when you make a stupid remark its stupidity will be obvious, even to yourself.

Political language — and with variations this is true of all political parties, from Conservatives to Anarchists — is designed to make lies sound truthful and murder respectable, and to give an appearance of solidity to pure wind. Writing Istituto Marangoni? One cannot change this all in a moment, but one can at least change one's own habits, and from time to how to write The University of Canberra, time one can even, if one jeers loudly enough, send some worn-out and useless phrase — some jackboot, Achilles’ heel, hotbed, melting pot, acid test, veritable inferno, or other lump of verbal refuse — into the dustbin where it belongs. George Orwell: ‘Politics and the English Language’ First published: Horizon . — GB, London. — April 1946. Reprinted: — ‘Shooting an how to write School, Elephant and Other Essays’. — 1950. — ‘The Orwell Reader, Fiction, Essays, and Reportage’ — 1956. — ‘Collected Essays’. — 1961. — ‘Decline of the English Murder and how to introduction for essay of Canberra, Other Essays’. — 1965. — ‘The Collected Essays, Journalism and how to write articles in english, Letters of George Orwell’. — 1968.

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A Knights Chivalry: An Analysis of Chivalry Essay. “An Analysis Of Chivalry” Chivalry, or the write introduction for essay The University, code of conduct that the Knights of out past used to justify their actions, towards country and state. Elsevier Editor The Knox School. It is greatly expressed in the stories that were passed down orally and written down, but these traits were many, including: Courage, Honor, and the treatment of women. These three traits are discussed wholly throughout the tales of King Arthur’s day, because like the write for essay, Anglo-Saxon Code it was the basis of how a man should act throughout his life. Knights held by writing, this code throughout their lives and were told in the stories hence, with these lines Sir Gawain did prove himself of how to write introduction The University his knightly hood, “Gawain by Guenevere Toward the king doth now incline: ‘I beseech, before all here, That this melee may be mine.” (Page 174 Lines 113-116). Knightly hood became the populous’ view of how a man should act in any situation that bequeathed him, which is still in use today, just not in the same context. Death is not a punishment for those people who don’t follow through the code. Articles St. George’s. Overall Chivalry is the concept that every young man should live by, for even though it was thought up millenniums ago, it has just the same relevancy of the laws and codes that people today live by. Initially, the Code of Chivalry states that a Knight should be courageous, and stand up for what he believes in, no matter of the consequences. “’You are not Gawain the introduction The University of Canberra (Navitas), Glorious,’ the green man said, ‘That never fell back Now he was officially a knight. The only thing that protected the Sidcot, knight was his armor.

The reason for the armor and the shields was to how to for essay protect the knight. Armor was made of metal so bows and arrows wouldn't pierce them. Most of the armor covered the chest and the face because if they stabbed the with The Knox, knights in how to write for essay the legs they usually wouldn't be an injury that would kill them. It was also very hot and heavy. Write School. It weighed about 66 pounds. The knights used all different kinds of weapons. The crossbow was Essay on The Medieval knight and Chivalry. fifth was courage: knights often had to choose the harder paths of life, the one that would cost them.

Therefore, a knight was to be prepared to The University (Navitas) make personal sacrifices in order to serve those he was loyal to. Also, a knight was to seek wisdom. Courage also involved unconditionally taking the side of truth, not seeking the convenient lie. They were to seek the truth whenever possible, having to coursework essay Badminton School remember to mix justice with mercy, if they did not, the pure truth may bring grief. “Knight-errantry involved Chaucer#x27;s Canterbury Tales - Chivalry by the Knight and the Squire. How To For Essay The University (Navitas). Also, the Knight had been fighting in the East and in Africa, areas that had been conquered by heathen Turks, the major enemy of the Christian religion at that time, while the Squire had been fighting only the regional rivals near England and France. Although the Squire had done valiantly in little space in these battles, he had not distinguished himself from his peers, a fact that is Sidcot, implied when it is said that he had only seen some service with the cavalry.

Even service with the how to introduction, cavalry Sir Gawain and for money online Marangoni London the Green Knight – A Test of Chivalry Essay. The Green Knight is how to write for essay of Canberra (Navitas), big and of course he is green, which might explain some of the delay in acceptance of the challenge, but these knights are warriors. The color green is not a frightening enough color, even combined with the Green Knight’s size, to scare a true warrior. The possible reason for the hesitation by the knights could lie in the description of the Green Knight’s eyes. The author points them out in line 304, and roisterously his red eyes he [rolls] all about (Sir Gawain). The critic Chivalry in Sir Gawain and the Green Knight, The Knight’s Tale, and Malory’s Morte. and elsevier the Green Knight is one of the most famous and complex of the medieval romances. This text puts Sir Gawain, one of Arthur’s greatest knights to write introduction for essay of Canberra (Navitas) the test, and in doing so, interrogates the chivalric ideals.

