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bataille essays Slow Death by Leng-Tch'e (cutting into pieces): There is true ecstasy in this expression. Georges Bataille was born on 10 September 1897 in and essay, Billon, Puy-de-Dome, in central France. His father suffered from general paralysis, brought on by syphilis. He was, according to Bataille  , already blind when Georges was conceived. His mother was also of dubious sanity. Critical Queen! Family moves to Rheims in and essay College, 1900. Help Argumentative Essay! Bataille converts to Catholicism around the time of and essay College his baccaulaureate, just before the outbreak of the War in 1914. He and his mother evacuate the city, which was under the Cowan, German advance, abandoning his father, who was too far gone to be easily transported.
His father dies raving, ranting and refusing to see a priest, on 6 November 1915. These events have a powerful effect on Bataille. But the weirdest thing was certainly the and essay College, way he looked while pissing. Since he could not see anything, his pupils very frequently pointed up into space, shifting under the lids, and this happened particularly when he pissed. Furthermore, he had huge, ever gaping eyes that flanked an eagle nose, and those huge eyes went almost entirely blank when he pissed, with a completely stupefying expression of abandon and aberration in a world that he alone could see and that aroused his vaguely sardonic and absent laugh. In any case, the journal critique Harrow School, image of those white eyes from that time was directly linked, for me, to write, the image of eggs. 
Bataille claims that from 1914 until 1920, rarely did I let a week go by without confessing my sins.  In 1917, he joins the seminary of Saint-Fleur with intentions of becoming a monk. Experiences a loss of faith in 1920 because his Catholicism caused a woman he loved to shed tears.  Attends the Ecole des Chartres, submits a thesis on journal The Order Chivalry, told in verse from the thirteenth century in 1922. Obtains a fellowship to attend the School of Advanced Hispanic Studies in Madrid , travels extensively through Spain, witnesses the gruesome death of a bullfighter, Manuelo Granero. Secures a position at the Bibliotheque Nationale in Paris towards the end of 1922. From 1923 to 1928 he becomes marginally involved in the Parisian Surrealist circles; undergoes a successful psychoanalysis which allows him to write; marries the actress Sylvia Makles and has a child. (Sylvia later goes on to marry Jacques Lacan .) Assists with the publication of the journal Documents in 1930, gathers around him many of those who had formerly been involved with the Paris Dada, Grand Jeu and Surrealist Groups. Incurs the wrath of Andre Breton, who believes that Bataille is forming a counter-Surrealist movement. Alastair Brotchie claims that Bataille is one of the main instigators in the anti-Breton group, responsible for the attack in write and essay, the journal A Corpse which showed a deathlike Breton crowned with thorns.  Marriage breaks up, he enters into an intense relationship with Colette Peignot, whose later death in 1938 devastates Bataille. Bataille circa 1933. In 1935, he and article review Cowan, Breton bury their differences to fight against the rising tide of Fascism. Along with Roger Callois , they establish an anti-Fascist group called, Contre-Attaque , which had for its aim the re-establishment of revolutionary principles betrayed by and essay Appleby, the Communist and Socialist Parties.  Forms the esoteric group Acephale and its theoretical counterpoint, The College of Sociology in 1936. Among the members of the College, which holds periodic lectures, are Caillois, Michel Leris and Pierre Klossowski.
Speakers are the argument Edith, premier intellectuals in France at the time: Jean-Paul Sartre, Walter Benjamin, Theodor Adorno and Claude Levi-Strauss to name only write Appleby College, a few.  Founds the influential journal Critique in 1946. Publishes the help argumentative American Preparatory School, early work of Roland Barthes, Maurice Blanchot, Jacques Derrida and Michel Foucault. College! Recuperates from recurrent tuberculosis, marries a second time, has another child and with University, suffers through a series of financial difficulties. In 1949, he obtains employment as a librarian in Charpentras in College, Provence. He holds a similar position in Orleans in 1951. In 1961, through an auction of paintings held by with argumentative essay American, such friends as Pablo Picasso, Max Ernst, Henri Michaux and and essay College, Joan Miro he is able to purchase an apartment in Paris and have a measure of financial security.
Georges Bataille died on 8 July 1962 in Paris. Much of the essay American Preparatory, above comes from the excellent source: Georges Bataille by Michael Richardson.  A Sweet Passage From The Story of the write and essay Appleby College, Eye. The events that followed were without transition or connection, not because they weren't actually related, but because my attention was so absent as to remain absolutely dissociated. In just a few seconds: first, Simone bit into one of the raw balls, to my dismay; then Granero advanced towards the bull, waving his scarlet cloth; finally, almost at once, Simone, with blood-red face and Cowan, a suffocating lewdness, uncovered her long white thighs up to write College, her moist vulva, into which she slowly and surely fitted the second pale globule- Granero was thrown back by the bull and wedged against the balustrade; the horns struck the balustrade three times at full speed; at the third blow, one horn plunged into journal critique Harrow School the right eye and through the write and essay Appleby College, head. A shriek of article review essay Cowan unmeasured horror coincided with a brief orgasm for Simone, who was lifted up from the stone seat only to be flung back with a bleeding nose, under a blinding sun; men instantly rushed over to write and essay Appleby, haul away Granero's body, the think Queen, right eye dangling from the head. Obviously, Bataille has extreme relevance as a nexus point for the intellectual and College, artistic life of mid-20th century France. Think Critical! Much of his achievement can only be understood inside this historical context.
In this way, the and essay Appleby, simplest method of locating Bataille is to place him dead square in the middle of article essay a continuum between Fascism and Appleby, Surrealism. And, humorously enough, perhaps this crude position is the only way to make sense of his writing, especially his transgressive fictions. But while this might be helpful to closet Sadean Catholics and essay Cowan University, the all too common crypto-fascist French neurotics, it doesn't begin to Appleby, explain Bataille's increasing valence within the last few decades of article critique this country. It is Bataille's philosophy of excess and write and essay, exuberance, his open acknowledgement of shame in the face of the extreme pornographic displays of sex and think, death, his sense of esoteric humor and history that make him so appropriate to write and essay Appleby College, this world we live in. Look around at all the weak-kneed erotic philosophers and judge who backs down from the abyssmal truth of the a good Edith University, matter. The same goes for the vulturous death therapists. Here is Bataille's relevance inside the subculture: with one foot in the flesh of the orgy and one in the bones of the grave, he speaks of the dark truths central to all human experience. And, most importantly, he embraces it, says YES to and essay College, it, even though it would annihilate him. Article Critique School! And beyond of all of his failings, this still stands.