The tale begins with what seems to be a stock romantic scene. Arthur has gathered his knights together for a celebration, and as is typical with Arthur, he refuses to begin the proceedings until there has been an “adventure.” As if to answer his request, the Green Knight arrives, but the evident being an ideal chivalrous knight was extremely difficult, one could only how to articles St. George’s try to emulate as many of these qualities as possible. It was up to the nobility and gentry, however, to uphold these chivalric values to the best of their ability. The following aspects of introduction of Canberra (Navitas) life which were affected by for money Istituto, chivalry are seen in France, but can be with some limitations (England’s need to how to write introduction for essay The University of Canberra (Navitas) make anything French more palatable, for example) attributed to most of Europe. Uni Essay Queen's. Chivalry would at first shape the cultural King Arthur feels obligated to write introduction for essay take the challenge, seeing that no other knight has accepted, but Sir Gawain intervenes.

Sir Gawain explains to College King Arthur of the write introduction for essay The University of Canberra (Navitas), reason for his decision to sacrifice himself and elsevier with save the The University, noble king: “The loss of my life would be least of any; that I have you for uncle is my only praise; My body, but for your blood, is barren of worth” (PG 1467 line 356-358). Sir Gawain does honor to the court of Camelot when he decides to take the place of a needed leader in the deadly motto of chivalry is also the motto of wisdom to serve all, but love only one” (Balzac 1). During the Medieval Age, there once existed a moral system that introduced a set of conducts such as, virtues, honor, and courtly love. This was known as the Code of how to write example Lake Forest Chivalry. These codes where available and practiced in knight's daily life. Write Introduction The University (Navitas). The idea of chivalry is extremely valuable to the people, that even everything a knight wore symbolized something valuable or unique. In other words, chivalry was no game army and Xerxes offers Leonidas riches if he surrenders, and he declines (Gordon). Dilios, who lost his left eye during the battle, still wants to elsevier editor The Knox fight but Leonidas sends him back to introduction for essay of Canberra Sparta to protect him (Gordon). Leonidas being much like the knights of king Arthur’s time is protecting his fellow Spartans even if it could cause him trouble. Articles Online London. Dilios does not want to leave his brothers, but he follows his orders. Write Introduction The University Of Canberra (Navitas). The Persians surround the Spartans and once again ask them to surrender while bribing One of the most influential women of medieval times was Eleanor of Aquitane.

She greatly contributed to the growth of Chivalry and how to articles in english Courtly Love. She was married several times, first to King Louis VII of France and then to King Henry II of England. Her travels allowed her to be influential to both countries. How To The University Of Canberra. Even before her marriages she owned great amounts of writing articles Istituto land, making her very powerful. This was a rarity for a woman in her time and she was not afraid to how to write introduction The University (Navitas) use her power to gain advantage.

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contraceptive essay Essay by Sally Young for the level one elective COMM1510, 1998. Is Judith Butler's approach to gender politics an improvement on previous forms of write for essay of Canberra (Navitas), feminism? Judith Butler's Gender Trouble , published in School, 1990, called for a new way of looking at sex and gender. As opposed to the fixed masculine/feminine gender binary, Butler argued that gender should be seen as fluid, variable; the way we behave at different times and in different situations rather than who we are. Butler suggested that by 'deconstructing' the way we think about gender we might move towards a new equality where people are not restricted by how to write introduction (Navitas), masculine or feminine gender roles. Like feminists before her, Butler is concerned with reaching greater equality between men and women, but her emphasis is different, as are her proposed means of action. Many of Butler's arguments and ideas are interesting and compelling but she also has critics who see several limitations with her work. Butler begins by how to write in english School, looking at the problems of defining 'woman'.

In the past feminism has seen women as its subjects for political representation. Butler, however, argues that we cannot see women as a unified homogenous group since every woman is a unique individual. Women are not a united group since there are a great many divisive differences between them, for example those of class, race and ethnicity. How To Introduction The University Of Canberra! This is a valid point to make as it would seem unlikely that a poverty-stricken factory worker woman from the Third World would feel she had much in common with a wealthy business woman from New York. She would be more likely to feel empathy with a man in a similar position than with a supposed 'sisterhood' of women around the uni essay Queen's world. Indeed, feminists before Butler have had problems in defining 'woman'. Simone de Beauvoir, for example, asks at the beginning of her book, The Second Sex , What is a woman? (Beauvoir, 1949, p. 13) She finds the old explanation of how to write introduction for essay The University of Canberra (Navitas), 'woman is a womb' unsatisfactory but sees that throughout history woman has been seen as 'the Other' of man:

Thus humanity is male and man defines woman not in articles for money online Marangoni London, herself but as relative to him. (Beauvoir, 1949, p.16) Butler argues that women should not be identified in terms of write introduction of Canberra, their sex. With The Knox! If, for instance, we see women as those who are capable of giving birth, this immediately excludes a large number of women who are unable or unwilling to procreate from this category: There are female infants and children who cannot be impregnated, there are are older women who cannot be impregnated. What the for essay of Canberra (Navitas) question does is try to make the problematic of reproduction central to the sexing of the how to review body. But I am not sure that is, or ought to be, what is absolutely salient or primary in the sexing of the body. (Butler, quoted in introduction The University of Canberra (Navitas), Osborne Segal, 1994) Butler claims, therefore, that since women are so diverse we can no longer define them as a unified group:

The very subject of women is no longer understood in stable or abiding terms. Consequently, there is write essay example Lake Academy, a need for a new way of looking at gender: The consequence of such sharp disagreements about the how to introduction for essay (Navitas) meaning of gender. establishes the need for a radical re-thinking of the writing articles Istituto Marangoni London categories of identity within the context of relations of radical gender asymmetry. (Butler, 1990, p.11) The effect of categorising all women into a unified group separate from men has actually been detrimental to feminist calls for equality, Butler claims. If men and women are seen as fundamentally different and separate then true equality is impossible. In this way Butler is taking a different stance to how to write introduction The University (Navitas), other feminists who emphasise the differences between the example Academy sexes. How To Write Introduction For Essay (Navitas)! For example, Anne Phillips, a liberal feminist, stresses in her book, Democracy and Difference , that the needs of women are very different from articles for money online those of introduction for essay of Canberra, men and without recognising this fact and acting on it, true equality and uni essay democracy can never be reached. Butler also argues that the tactics of some radical feminists of naming men as 'the enemy' exacerbates the problem rather than helping to move towards equality.

Some radical feminists have been very hostile towards men, seeing them as the instrument of women's oppression. How To For Essay Of Canberra! Andrea Dworkin, for example, wrote that all men were violent: Men love death. Men especially love murder. In art they celebrate it, and in life they commit it. (quoted in Bristow, p.150) Similarly, a study by Diana E.H. Russell into the relationship between pornography and rape concluded that most men have at least some predisposition to rape women (Bristow, 1997, p.156). Butler, in contrast, argues that such attitudes are self-defeating because they widen the write in english St. George’s School gulf between men and women even further: The effort to write The University of Canberra, identify the enemy as singular in form is a reverse-discourse that uncritically mimics the uni essay writing College strategy of the oppressor instead of offering a different set of terms.

(Butler, 1990, p.13) Following on from the how to for essay of Canberra idea that all women cannot be grouped together, Butler attacks the idea that feminism should try to achieve its aims by behaving like a political movement or party. One of the conditions of a political party is that it must appear to how to write in english, be united and have common ideals and aims. But, if there is no single woman, there can be no single feminism: By conforming to a requirement of representational politics that feminism articulate a stable subject, feminism thus opens itself to charges of gross misrepresentation. Butler argues that without the compulsory expectation for unity, individuals or small groups might be able to make progress and achieve things on a smaller scale. It is certainly true that feminism has many different strands of thought, including liberal, Marxist and radical feminism, so it cannot be treated as a united political movement. However, lack of unity can also halt progress as happened after British women gained the vote on introduction for essay of Canberra (Navitas) equal terms with men in 1928. One of the reasons there was little progress made towards equality for quite some time after this date was that the movement was split. Some, such as Eleanor Rathbone and Vera Brittain, wanted to concentrate on raising the status of motherhood and aimed at economic independence within marriage. This group was usually referred to as welfare feminists.

Liberal feminists, however, wanted to secure equal rights for women in the world of work, rather than the School family. The divisions meant the movement lost credibility and little progress was made in the 1930s, 40s and introduction of Canberra (Navitas) 50s. Next Butler tackles the problems she sees with the review sex-gender-desire link. Conventional theory states that our sex (male/female) produces our gender (masculine/feminine) which causes our desire towards the opposite write introduction for essay sex. How To Write Cause And Effect Essay! According to Freud, certain identifications are primary in forming a gendered self and others are secondary. For example, relations with the mother are primary and those with other people such as siblings are secondary. The University! The primary identifications happen first and the secondary identifications follow on from them. Thus, the Freudian explanation for how we gain our gender identities is linear; all influences happen in write and effect Lake, a set order. As a result of this only The University (Navitas) two relations are possible: you identify with one sex and coursework you desire the other.

Freud explains homosexual attraction by claiming that when, for for essay The University of Canberra, instance, a woman desires another woman, deep down she really identifies with men and this is the reason she desires a woman. Articles In English St. George’s! Butler, however, rejects this uncompromising explanation because it does not leave any room for variation, for alternative influences on how to for essay The University different people in different situations. Cause And Effect Example Forest Academy! Butler concludes that our gender is not a core aspect of (Navitas), our identity but rather a performance, how we behave at different times. Our gender (masculinity and femininity) is an achievement rather than a biological factor. Uni Essay Writing College! To illustrate this point Butler refers to the Aretha Franklin song, You make me feel like a natural woman . In this song, Franklin can sing, You make me feel like a woman without this being presumed necessarily obvious. In other words, a woman does not necessarily feel feminine all the time, any more than a man feels masculine. Butler suggests that we should think of write, gender as free-floating and fluid rather than fixed: When the constructed status of writing Queen's, gender is theorized as radically independent of sex, gender itself becomes a free-floating artifice, with the consequence that man and masculine might just as easily signify a female body as a male one, and woman and feminine a male body as easily as a female one. Butler advocates 'gender trouble' as a way of challenging traditional notions of gender identities. Butler's main metaphor for this is drag. Write Introduction For Essay Of Canberra (Navitas)! By dressing up as a member of School, the opposite sex, drag artists are subverting ideas of gender norms, challenging the constitutive categories that seek to introduction for essay The University of Canberra (Navitas), keep gender in its place by posturing as the foundational illusions of identity (Butler, 1990, p.148).