The corpse of Bataille never smelled sweeter. Other Links (An Significant Paucity) CTHEORY A Site For All Things Critical, Edited by write Appleby College, Arthur and Marilouise Kroker. The Absence of Myth: Writings on Surrealism edited by Georges Bataille, (Michael Richardson, trans.), Verso, 1994. The Bataille Reader (Fred Botting and Scott Wilson, eds.), Blackwell, 1997. Think Anne’s School! Erotism: Death And Sensuality , (Mary Dalwood, trans.), City Lights, 1991 (originally published in english as Death and Sensuality: A Study of Eroticism and the Taboo , 1962. Original publication as L'Erotisme , 1957.) Inner Experience (Suny Series: Intersections: Philosophy and write Appleby, Critical Theory), SUNY Press, 1988 - We receive these hazy illusions like a narcotic necessary to bear life. But what happens to us when, disintoxicated, we learn what we are? Lost among babblers in a night in which we can only journal School, hate the appearance of write and essay light which comes from babbling. The self-acknowledged suffering of the disintoxicated is the subject of this book. - Georges Bataille, from the Preface. Manet , (Austryn Wainhouse and James Emmons, trans.), Rizzoli Pubs, 1983 (Out of topics to write School Print) Prehistoric Painting: Lascaux or the Birth of Art , (Austryn Wainhouse, trans,), Macmillan, 1955.
The Tears of Eros , (Peter Connor, trans.), City Lights, 1989. And Essay College! (Original publication as Les Larmes d'Eros , 1961.) Writings on Laughter, Sacrifice, Nietzsche, Un-Knowing , (Annette Michelson, trans.), October No. 36 , Spring 1986. The College of Sociology (1937-1939) Dennis Hollier (ed), (Betsy Wing, trans.), Univ. of Minnesota Press, 1988 (out of print) On Bataille: Critical Essays, by Leslie Anne Boldt-Irons (ed.), (Suny Series: Intersections: Philosophy and Critical Theory), SUNY Press, 1995. The Taste for Annihilation: Georges Bataille and Violent Nihilism : An Essay in Atheistic Religion by with argumentative University Preparatory, Nick Land, Routledge, 1992 (OOP) Volumen (video compilation, DVD format) Includes the Venus As A Boy video. In 1993, Icelandic singer Bjork Gu?mundsdottir cites The Story of the Eye as a major inspiration: she made a music video that alludes to Bataille's erotic uses of eggs. Here are some more pictures of her in write and essay Appleby College, her video, Venus as a Boy . Author: Bonesy Jones. The eyes of Georges Bataille. © 1999 - 2004 PopSubCulture(dot)com.
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oedipus theme essay We exist/experience in a holographic universe replete with creation myths about write College gods/aliens who came from the a good argument Cowan University, sky to create the human experience/experiment for any number of reasons - saying they would return return at write and essay College the end of the illusion of time. Creation myths following the same algorithm in each civilization - good vs. evil. Mythology can refer to the collected myths of a group of peopletheir collection of stories they tell to explain nature, history, and customs - or to the study of such myths. As a collection of explanatory stories, mythology is Sciences a vital feature of College every culture. Many sources for Preparatory, myths have been proposed, ranging from Appleby College personification of nature or personification of natural phenomena, to Edith truthful or hyperbolic accounts of historical events to explanations of and essay existing rituals.
Although the term is complicated by its implicit condescension, mythologizing is not just an ancient or primitive practice, as shown by contemporary mythopoeia such as urban legends and the expansive fictional mythoi created by journal critique Harrow School fantasy novels and comics. A culture's collective mythology helps convey belonging, shared and religious experiences, behavioral models, and moral and practical lessons. The study of myth dates back to write and essay College ancient history. Rival classes of the Greek myths by Euhemerus, Plato, and Sallustius were developed by the Neoplatonists and with essay University School, later revived by Renaissance mythographers. Write Appleby College. The nineteenth-century comparative mythology reinterpreted myth as a primitive and failed counterpart of science (E. B. Tylor), a disease of language (Max Muller), or a misinterpretation of magical ritual (James Frazer). Recent approaches have rejected conflict between the value of myth and rational thought, often viewing myths as expressions to understand general psychological, cultural, or societal truths, rather than as inaccurate historical accounts.
Read more. Relation of Myths to Other Narrative Forms. In Western culture there are a number of literary or narrative genres that scholars have related in different ways to myths. Examples are fables, fairy tales, folktales, sagas, epics, legends, and etiologic tales (which refer to causes or explain why a thing is the way it is). Another form of tale, the parable, differs from myth in its purpose and think Anne’s, character. Write And Essay Appleby. Even in the West, however, there is no agreed definition of any of these genres, and some scholars question whether multiplying categories of narrative is helpful at all, as opposed to working with a very general concept such as the traditional tale. Non-Western cultures apply classifications that are different both from the Western categories and from one another.
Most, however, make a basic distinction between true and fictitious narratives, with true ones corresponding to what in the West would be called myths. If it is accepted that the category of traditional tale should be subdivided, one way of doing so is to regard the various subdivisions as comparable to bands of color in a spectrum. Within this figurative spectrum, there will be similarities and analogies between myth and folktale or between myth and legend or between fairy tale and folktale. In the section that follows, it is assumed that useful distinctions can be drawn between different categories. It should, however, be remembered throughout that these classifications are far from rigid and that, in many cases, a given tale might be plausibly assigned to more than one category. As a literary device, an American University allegory in its most general sense is an extended metaphor. Appleby. Allegory has been used widely throughout history in all forms of art, largely because it can readily illustrate complex ideas and concepts in a good argument Edith Cowan ways that are comprehensible or striking to its viewers, readers, or listeners. Write And Essay Appleby. Writers or speakers typically use allegories as literary devices or as rhetorical devices that convey hidden meanings through symbolic figures, actions, imagery, and/or events, which together create the moral, spiritual, or political meaning the write literature essay Stenden of Applied, author wishes to convey. One of the best-known examples of allegory, Plato's Allegory of the Cave, forms a part of his larger work The Republic. In this allegory, Plato describes a group of people who have lived chained in a cave all of their lives, facing a blank wall (514ab). The people watch shadows projected on the wall by things passing in front of write and essay a fire behind them and begin to argument Cowan University ascribe forms to these shadows, using language to identify their world (514c515a). According to the allegory, the Appleby College, shadows are as close as the journal article Harrow School, prisoners get to viewing reality, until one of them finds his way into the outside world where he sees the and essay College, actual objects that produced the a good essay, shadows.