Although Butler does not offer any other concrete examples of how people might go about subverting gender roles, Madonna is articles in english, often used as an write introduction The University (Navitas) illustration of someone who does not keep to traditional gender roles. College! In the video of her song, Justify My Love , for example, there are several characters who are dressed and introduction The University of Canberra (Navitas) behave in ways which make their sex and gender indeterminable. During her Blonde Ambition tour, Madonna openly defied traditional feminine roles by performing in a sexually dominant and articles in english confident way: She is introduction for essay of Canberra, not so constrained by the gender boundaries that control most of her audience. She is coursework essay Badminton School, able to use her power as a star to how to introduction of Canberra (Navitas), articulate the sexualities and fantasies that other women would be condemned for. (Skeggs, 1993, p.67) Another person in the public eye who subverts traditional gender roles is Eddie Izzard, who alternates between wearing conventional 'male' clothes and dresses and writing Istituto Marangoni London make-up. Boy George, too, was known for his bright clothes and make-up in the 1980s. Such antics may seem radical and unrealistic to the average person, but there are signs that attitudes towards gender may be changing. A recent article in The Independent on Sunday noted a growing trend towards sexual ambiguity.

Some people, particularly in the younger generation, are refusing to be labelled as straight, gay or bisexual but are aware of the fact that sexuality is not set in write for essay The University of Canberra (Navitas), stone (David Northmore, quoted in The Independent on Sunday ). The article points to elsevier with editor The Knox, the CKOne and CKBe advertisements which used androgynous models as another sign that this may be the era of so-called 'flexi-sex' where boundaries are blurring and labels are losing their meaning and power ( The Independent on Sunday ). How To The University (Navitas)! Perhaps Butler's approach to gender, then, has more relevance to every day life than it may at first appear. Essay Example! Perhaps it is time for a new way of tackling feminist issues. Indeed, the demands of other feminists may be seen as more radical than those of Butler since her ideas work within dominant culture rather than outside it. Some radical feminists have seen the only way forward as creating a culture exclusive of men. The University Of Canberra (Navitas)! Sexual relationships, too, should only be entered into coursework essay Badminton School, with other women, as summed up by how to write, the slogan attributed to to Grace Anderson: Feminism is the uni essay writing College theory: lesbianism is the practice (quoted in Charvet, 1982, p.129). Ideas such as these may well seem unrealistic to many women. How To Write Introduction For Essay The University Of Canberra! Similarly, Shulamith Firestone wrote in her book, The Dialectic of Sex , that the only way women would ever be free would be if the means of reproduction were taken away from the woman's body and replaced by artificial means.

By taking such an uncompromising position, radical feminists expressing ideas like these may well isolate themselves from the majority of Queen's College, women. If we want to change the way society operates, change needs to be made from how to of Canberra (Navitas) within that culture, not outside it: Of what use is such a notion for negotiating the contemporary struggles of sexuality within the terms of its construction. (Butler, 1990, p.30) Butler argues that the how to example way we perceive gender roles lies at the very root of inequality of the sexes.

Her argument is that if we deconstruct the way society views gender roles, this might lead to how to introduction, changes in political culture and so improve the lot of women. In other words, if there were no longer conventional roles for either gender, it would not be unusual for a woman to be in a position of power at work or for a man to stay at home and look after children. Gradually, the patriarchal society which exists would change to become a truly equal one: If identities were no longer fixed as the premises of a political syllogism, and politics no longer understood as a set of with, practices derived from the alleged interests that belong to how to write introduction (Navitas), a set of ready-made subjects, a new configuration of politics would surely emerge from the ruins of the coursework essay Badminton School old. (Butler, 1990, p.149) Butler's way of looking at gender identity is in many ways liberating and positive. However, there are also many points which can be raised to show the limitations of how to for essay The University, her ideas. Whilst Butler suggests that gender should be viewed as free-floating, the fact remains that most men develop predominantly masculine characteristics and most women develop feminine characteristics.

Homosexual people remain in the minority. The heterosexual matrix that Butler criticises is still maintained which gives some credence to the Freudian perspective of uni essay, how gender identities are formed. If the majority of people are heterosexual, then there must be some biological and sociological reason why this is so. Many feminists would argue that by viewing men and write introduction for essay of Canberra (Navitas) women as individuals, rather than groups, as Butler does, denies the common subordination and disadvantaged position of women around the articles for money Istituto Marangoni world. The problem certainly varies in severity from country to country. Whilst no one would claim that the how to write introduction for essay position of women in elsevier The Knox, Afghanistan, where the Taliban refuse to introduction of Canberra (Navitas), let women teach in schools and women are beaten for being 'inappropriately' dressed, is comparable to the situation in most Western countries, female subordination is articles for money Istituto, still apparent world-wide. In Britain, for example, political life is male-dominated. Despite the introduction for essay (Navitas) increase in female MPs following the how to Sidcot last general election, the vast majority of MPs are men. Female MPs face blatant sexist scrutiny from the press. The phrase 'Blair's Babes' attributed to the newly elected female Labour MPs, for example, can only be seen as belittling and disrespectful.

Similarly, few women succeed in reaching the higher echelons of the how to write The University (Navitas) career ladder. 1995 employment figures, for example, showed that only cause essay 33% of how to for essay The University, all administrative and managerial positions were held be women compared to the high 75% of in english School, all clerical jobs which were carried out by women. To illustrate the worldwide subordinate position of write introduction for essay The University of Canberra, women, a 1980 United Nations report stated that: Women constitute half the world's population, perform nearly two thirds of its work hours, receive one tenth of the world's income and own less than one hundredth of the world's property. When one considers figures such as these, it seems possible that women around the world do share some common ground despite Butler's demand that we should view every person individually. This point leads on to conflicting opinions about how to write School how the write introduction The University (Navitas) position of College, women should be improved. Butler argues that there can be no single feminism and therefore action cannot be collective or united. However, representative democracy works on the premise that the larger the write introduction for essay mass of uni essay, opinion, the introduction of Canberra more influence that group will have. This is the reason for the formation of political parties and writing for money online Marangoni London pressure groups.

Many feminists would argue that it is only through group action that changes are brought about. It was only by mass collective pressure by suffragettes that universal suffrage was gained, for example. Butler's ideas about individuals using performative acts to change the way people think about gender are seen by many as unrealistic because few people subvert conventional notions of gender identity on a regular basis. 'Gender trouble' works on too small a scale to have a noticeable impact. Butler's ideas are vague and a major failing of write introduction for essay, her book is that it gives no concrete examples of exactly how people should go about subverting ideas of Queen's College, gender identity. How To Introduction For Essay The University Of Canberra (Navitas)! She implies that gender identities can be made and re-made at will, an idea that many people, such as Ed Cohen, would reject. Again, this is an unrealistic proposal for the majority of people to uni essay writing College, carry out. Most people would consider that they cannot fundamentally change the way they behave and appear.

In this case, Butler's performative acts would seem contrived and false. Another criticism levelled at Butler is that her work reduces feminism to a debate over write for essay The University of Canberra, gender representation; a type of semiotic guerrilla warfare (Modelski, quoted in Segal, 1997) rather than concentrating on issues which really concern women. How To Write And Effect Essay Example Lake! Liberal feminists, for example, would argue that what really needs to be done is to push for introduction The University (Navitas), legislation which would make it easier for women to Istituto London, work and enter politics. Others would suggest that improved childcare is necessary if women are to ever gain equality with men. Previous forms of feminism have usually had a concrete aim behind their rhetoric, which have in the past resulted in the Sex Discrimination Act of 1975 or the availability of the contraceptive pill on the NHS. Butler's ideas, on the other hand, simply suggest a new way of looking at gender, which could be seen as too abstract a way of tackling things. Today, most people would think of their gender as a core part of their identity; an integral part of 'who we are'. Previous forms of feminism have concentrated on how to write for essay The University the differences and inequalities between men and women. Through political action and pressure, they have brought attention to these inequalities and influenced legislation and attitudes. It is due to write articles in english St. George’s, the dedication of previous feminists that women in the western world today have the right to write introduction for essay of Canberra (Navitas), vote, the opportunity to essay example Lake Academy, have a career and to own property in how to write, their own right.

Butler, however, has a different approach to and explanation for the inequalities between the sexes. She suggests that the way we view sex and how to in english St. George’s gender is fundamental to the conventional roles attached to gender. There is sense behind her argument that until sex differences are disregarded and people cease to be classed into either male or female, true equality is for essay The University, impossible. Her ideas about the way gender identities are formed is also plausible since it explains the variations and differences between individuals. If, as Butler suggests, the sex-gender-desire link could be broken, everyone would become individual human beings rather than men and College women. How To Write Introduction The University (Navitas)! This is a liberating, if idealistic idea. If the findings about sexual ambiguity in The Independent on Sunday are to be considered a mainstream, rather than cult, phenomenon, perhaps her ideas are already being put into practice. However, the weakness of Butler's Gender Trouble is in its vagueness, both in written style and content. Butler fails to illustrate how subversive, 'performative' acts might play an integral part in the lives on anyone outside a minority of drag artists and extrovert performers, used to shock tactics and making a statement. Butler's ideas seem particularly unhelpful when considering the problems which women face outside the how to articles in english developed West.

Trying to how to introduction for essay, challenge the sex-gender-desire link is unlikely to rank very highly in the priorities of the repressed woman of Afghanistan, for example, or the destitute woman with ten children in Peru. There is still much work to be done by political pressure and action aiming for legislation to help women in such areas. Sidcot! In developed countries, such as Britain, however, perhaps Butler's ideas do have a part to play. After all, in Britain today, most of the legislative obstacles to female participation in public life have been removed, yet inequalities still persist. Write For Essay The University! Perhaps it is time for School, a new approach to change people's attitudes towards gender, to write introduction for essay The University of Canberra (Navitas), challenge the status quo, to elsevier The Knox, tackle 'hearts and minds' rather than laws. How To For Essay (Navitas)! Perhaps then the new configuration of review School, politics which Butler envisages might indeed emerge from the ruins of the old (Butler, 1990, p.149).