He tries to tell the people in the cave of his discovery, but they do not believe him and vehemently resist his efforts to free them so they can see for themselves (516e518a). This allegory is, on a basic level, about a philosopher who upon finding greater knowledge outside the cave of human understanding, seeks to share it as is and essay College his duty, and the foolishness of journal article Harrow School those who would ignore him because they think themselves educated enough. The word fable derives from the write and essay College, Latin word fabula , which originally meant about the same as the Greek mythos; like mythos, it came to mean a fictitious or untrue story. Myths, in contrast, are not presented as fictitious or untrue. Fables, like some myths, feature personified animals or natural objects as characters. Unlike myths, however, fables almost always end with an explicit moral message, and this highlights the write literature of Applied Sciences, characteristic feature of fables--namely, that they are instructive tales that teach morals about human social behavior. Myths, by contrast, tend to lack this directly didactic aspect, and the sacred narratives that they embody are often hard to translate into direct prescriptions for and essay Appleby College, action in everyday human terms. Another difference between fables and myths relates to a feature of the narratives that they present.
The context of a typical fable will be unspecific as to time and article review University, space; e.g., A fox and a goose met at write and essay College a pool. A typical myth, on the other hand, will be likely to identify by name the to write persuasive on ACS Cobham International School, god or hero concerned in a given exploit and to specify details of and essay College geography and genealogy; e.g., Oedipus was the son of Laius, the king of a good argument Edith University Thebes. The term fairy tale, if taken literally, should refer only to stories about fairies, a class of supernatural and sometimes malevolent beings--often believed to be of diminutive size -- who were thought by people in medieval and post medieval Europe to inhabit a kingdom of their own; a literary expression of write and essay College this belief can be found in Shakespeare's A Midsummer Night's Dream. The term fairy tale, however, is normally used to refer to a much wider class of narrative, namely stories (directed above all at an audience of children) about an individual, almost always young, who confronts strange or magical events: examples are Jack and how to write essay Sciences, the Beanstalk, Cinderella, and write and essay College, Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs. The modern concept of the critical Anne’s, fairy tale seems not to be found earlier than the write Appleby, 18th century in Europe, but the narratives themselves have earlier analogues much farther afield, notably in the Indian Katha-saritsagara (The Ocean of Story) and in The Thousand and One Nights. Like myths, fairy tales present extraordinary beings and events. Unlike myths - but like fables - fairy tales tend to be placed in a setting that is geographically and temporally vague and might begin with the words Once upon a time there was a handsome prince . A myth about a prince, by contrast, would be likely to name him and to a good Edith University specify his lineage, since such details might be of collective importance (for example, with reference to issues of property inheritance or the relative status of and essay Appleby College different families) to the social group among which the myth was told.
There is much disagreement among scholars as to how to journal article define the folktale; consequently, there is write disagreement about the relation between folktale and myth. One view of the problem is that of the with essay American Preparatory School, American folklorist Stith Thompson, who regarded myths as one type of folktale; according to this approach, the particular characteristic of myth is that its narratives deal with sacred events that happened in the beginning. Other scholars either consider folktale a subdivision of write and essay Appleby College myth or regard the two categories as distinct but overlapping. The latter view is taken by the British classicist Geoffrey S. Kirk, who in Myth: Its Meaning and Functions in Ancient and Other Cultures (1970) uses the term myth to denote stories with an underlying purpose beyond that of critical Queen Anne’s School simple story-telling and the term folktale to denote stories that reflect simple social situations and play on ordinary fears and desires. Examples of folktale motifs are encounters between ordinary, often humble, human beings and supernatural adversaries such as witches, giants, or ogres; contests to win a bride; and attempts to overcome a wicked stepmother or jealous sisters. But these typical folktale themes occur also in stories normally classified as myths, and there must always be a strong element of arbitrariness in assigning a motif to a particular category.
A different and important aspect of the problem of defining a folktale relates to the historical origin of the and essay, concept. As with the notion of folklore, the write University of Applied Sciences, notion of folktale has its roots in and essay Appleby the late 18th century. From that period until the middle of the 19th century, many European thinkers of a nationalist persuasion argued that stories told by ordinary people constituted a continuous tradition reaching back into the nation's past. Thus, stories such as the Marchen (Tales) collected by the Grimm brothers in Germany are folktales because they were told by the people rather than by an aristocratic elite. How To Write Literature Essay Stenden University Of Applied Sciences. This definition of folktale introduces a new criterion for distinguishing between myth and write College, folktale--namely, what class of person tells the story--but it by no means removes all the journal article School, problems of classification. Just as the distinction between folk and aristocracy cannot be transferred from Appleby medieval Europe to tribal Africa or classical Greece without risk of distortion, so the importing of a distinction between myth and folktale on the later European model is extremely problematic. Sagas and Epics. The word saga is often used in article review essay Cowan University a generalized and loose way to refer to any extended narrative re-creation of and essay Appleby historical events.
A distinction is a good argument Edith thus sometimes drawn between myths (set in a semi divine world) and write and essay, sagas (more realistic and more firmly grounded in a specific historical setting). This rather vague use of help with argumentative essay American University Preparatory saga is best avoided, however, since the write and essay College, word can more usefully retain the precise connotation of its original context. The word saga is Old Norse and means what is said. The sagas are a group of medieval Icelandic prose narratives; the essay Edith Cowan, principal sagas date from the 13th century and relate the deeds of Icelandic heroes who lived during the 10th and 11th centuries. If the word saga is restricted to this Icelandic context, at least one of the possible terminological confusions over words for traditional tales is avoided. While saga in its original sense is a narrative type confined to a particular time and write and essay, place, epics are found worldwide. Help With Argumentative Essay American Preparatory School. Examples can be found in the ancient world (the Iliad and Odyssey of Homer), in medieval Europe (the Nibelungenlied), and in modern times (the Serbo-Croatian epic poetry recorded in the 1930s). Among the write and essay, many non-European examples are the Indian Mahabharata and the Tibetan Gesar epic. Epic is similar to saga in that both narrative forms look back to an age of heroic endeavor, but it differs from saga in that epics are almost always composed in poetry (with a few exceptions such as Kazak epic and the Turkish Book of Dede Korkut). The relation between epic and myth is not easy to School pin down, but it is in general true that epics characteristically incorporate mythical events and persons. An example is the ancient Mesopotamian epic of Gilgamesh, which includes, among many mythical episodes, an account of the meeting between the hero Gilgamesh and Utnapishtim, the only man to have attained immortality and sole survivor (with his wife) of the flood sent by the gods.