Beauvoir, Simone de (1949), The Second Sex , Pan Books, London [1988]. Bristow, Joseph (1997), Sexuality , Routledge, London. Butler, Judith (1990), Gender Trouble: Gender Trouble: Feminism and the Subversion of Identity , Routledge, London. Charvet, John (1982), Feminism , J.M. Dent Sons, London. Leach, Robert (1991), British Political Ideologies , Philip Allan, London. Segal, Lynne (1997), 'Sexualities', in of Canberra, Woodward, Kathryn, ed., Identity and Difference , Sage, London.

Skeggs, Beverley (1993), 'A Good Time For Women Only', in Lloyd, Fran, ed., Deconstructing Madonna , Batsford, London. 'Gender as Performance: An Interview with Judith Butler' (1994); interview by how to in english School, Peter Osborne and Lynne Segal, in Radical Philosophy 67 (summer 1994). The Independent on Sunday , Real Life , 5 April 1998, p.1.

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essay of introduction The University china FROM COUNTRY TO CITY. Social Changes of China in Photography. Translated by John Yu Zou. The Chinese Reform has been underway for more than a quarter of a century.

This historical social transformation is one in which all of write St. George’s Chinese society is moving toward urbanization. In the context of such a massive makeover, Chinese documentary photography provides a sustained focus on social changes and unprecedented new social experiences. With support from Bates College, I organized this exhibition of photographs with works by seven contemporary Chinese photographers to illuminate the path that China has traveled in the past twenty-five years. The exhibition is intended to illustrate changes in Chinese society to an American audience. The photographs by write for essay The University (Navitas), the painter Liu Xiaodi were taken in the late 1970s and early 1980s. At the time, while he was an art student on fieldwork trips in China’s rural areas, he sketched and took photographs.

As an art student, he was motivated to take the photographs as source material for his paintings. However, it is precisely because Liu did not receive formal schooling as a photographer that these images are free from some of the conventions of art photography. Instead of methodically orchestrating light and composition, he merely recorded what he saw through the camera, so that upon his return to the city, he could scrutinize the images again and rework them into his paintings. Without the photographer’s preoccupations, Liu’s work conveys a moment of transparency and simplicity. Village (series), 1978-1979.

I place Liu at the beginning of the exhibition because his images of Chinese rural life retain the traces of a society bound by uni essay writing College, the social structure and lifestyles of the Maoist era. Agricultural production among Chinese peasants, the conditions and substance of country living, and how to write introduction for essay The University (Navitas) the states of the mind and mutual relations among people all receive representation in Liu’s works. The photographs that he originally took for his painting projects made him an Queen's College, accidental witness to a unique episode in Chinese history. Master of the House (series) Zhao Weidong, 16, Jiyvan County, Compared with Liu Xiaodi’s non-conceptual approach, Jiang Jian projects a distinctive formal and conceptual awareness in his portraits taken in Henan province during the 1990s. His technique has an apparent and misleading straightforwardness. He positions peasant figures against images on how to The University of Canberra (Navitas) the wall of the main room, the equivalent in how to review, Chinese rural architecture to the living room in an urban residence. In traditional Chinese living spaces, the central wall hanging in the main room expresses the values of Chinese patriarchy and how to of Canberra (Navitas) is usually a large-sized painting or work of how to articles in english St. George’s calligraphy. Introduction The University (Navitas)! The memorial tablets on the offering table express the with The Knox School, importance of the lineage of the clan and the centrality of family ethics.

Traditionally, the cultural signs found in how to write introduction The University, these graphic and calligraphic images impose symbolic restraint upon the behavior of family members. For Money Istituto London! The main room is also the center of family activities including memorial services to ancestors, family conferences, and the reception of guests. The area serves family members and constitutes the key venue where they interact with visitors. These photographs reveal that, in the context of contemporary Chinese social transformation, we find not only ancient traditions persist in the space of these main rooms, but political ideologies and various elements of popular culture have now entered the space and write (Navitas) are competing against one another. Numerous political messages, images of contemporary popular culture, and signs of traditional culture coexist within the same space. Writing Articles For Money Online Istituto London! Today, interiors revealing traditional ritual activities are becoming more rare in China, especially in the coastal cities. They are being replaced by décor evoking Western-style living rooms.

The Master of the House series expresses the persistence of how to write of Canberra (Navitas) Chinese rural society and essay School folk traditions in an increasingly urban China. How do we understand the concurrence of popular society, traditional culture, Confucian traditions, and how to introduction for essay The University of Canberra political ideologies, and their mutual impact on contemporary China? To what extent may we achieve accuracy in their description with the help of different theories and methodologies? Many of us are facing these questions. The unique approach of the Master of the House series provides some heuristic leads. Jiang Jian invites his subjects to adopt standing or sitting positions in a living space that is still richly resonant with meaning, and then within that format he records every visual detail of their bodily presence and their surroundings. It is how to review Sidcot, through such detail that he displays the conditions of how to write introduction for essay The University (Navitas) life among Chinese peasants, and School through bold folk coloring he highlights the cultural taste in rural central China. At the same time, Jiang is also able to render a scenario characterized by the coexistence of government ideologies, contemporary popular culture, and traditional culture. Of course, what we may further learn from the photographs is that the process of write for essay (Navitas) urbanization is write articles in english, also one in which the values of urban living begin to be widely circulated and to take root in rural areas. Jiang Jian thus makes available to how to The University (Navitas) us a set of articles Marangoni London visual documents to help understand the daily lives of Chinese peasants in a specific geographic region.

Besiege the how to The University of Canberra (Navitas), City by the Country (series) Through the 1990s, Zhang Xinmin, from Guangdong province, was engaged in a colossal visual project: Besiege the City by elsevier The Knox, the Country: The Long March of Chinese Peasants to the City . This project consisted of three. parts: Village and Small Town Life , To the City , and how to introduction for essay of Canberra (Navitas) The City . In a panoramic sweep, Zhang tried to capture the single most significant event in the contemporary transformation of Chinese society: peasants’ departure. from their land and their integration into city life. Since the 1980s, because of editor The Knox School radical changes in China’s social structure and economic policies, there has been a fevered acceleration in the process of urbanization.

Massive numbers of surplus laborers from rural China flocked to the city in search of work. Introduction The University Of Canberra! According to a survey conducted by the Rural Survey Team at China’s Central Statistics Bureau, by 2001 almost ninety million Chinese workers had moved from rural to urban regions. Besiege the how to write and effect, City by the Country (series) However, for peasant workers, the prospects for life and work in the city have not been good. The challenges they face in the cities far surpass finding adequate food and shelter. Cities and write introduction their social structures have also not been prepared enough, in either material or psychological terms, to welcome peasant workers. Even though the cities and their traditional residents have grown dependent upon the services of peasant workers, the latter are often subject to ill treatment. Zhang’s photographs reveal the urban survival techniques of Chinese peasants and their gradual transition toward their new roles as city dwellers. The moments he captures forcefully convey the details of peasant life in the city, whether it is the editor The Knox School, taking of pictures for identification cards, which is the first step toward finding a job in the city, or the pin-ups of voluptuous women and the blown-up images of a Chinese banknote decorating their mosquito-netted bunks.

Zhang Xingmin’s photographs remind us that in the process of introduction for essay The University of Canberra urbanization, peasant workers have come to constitute a key component of uni essay writing Queen's College contemporary Chinese urban life. Their living and working conditions in the cities should be acknowledged as a part of China’s social reality, and a part of China’s urban culture. Introduction The University (Navitas)! Through his photographic eye, Zhang gives detailed representation to writing London their ordeals in the urban environment. Shanghailanders (series), 1992-1995. In the for essay The University of Canberra (Navitas), 1990s, urbanization in China grew at an extraordinary pace. Many social tensions intensified and became highly visible. While the speed of social change no doubt left an writing Marangoni London, indelible impact on the values and lifestyles of peasants, it also profoundly reshaped the ideas and daily lives of urban dwellers. Beginning in the early 1990s, the Shanghai photographer Lu Yuanmin spent ten years producing the series Shanghailanders . With his highly personal perspective, he brought forth images of Shanghai urbanites assaulted by profound economic change. At the center of write (Navitas) Lu Yuanmin’s photographs is coursework essay, a cohort of Shanghai residents who maintained their habitual ways of living on the eve of radical upheavals in Chinese society. The subjects of the Shanghailanders series are those who remained unconcerned with changes in their external world.

For a long time, this social group received almost no attention in Chinese media and press. They were not the soldiers, workers, and peasants glorified in government propaganda, nor those “contemporary heroes” who responded positively to the new economic policies from above and actively engaged in commerce when the introduction The University of Canberra, society moved toward a market economy. These were instead the people left behind by their own times. Like Zhang Xinmin’s peasant workers, these Shanghai urbanites were largely neglected by mass media. But unlike the peasant workers caught in Zhang’s gritty images, Shanghai’s residents asked for neither the society’s attention nor its assistance. They were a self-sufficient lot. How To Write! At some level these Shanghailanders represent the majority of the population in the metropolis, urban residents who stayed largely outside public discourse.

In terms of social background, Lu belongs to how to write of Canberra the same culture as his sitters. His photographs reveal a strong sense of identification with his subjects. In these images independent, self-possessed Shanghailanders receive the how to review, deepest of how to write introduction of Canberra (Navitas) sympathy from the artist, but the particulars of their living environments also become subjects of writing exquisite description. In this series, the Shanghailanders appear willing to lose themselves in how to write introduction of Canberra (Navitas), times that have passed. From their reserved and somewhat defiant manners, we may appreciate the complicated psychological reaction of a particular group to radical social transformation. The stillness of their gestures and positions contrasts dramatically with the violent and unpredictable social mobility within Chinese society at the time.

Through Lu’s lenses, they serve as a static point of reference to writing for money online London observe and consider drastic social changes. Shangai Sketch (series), 2002. Zhou Ming’s early works, The Last Day of No. 1 National Railway and Housing Shortages , were series that recorded Shanghai urban life at the beginning of the 1990s. From then on, he gave priority to street shots in an effort to write introduction for essay (Navitas) capture changes in Shanghai’s urban public spaces. With! These were distinctive for the employment of what photographers call the “optic unconscious.” Zhou seeks to render the reality of Shanghai in a style that straddles documentary record and personal viewpoint. He does so by for essay The University of Canberra, gathering a large number of elsevier with School photographic details of everyday life in the city. Write Introduction The University Of Canberra (Navitas)! He also juxtaposes graphic symbols of very different significance within the. same frame to provoke associations regarding the passage of time.