Myth is thus a prime source of the material on which epic draws. In common usage the word legend usually characterizes a traditional tale thought to have a historical basis, as in the legends of King Arthur or Robin Hood. In this view, a distinction may be drawn between myth (which refers to the supernatural and the sacred) and legend (which is grounded in historical fact). Thus, some writers on the Iliad would distinguish between the legendary aspects (e.g., heroes performing actions possible for and essay Appleby College, ordinary humans) and the mythical aspects (e.g., episodes involving the gods). But the distinction between myth and legend must be used with care. In particular, because of the assumed link between legend and historical fact, there may be a tendency to refer to narratives that correspond to one's own beliefs as legends, while exactly comparable stories from other traditions may be classified as myths; hence a Christian might refer to stories about the miraculous deeds of a saint as legends, while similar stories about a pagan healer might be called myths. As in other cases, it must be remembered that the boundaries between terms for traditional narratives are fluid, and that different writers employ them in quite different ways. Functionalism is primarily associated with the anthropologists Bronislaw Malinowski and think critical Queen, A.R. Radcliffe-Brown, however. Both ask not what the origin of any given social behavior may be but how it contributes to maintaining the system of which it is a part. In this view, in all types of society, every aspect of life--every custom, belief, or idea--makes its own special contribution to the continued effective working of the whole society.
Functionalism has had a wide appeal to anthropologists in write and essay Britain and the United States, especially as an interpretation of myth as integrated with other aspects of society and as supporting existing social relationships. The term myth is not normally applied to think Queen narratives that have as their explicit purpose the illustration of a doctrine or standard of conduct. Instead, the term parable, or illustrative tale, is used. Write And Essay College. Familiar examples of such narratives are the parables of the New Testament. Parables have a considerable role also in review essay Edith Cowan Sufism (Islamic mysticism), rabbinic (Jewish biblical interpretive) literature, Hasidism (Jewish pietism), and Zen Buddhism. And Essay College. That parables are essentially non-mythological is clear because the point made by with argumentative essay School the parable is known or supposed to be known from another source. Parables have a more subservient function than myths. They may clarify something to write and essay an individual or a group but do not take on the revelatory character of myth.
Etiologic tales are very close to myth, and some scholars regard them as a particular type of myth rather than as a separate category. In modern usage the term etiology is used to refer to the description or assignment of causes (Greek aitia). Accordingly, an etiologic tale explains the origin of a custom, state of affairs, or natural feature in the human or divine world. Many tales explain the origin of a particular rock or mountain. Others explain iconographic features, such as the to write essays on ACS Cobham International, Hindu narrative ascribing the blue neck of the god Siva to a poison he drank in primordial times.
The etiologic theme often seems to be added to a mythical narrative as an afterthought. In other words, the etiology is not the distinctive characteristic of myth. Approaches to the Study of write College Myth and help with essay American University Preparatory School, Mythology. The importance of write Appleby College studying myth to provide a key to a human society is a matter of historical record. In the article Edith Cowan University, middle of the 19th century, for instance, a newly appointed British governor of New Zealand, Sir George Grey, was confronted by the problem of how to come to terms with the Maori, who were hostile to the British. He learned their language, but that proved insufficient for an understanding of the way in which they reasoned and argued. In order to be able to conduct negotiations satisfactorily, he found it necessary to study the Maori's mythology, to which they made frequent reference.
Other government officials and Christian missionaries of the 19th and Appleby, 20th centuries made similar efforts to how to Stenden of Applied Sciences understand the mythologies of nations or tribes so as to facilitate communication. Such studies were more than a means to write and essay Appleby an end, whether efficient administration or conversion; they amounted to the discovery that myths present a model or charter for article Edith Cowan, man's behavior and that the write Appleby, world of myth provides guidance for crucial elements in human existence--war and peace, life and death, truth and falsehood, good and evil. In addition to such practically motivated attempts to understand myth, theorists and scholars from think Anne’s School many disciplines have interested themselves in the study of the subject. A close study of myth has developed in the West, especially since the 18th century. Much of write Appleby College its material has come from the study of the article review essay Edith, Greek and Roman classics, from which it has also derived some of its methods of interpretation. The growth of philosophy in ancient Greece furthered allegorical interpretations of myth--i.e., finding other or supposedly deeper meanings hidden below the surface of Appleby mythical texts. Such meanings were usually seen as involving natural phenomena or human values. Related to this was a tendency toward rationalism, especially when those who studied myths employed false etymologies. Rationalism in this context connotes the scrutiny of myths in such a way as to make sense of the statements contained in them without taking literally their references to gods, monsters, or the supernatural.
Thus, the ancient writer Palaiphatos interpreted the story of Europa (carried off to topics essays Cobham International Crete on the back of a handsome bull, which was actually Zeus in disguise) as that of a woman abducted by a Cretan called Tauros, the Greek word for bull; and Skylla, the bestial and cannibalistic creature who attacked Odysseus' ship according to Homer's Odyssey, was by and essay College the same process of rationalizing interpreted as simply the name of a pirate ship. Of special and help argumentative University Preparatory School, long-lasting influence in the history of the interpretation of myth was Euhemerism (named after Euhemerus, a Greek writer who flourished about 300 BC), according to which certain gods were originally great people venerated because of their benefactions to mankind. The early Church Fathers adopted an attitude of modified Euhemerism, according to which classical mythology was to be explained in terms of mere men who had been raised to superhuman, demonic status because of their deeds. By this means, Christians were able to incorporate myths from the culturally authoritative pagan past into a Christian framework while defusing their religious significance--the gods became ordinary humans. The Middle Ages did not develop new theoretical perspectives on myth, nor, despite some elaborate works of historical and etymological erudition, did the Renaissance. In both periods, interpretations in terms of allegory and Euhemerism tended to predominate. In early 18th-century Italy, Giambattista Vico, a thinker now considered the forerunner of all writers on write Appleby ethnology, or the study of culture in article review Edith University human societies, built on traditional scholarship--especially in law and philosophy--to make the first clear case for the role of man's creative imagination in the formation of distinct myths at successive cultural stages. His work, which was most notably expressed in his Scienza Nuova (1725; The New Science of write and essay Giambattista Vico ), had no influence in his own century. Instead, the notion that pagan myths were distortions of the biblical revelation (first expressed in the Renaissance) continued to find favor.
Nevertheless, Enlightenment philosophy, reports from voyages of discovery, and missionary reports (especially the Jesuits' accounts of North American Indians) contributed to scholarship and fostered greater objectivity. Bernhard Le Bovier de Fontenelle, a French scholar, compared Greek and American Indian myths and suggested that there was a universal human predisposition toward mythology. In De l'origine des fables (1724; On the Origin of essay Edith Fables) he attributed the absurdities (as he saw them) of myths to the fact that the stories grew up among an write and essay Appleby earlier, more primitive human society. About 1800 the Romantics' growing fascination with language, the postulation of an Indo-European language family, the study of Sanskrit, and the growth of comparative studies, especially in history and philology, were all part of a trend that included the study of think critical Queen Anne’s myth. The relevance of Indo-European studies to an understanding of Greek and Roman mythology was carried to an extreme in the work of Friedrich Max Muller, a German Orientalist who moved to Britain and undertook important research on comparative linguistics. Write College. In his view, expressed in such works as Comparative Mythology (1856), the mythology of the original Indo-European peoples had consisted of allegorical stories about the workings of nature, in particular such features as the sky, the Sun, and the dawn. In the course of time, though, these original meanings had been lost (through, in Muller's notorious phrasing, a disease of Queen School language), so that the myths no longer told in a rationally intelligible way of and essay Appleby College phenomena in the natural world but instead appeared to describe the irrational activities of gods, heroes, nymphs, and others.
For instance, one Greek myth related the pursuit of the nymph Daphne by the god Phoebus Apollo. Since--in Muller's interpretation of the Edith, evidence of comparative linguistics--Daphne originally meant dawn, and Phoibos meant morning sun, the original story was rationally intelligible as the dawn is put to flight by the morning sun. One of the problems with this view is, of course, that it fails to account for the fact that the Greeks continued to tell this and similar stories long after their supposed meanings had been forgotten; and they did so, moreover, in write and essay the manifest belief that the stories referred, not to nature, but precisely to gods, heroes, and other mythical beings. Interest in review essay myth was greatly stimulated in Germany by Friedrich von Schelling's philosophy of mythology, which argued that myth was a form of expression, characteristic of a particular stage in human development, through which men imagine the Absolute (for Schelling an all-embracing unity in which all differences are reconciled). Scholarly interest in myth has continued into the 20th century. Many scholars have adopted a psychological approach because of interest aroused by the theories of Sigmund Freud. Subsequently, new approaches in sociology and anthropology have continued to encourage the study of myth.
In the late 18th century artists and intellectuals came increasingly to emphasize the role of the emotions in human life and, correspondingly, to play down the importance of reason (which had been regarded as supremely important by thinkers of the Enlightenment). Those involved in the new movement were known as Romantics. Appleby College. The Romantic movement had profound implications for the study of myth. Myths--both the stories from Greek and essay, Roman antiquity and contemporary folktales--were regarded by and essay Appleby the Romantics as repositories of experience far more vital and powerful than those obtainable from what was felt to be the artificial art and poetry of the argument essay Edith, aristocratic civilization of contemporary Europe. This new attitude is illustrated in a work of the write, German critic and philosopher Johann Gottfried von Herder entitled Auszug aus einem Briefwechsel uber Ossian und die Lieder alter Volker (1773; Extract from a Correspondence on Ossian and the Songs of Ancient Peoples). Ossian is the name of an Irish warrior-poet whose Gaelic songs were supposedly translated and presented to help argumentative essay the world by James Macpherson in the 1760s. Although largely the work of Macpherson himself, these songs made a colossal impact when they were published.
Herder believed that the more savage, that is, the more alive and freedom-loving a people (ein Volk) was, the more alive and free its songs would be. In opposition to the culture of the educated, Herder exalted the write College, Kultur des Volkes (culture of the people). In 1769 Herder abandoned his job as a schoolteacher and took a boat from Riga, on the Baltic, to Nantes, on the Atlantic coast of article review essay Cowan University France. In Journal meiner Reise im Jahre 1769 (1769; Journal of My Travels in the Year 1769), a description of the experience, he wrote: In everything [on board ship] there is experience to illuminate the original era of the myths. Then [i.e., in College antiquity] every man, ignorant of nature, listened for signs and had to listen for them. Then, Jupiter's lightning was terrifying--as indeed it is [i.e., now] on the Ocean. Anne’s School. There are a thousand new and write, more natural explanations of mythology if one reads, say, Orpheus, Homer, Pindar on board ship. In other words, for Herder ancient myths were the natural expressions of the concerns that would have confronted the ancients; and those concerns were the very ones that, according to Herder, still confronted the article, Volk--e.g., ordinary sailors--in Herder's own day.
Since the write Appleby, Romantic movement, all study of myth has been comparative, although comparative attempts were made earlier. The prevalence of the comparative approach has meant that since the article review Edith, 19th century even the most specialized studies have made generalizations about more than one tradition or at the very least have had to take comparative works by others into account. Indeed, for there to be any philosophical inquiry into the nature and function of myth at all, there must exist a body of data about myths across a range of societies. Such data would not exist without a comparative approach. The classic folklore approach is that of Wilhelm Mannhardt, a German scholar, who attempted to collect data on the lower mythology, which he considered to be more or less homogeneous in ancient and popular peasant traditions and basic to all formation of myth. Mannhardt saw sufficient analogies and similarities between the ancient and modern data to permit use of the write and essay Appleby, latter in interpreting the help with argumentative University Preparatory School, former. Like Herder, he saw the source of mythology in the traditions passed on among the Volk. Appleby. He collected information not only about popular stories but also about popular customs. He interpreted ancient Greek rituals by relating them to customs of the agricultural peoples of northern Europe, proposing this link in his book Antike Wald- und Feldkulte (1877; Ancient Wood and write literature essay, Field Cults). Other people who examined myth from the folklore standpoint included Sir James Frazer, the British anthropologist, the Appleby College, brothers Grimm (Jacob, who influenced Mannhardt, and Wilhelm), who are well-known for their collections of folklore, and Stith Thompson, who is notable for article review essay Edith, his classification of folk literature, particularly his massive Motif-Index of Folk-Literature (1955). The Grimms shared Herder's passion for the poetry and write College, stories of the Volk.
Their importance stems in part from the academic diligence and meticulousness that they brought to the recording and study of popular tradition. In addition to their collection of Marchen (Tales), they published volumes of Deutsche Sagen (German Legends). These were tales that purported to record actual events and that were ostensibly set in a specific place and period, as opposed to help with argumentative University Preparatory the once-upon-a-time-in-the-forest setting characteristic of the Marchen. Collecting and classifying mythological themes have remained the principal activities of the folklore approach. One of the leading exponents of the write and essay College, functionalist approach to myth was the French sociologist Marcel Mauss, who used the a good University, phrase total social facts in reference to religious symbols and myths and their irreducibility in terms of write and essay Appleby College other functions. Journal Article Harrow. In his Essai sur le don (1925; The Gift), Mauss referred to a system of gift giving to be found in traditional, preindustrial societies. Write And Essay. Observing that there was a mass of complex data on the subject, Mauss continued: in these early societies, social phenomena are not discrete; each phenomenon contains all the threads of which the social fabric is composed. Think Queen Anne’s. In these total social phenomena, as we propose to call them, all kinds of institutions find simultaneous expression: religious, legal, moral, and economic. In his introduction to the English edition Edward Evans-Pritchard commented on that passage: Total is the write and essay College, key word of the Essay. Argument Essay University. The exchanges of archaic societies which he examines are total social movements or activities.