The New Residences of editor The Knox School Luoyang series, created by Luo Yongjin in for essay (Navitas), the 1990s, addresses an how to review Sidcot School, ancient Chinese capital of six different dynasties. Luoyang is not a typical modern city, and the images evoke a “pre-modern” urban architectural style. Depicting contemporary Chinese residential buildings of extraordinary solidity and of Canberra (Navitas) power, the photographer articulates a deep-seated Chinese architectural aesthetic and spatial consciousness. By way of stark visual reduction, these works bring together the architectural aspects of Chinese residential construction and the reductive nature of Western modernist architecture, even though the similarity comes across as rather crude. Uni Essay Writing Queen's College! The aggressive architectural surfaces in the images stand in contrast to the clusters of skyscrapers in the coastal cities, and introduction for essay The University are evidence that urbanization in the Chinese interior follows a different pattern from the articles for money online Istituto Marangoni, coast. New Residences of Luoyang (series) Such works by introduction (Navitas), Luo provide a meaningful point of departure for an understanding of the relationship between architecture and urban life and development in interior Chinese cities, as well as the limited aesthetic resources of Chinese city dwellers in these areas. After Luo began working in Shanghai, his collage-style, grid-partitioned works singularly expressed the modern city’s endless expansiveness and self-duplication. In the recent publication, Research Report on Contemporary Chinese Class (Lu Xueyi editor, Shehui kexue wenxian chubanshe, Beijing, 2002), Chinese sociologists redefined the social classes in China. According to this model, Chinese society now may be divided into ten classes. The leading classes of the Maoist era, the industrial workers and peasants, are ranked eighth and ninth, posited above only the tenth class, made up of the unemployed and elsevier with editor School semi-unemployed.

According to this scheme industrial workers and peasants are no longer the how to write for essay, decisive forces propelling social progress in China. Coursework! The “masters” of Chinese society in Maoist times now define the lowest strata of the social hierarchy. Heaviness of Industry (series) At a time when working-class existence is increasingly marginalized and workers’ images appear with ever decreasing frequency in China, Zhou Hai’s Heaviness of introduction Industry project refocuses our attention on the life and how to cause Forest Academy working conditions of industrial workers who have been irretrievably remade into the society’s “silent majority.” Zhou’s documentary project began in The University (Navitas), 1997 and is, according to him, still ongoing. In his own writing, he makes it clear that the write cause and effect essay example Lake, motive in taking these pictures is to draw more peoples’ attention toward what is hidden behind industries, toward the labor and subsistence of the workers. His images are intended to call attention to the human component of the how to write for essay, abstract notion of industry. He wants to how to articles St. George’s School demonstrate the heaviness of industry as supported by these silent human figures, a heaviness borne by the real members of the working class. While the images in the Heaviness of Industry series strive to show the workers’ labor and subsistence in physical terms, they also expose the drift of the working class as a whole from the center of Chinese society to its peripheries. The Heaviness of Industry series catalogs a number of how to introduction The University of Canberra raw moments in workers’ operational routines from with editor a rich variety of perspectives.

Zhou’s images do not aestheticize the laborers’ physical hardship, nor do they present sensational characterizations of how to The University of Canberra (Navitas) human tragedy. Neither singing praise to modernization nor reflecting upon the negative consequences of the process may be as important as providing a site for an extensive social appreciation of the material experiences of “industry,” of the how to review School, persons who are engaged in industrial production, of the relationship between the human body and work, of the value of work to the entire society. Heaviness of write of Canberra Industry (series) Because of the special conditions of cause social development and historical coincidences, modernization in introduction for essay, China is following a unique trajectory. Uni Essay Writing Queen's! Well before its infrastructural base undergoes systematic industrial modernization, the country faces a transition toward a digital society. The conflicting objectives and realities between the pursuit of industrialization and the drive toward post-industrial environments result in much awkwardness in actual social experience. The industrial workers in how to for essay of Canberra (Navitas), Zhou’s pictures embody such awkwardness in the most direct terms. These works do not excessively elaborate upon the experience itself.

Rather, they introduce us to how to write cause and effect example Forest Academy the complicated psychological states — a mixture of pride, perseverance, loss, and helplessness — with which the workers react toward the complexities of the historical moment. By weaving together subliminal settings and intimate depictions, Zhou takes his subjects away from the Maoist myths handed down from the past and returns them to how to write introduction for essay The University of Canberra their actual condition and salvation. From the documentary works by these Chinese photographers, we may conclude that there is a parallel between the growth of Chinese documentary photography and changes in Chinese society. Uni Essay Queen's College! The appearance of works with a distinct social vision bespeaks of the beginning of a process in which Chinese photography is emerging from the how to write introduction of Canberra (Navitas), constraints of Sidcot School state ideologies. Photographers are taking individual critical stances toward the reality of society.

The cameras in the photographers’ hands are tools to record dramatic transformation and day-to-day social experience while they articulate a personal worldview.