They are at the same time economic, juridical, moral, aesthetic, religious, mythological phenomena. Their meaning can therefore only be grasped if they are viewed as a complex concrete reality. Functionalism is primarily associated with the and essay Appleby, anthropologists Bronislaw Malinowski and A.R. Radcliffe-Brown, however. Harrow. Both ask not what the origin of any given social behavior may be but how it contributes to maintaining the system of which it is a part. And Essay College. In this view, in all types of society, every aspect of life--every custom, belief, or idea--makes its own special contribution to the continued effective working of the whole society. Help Essay University School. Functionalism has had a wide appeal to anthropologists in Britain and the United States, especially as an interpretation of myth as integrated with other aspects of society and as supporting existing social relationships.
Structuralist approaches to write and essay myth are based on the analogy of myth to language. Just as a language is composed of significant oppositions (e.g., between phonemes, the constituent sounds of the language), so myths are formed out of significant oppositions between certain terms and categories. Structuralist analysis aims at uncovering what it sees as the logic of myth. It is argued that supposedly primitive thought is logically consistent but that the terms of this logic are not those with which modern Western culture is familiar. Instead they are terms related to write literature essay University of Applied Sciences items of the College, everyday world in which the primitive culture exists. This logic is article usually based on empirical categories (e.g., raw/cooked, upstream/downstream, bush/village) or empirical objects (e.g., buffalo, river, gold, eagle). Some structuralists, such as the Appleby, French anthropologist Claude Levi-Strauss, have emphasized the presence of the same logical patterns in myths throughout the world. In earlier anthropology, primitive mentality was characterized by the inability to make distinctions, by a sense of mystic participation or identity between man, his cosmos, and all other beings. Beginning with complex kinship systems and later exploring other taxonomies, structuralists argue to the opposite conclusion: the supposedly primitive man is, if anything, obsessed with the review essay, making of and essay Appleby College distinctions; his taxonomies reveal a complexity and sophistication that rival those of modern man. In contrast to how to Stenden University the structuralists' search for the underlying structure of write and essay Appleby College myths, the 20th-century Russian folklorist Vladimir Propp investigated folktales by dividing the surface of their narratives into a number of basic elements. These elements correspond to different types of action that, in article review Edith Cowan University Propp's analysis, always occur in write College the same sequence.
Examples of the types of think critical Queen Anne’s action isolated by Propp are An interdiction is to the hero; The interdiction is write College violated; The false hero or villain is exposed; and The hero is married and to write Cobham School, ascends the throne. An important development of Propp's approach was made in the late 20th century by the German historian of religion Walter Burkert. Burkert detected certain recurrent patterns in the actions described in Greek myths, and he related these patterns (and their counterparts in write and essay College Greek ritual) to basic biologic or cultural programs of action. An example of this relation is given in Burkert's Structure and History in article essay Edith University Greek Mythology and Ritual (1979). Burkert shows how certain Greek myths have a recurring pattern that he calls the girl's tragedy. According to this pattern, a girl first leaves home; after a period of seclusion, she is raped by a god; there follows a time of tribulation, during which she is threatened by parents or relatives; eventually, having given birth to a baby boy, the girl is rescued, and the boy's glorious future is assured. The reason for the frequency and persistence of this pattern is, in Appleby Burkert's view, the fact that it reflects a basic biologic sequence or program of action; puberty, defloration, pregnancy, delivery. Another pattern Burkert explains in a similar way is found in myths about the driving out of the scapegoat. This pattern, Burkert argues, stems from a real situation that must often have occurred in early human or primate history; a group of men, or a group of think School apes, when pursued by carnivores, were able to save themselves through the write and essay Appleby, sacrifice of journal article critique School one member of the group.
The persistence of these patterns through time is explained, according to Burkert, by the fact that they are grounded in basic human needs--above all, the need to survive. The most obvious function of myths is the explanation of facts, whether natural or cultural. One North American Indian (Abnaki [Wabanaki]) myth, for example, explains the origin of write and essay College corn (maize): a lonely man meets a beautiful woman with long, fair hair; she promises to remain with him if he follows her instructions; she tells him in detail how to make a fire and, after he has done so, she orders him to drag her over the burned ground; as a result of these actions, he will see her silken hair (viz., the cornstalk) reappear, and thereafter he will have corn seeds for his use. Henceforth, whenever Abnaki Indians see corn (the woman's hair), they know that she remembers them. Obviously, a myth such as this one functions as an explanation, but the narrative form distinguishes it from a straightforward answer to help argumentative essay American Preparatory School an intellectual question about causes. The function of explanation and the narrative form go together, since the imaginative power of the myth lends credibility to the explanation and crystallizes it into a memorable and enduring form.
Hence myths play an important part in many traditional systems of write Appleby education. Many myths explain ritual and cultic customs. According to myths from the island of Ceram (in Indonesia), in the beginning life was not complete, or not yet human: vegetation and journal article Harrow School, animals did not exist, and write and essay College, there was neither death nor sexuality. In a mysterious manner Hainuwele, a girl with extraordinary gift-bestowing powers, appeared. The people killed her at the end of their great annual celebration, and her dismembered body was planted in the earth. Among the species that sprang up after this act of planting were tubers--the staple diet of the people telling the myth.
With a certain circularity frequent in mythology, the myth validates the very cultic celebration mentioned in the myth. The cult can be understood as a commemoration of topics to write essays Cobham School those first events. Hence, the myth can be said to validate life itself together with the cultic celebration. Comparable myths are told in a number of societies where the main means of food production is the cultivation of root crops; the myths reflect the College, fact that tubers must be cut up and buried in the earth for propagation to take place. Ritual sacrifices are typical of with argumentative essay University School traditional peasant cultures. In most cases such customs are related to write Appleby College mythical events. Among important themes are the necessity of death (e.g., the grain dies and is buried, only to yield a subsequent harvest), a society's cyclic renewal of itself (e.g., New Year's celebrations), and the significance of critical Queen women and sexuality. New Year's celebrations, often accompanied by a temporary abandonment of all rules, may be related to and essay or justified by mythical themes concerning a return to essay Edith Cowan chaos and a return of the dead. In every mythological tradition one myth or cluster of myths tends to be central.
The subject of the central mythology is often cosmogony (origin of the cosmos). In many of those ceremonies that each society has developed as a symbol of what is necessary to its well-being, references are made to the beginning of the world. Examples include the enthronements of kings, which in some traditions (as in Fiji or ancient India) are associated with a creation or re-creation of the world. Analogously, in ancient Mesopotamia the creation epic Enuma elish, which was read each New Year at Babylon, celebrated the progress of the cosmos from initial anarchy to government by College the kingship of Marduk; hence the authority of topics to write persuasive on ACS Cobham International earthly rulers, and College, of earthly monarchy in general, was implicitly supported and justified. Ruling families in ancient civilizations frequently justified their position by invoking myths--for example, that they had divine origins. Examples are known from Imperial China, pharaonic Egypt, the Hittite Empire, Polynesia, the Inca Empire, and India. Elites have also based their claims to privilege on myths.
The French historian of ancient religion Georges Dum*zil was the pioneer in critical Queen Anne’s suggesting that the priestly, warrior, and producing classes in ancient Indo-European societies regarded themselves as having been ordained to particular tasks by virtue of their mythological origins. And in every known cultural tradition there exists some mythological foundation that is referred to when defending marriage and funerary customs. Inasmuch as myths deal with the origin of the world, the end of the world, or a paradisiacal state, they are capable of describing what people can never see for write, themselves however rational and observant they are. It may be that the educational value of myths is journal article Harrow even more bound up with the descriptions they provide than with the explanations. Write And Essay Appleby College. In traditional, preindustrial societies myths form perhaps the most important available model of instruction, since no separate philosophical system of inquiry exists. Healing, Renewal, and Inspiration. Creation myths play a significant role in healing the argumentative School, sick; they are recited (e.g., among the Navajo Indians of North America) when an individual's world--that is to say, his life--is in jeopardy. Thus, healing through recitation of write Appleby College a cosmogony is one example of the use of myth as a magical incantation. Another example is the case of Icelandic poets, who, in singing of the episode in old Norse mythology in which the god Odin wins for gods and men the mead of song (a drink containing the power of poetic inspiration), can be said to be celebrating the origins of their own art and hence renewing it. The poetic aspect of myths in archaic and journal Harrow, primitive traditions is and essay College considerable.
Societies in which artistic endeavor is not yet specialized tend to rely on mythical themes and images as a source of all self-expression. Mythology has also exerted an aesthetic influence in more modern societies. An example is the prevalence of themes from Edith Greek and Roman classical mythology in write Western painting, sculpture, and think Queen School, literature. Myth in Culture. Myth and Psychology.
One of the most celebrated writers about myth from a psychological standpoint was Sigmund Freud. In his Die Traumdeutung (1899; The Interpretation of Dreams) he posited a phenomenon called the Oedipus complex, that is, the male child's repressed desire for his mother and a corresponding wish to supplant his father. (The equivalent for girls was the Electra complex.) According to Freud, this phenomenon was detectable in dreams and myths, fairy tales, folktales--even jokes. Later, in Totem und Tabu (1913; Totem and Taboo ), Freud suggested that myth was the distorted wish-dreams of entire peoples. More than that, however, he saw the Oedipus complex as a memory of a real episode that had occurred in what he termed the primal horde, when sons oppressed by their father had revolted, had driven out or killed him, and had taken his wives for themselves. That subsequent generations refrained from doing so was, Freud suggested, due to write and essay Appleby a collective bad conscience.
The relevance of Freud's investigations to the study of myth lies in his view that the formation of topics to write essays on ACS mythic concepts does not depend on cultural history. Instead, Freud's analysis of the psyche posited an independent, trans-historical mechanism, based on a highly personal biologic conception of and essay Appleby College man. His anthropological theories have since been refuted (e.g., totemic [symbolic animal] sacrifice as the earliest ritual custom, which he related to the first parricide), but his analysis is still regarded with interest by some reputable social scientists. Criticism, however, has been leveled against the explanation of myths in terms of only help argumentative University Preparatory School, one theme and in Appleby terms of the repression of journal article Harrow conscious ideas. Another theorist preoccupied with psychological aspects of myth was the Swiss psychoanalyst Carl Jung, who, like Freud, was stimulated by a theory that no longer has much support--i.e., the theory of Lucien Levy-Bruhl, a French philosopher, associating myth with prelogical mentality. Write. This, according to L*vy-Bruhl, was a type of thought that had been common to archaic mankind, that was still common to primitives, and in which people supposedly experienced some form of mystical participation with the objects of their thought, rather than a separation of subject and object. Jung's theory of the collective unconscious, which bears a certain resemblance to Levy-Bruhl's theory, enabled him to regard the think critical Queen, foundation of mythical images as positive and creative, in and essay contrast with Freud's more negative view of a good essay Edith Cowan University mythology. Jung evolved a theory of archetypes. Broadly similar images and symbols occur in myths, fairy tales, and dreams because the human psyche has an inbuilt tendency to dwell on certain inherited motifs (archetypes), the basic pattern of which persists, however much details may vary.
But critics of Jung have hesitated to accept his theory of archetypes as an account of mythology. Among objections raised, two may be mentioned. First, the archetypal symbols identified by Appleby Jung are static, representing personal types that conflate aspects of the personality: they do not help to illuminate--in the way that the analyses of Propp and Burkert do--the patterns of action that myths narrate. Queen Anne’s School. Second, Jungian analysis is Appleby essentially aimed at relating myth to the individual psyche, whereas myth is Edith Cowan above all a social phenomenon, embedded in society and requiring explanation with reference to write and essay Appleby social structures and social functions. Myth and literature essay Stenden of Applied, Science. Attention has sometimes focused on changes occurring in the way the real world is apprehended by different peoples and how these changes in reality are reflected in myths.
This reality changes continually throughout history, and these changes have especially occupied philosophers and historians of science, for a sense of reality in a culture is write and essay College basic to any scientific pursuit by that culture, beginning with the earliest philosophical inquiries into the nature of the world. Though it would perhaps be going too far to identify the images and concepts that make up a culture's scientific sense of reality with myth, parallels between science and myth, as well as the presence of a mythological dimension to science, are generally reckoned to exist. The function of models in review Cowan University physics, biology, medicine, and other sciences resembles that of myths as paradigms, or patterns, of the human world. In medicine, for instance, the human body is sometimes likened to a machine or the human brain to a computer, and such models are easily understood. Once a model has gained acceptance, it is difficult to replace, and in this respect it resembles myth, while at the same time, just as in myth, there may be a great variety of interpretations. In the 17th century it was assumed that the write and essay College, universe could be explained entirely in terms of how to write literature essay Sciences minute corpuscles, their motion and interaction, and that no entities of any other sort existed. To the extent that many models in the history of science have partaken of this somewhat absolutist character, science can be said to resemble myth. There are, however, important differences. Despite the relative infrequency with which models in write and essay College science have been replaced, replacement does occur, and a strong awareness of the limitations of models has developed in modern science. In contrast, a myth is not as a rule regarded by the community in which it functions as open to replacement, although an outside observer might record changes and even the substitution of a new myth for an old one. Moreover, in help essay University School spite of the broad cultural impact of theories and write College, models such as those of Newton and Einstein, it is in general true to say that models in science have their principal value for the scientists concerned.
Hence, they function most strongly for a relatively small segment of topics to write essays society, even though, for instance, a medical theory held in academic circles in one century can filter down into write Appleby, folk medicine in the next. As a rule, myth has a much wider impact. Modern science did not evolve in its entirety as a rebellion against myth, nor at its birth did it suddenly throw off the shackles of myth. Journal Harrow. In ancient Greece the naturalists of Ionia (western Asia Minor), long regarded as the originators of science, developed views of the universe that were in fact very close to the creation myths of Appleby their time. Those who laid the foundations of modern science, such as Nicholas of Cusa, Johannes Kepler, Sir Isaac Newton, and Gottfried Leibniz, were absorbed by metaphysical problems of which the traditional, indeed mythological, character is evident. Among these problems were the nature of infinity and the question of the omnipotence of a good argument essay God. The influence of mythological views is seen in the English physician William Harvey's association of the circulation of the blood with the planetary movements and Darwin's explanation of woman's menstrual cycles by the tides of the ocean.
Several thinkers (e.g., the theologian Paul Tillich and the philosopher Karl Jaspers) have argued convincingly for a mythological dimension to all science. Myth, in this view, is that which is taken for granted when thought begins. It is at the same time the limit reached in the course of scientific analysis, when it is found that no further progress in definition can be made after certain fundamental principles have been reached. In recent scientific researches, especially in astronomy and biology, questions of teleology (final ends) have gained in and essay College importance, as distinct from earlier concerns with questions of origin. These recent concerns stimulate discussion about the essay University, limits of what can be scientifically explained, and write College, they reveal anew a mythological dimension to human knowledge. Myth and Religion. Ritual and Other Practices. The place of myth in various religious traditions differs. Article Review Essay University. The idea that the Appleby, principal function of a myth is to provide a justification for a ritual was adopted without any great attempt to make a case for it. At the beginning of the 20th century many scholars thought of myths in their earliest forms as accounts of social customs and values. According to Sir James Frazer, myths and journal article, rituals together provided evidence for man's earliest preoccupation, namely, fertility.
Human society developed in stages--from the magical through the religious to the scientific--and myths and rituals (which survived even into the scientific stage) bore witness to archaic modes of thought that were otherwise difficult to write and essay reconstruct. As for the relationship between myth and ritual, Frazer argued that myths were intended to explain otherwise unintelligible rituals. Article Review. Thus, in Adonis, Attis, Osiris (1906) he stated that the mythical story of Attis' self-castration was designed to explain the fact that the priests of write and essay Attis' cult castrated themselves at essay Cowan his festival. In a much more articulate way, biblical scholars stressed the write and essay, necessity to look for think School, the situation in life and Appleby, custom (the Sitz im Leben) that mythical texts originally possessed. A number of scholars, mainly in Britain and the Scandinavian countries and usually referred to as the Myth and School, Ritual school (of which the best-known member is the British biblical scholar S.H. Hooke), have concentrated on the ritual purposes of myths. Their work has centered on write Appleby College the philological study of the ancient Middle East both before and essay University, since the rise of Islam and has focused almost exclusively on rituals connected with sacred kingship and and essay College, New Year's celebrations. Essay University. Of particular importance was the discovery that the creation epic Enuma elish was recited at write and essay Appleby the Babylonian New Year's festival: the myth was, it was argued, expressing in language that which the ritual was enacting through action.
Classical scholars have subsequently investigated the relations between myth and ritual in ancient Greece. Particularly influential has been the study of a good argument essay sacrifice by and essay College Walter Burkert entitled Homo Necans: The Anthropology of Ancient Greek Sacrificial Ritual and Myth (1983). Connections between myths and cult behavior certainly exist, but there is no solid ground for the suggestion, following Frazer, that, in general, ritual came first and myth was then formulated as a subsequent explanation. If it is only the subsequent myth that has made the essay Edith, sense of the earlier ritual explicit, the meaning of the and essay College, ritual may remain a riddle. There is in fact no unanimous opinion about which originated first. Modern scholars are inclined to turn away from the question of temporal priority and to concentrate instead on the diversity of the relationship between myth and ritual.
While it is clear that some myths are linked to rituals, so that it makes sense to say that the myth is expressing in the language of narrative that which the ritual expresses through the topics to write essays on ACS Cobham School, symbolism of action, in the case of other myths no such ritual exists. The content of important myths concerning the origin of the world usually reflects the write, dominant cultural form of a tradition. The myths of hunter-gatherer societies tell of the origin of game animals and hunting customs; agricultural civilizations tend to help with argumentative essay School give weight to agricultural practices in their myths; pastoral cultures to pastoral practices; and so on. Write Appleby College. Thus, many myths present models of essay University acts and organizations central to the society's way of life and relate these to primordial times. Myths in specific traditions deal with matters such as harvest customs, initiation ceremonies, and the customs of secret societies. Religious Symbolism and Iconography. Sacred objects are found in all religious traditions, and sacred images in write and essay Appleby most. Essay American University Preparatory School. They are the material counterparts of myth inasmuch as they represent sacred realities of figures, as myths do in narrative form.
Representing does not entail faithful copying of natural or human forms, and in this respect religious symbolism is and essay Appleby College again like myth in that both depict the extraordinary rather than the topics persuasive, ordinary. Many symbolic representations have their sources in myths. Representations in human form, especially natural human form, are rare. And Essay Appleby College. The sculptures of divine figures in classical Greece (by sculptors such as Phidias and Praxiteles) are the exception. Usually the degree of a good representation occurring in write and essay Appleby cult practices and the depiction of mythical themes has been considerably less humanistic. An example is the way geometric and animal figures abound in the history of religions. Another example is the use of sacred masks, as in Preparatory the mysteries of Dionysus, an ecstatic cult in the Aegean world of classical antiquity, and the indigenous traditions of Australia, America, prehistoric Europe, and elsewhere. The Old Testament is usually regarded as embodying much material that anthropologists would regard as containing mythical themes in just the same way as the practices of the ancient Greeks, Chinese, or Abnaki Indians are bound up with myths. Yet the religion of Israel was in many respects critical of myths (in the sense of noncanonical, approved narratives). Similarly, it rejected any representation of God in natural forms. College. Anti-mythological tendencies exist in Anne’s the religions that have their roots in Israel.
The New Testament of Christianity in some instances derogates myths by describing them as godless and silly. Islam's emphasis on the transcendence of God, as attested in the Qur'an, similarly allows little room for mythological stories. The activities of the supernatural beings known as jinn, however, are acknowledged even by official Islam, besides being prominent in and essay Appleby popular belief (as in critique School The Thousand and One Nights); and other mythological themes, for example motifs relating to the end of time (eschatology), also figure in Islamic religion, above all in its Shi'ite form. Write And Essay Appleby. Orthodox Shi'ite Muslims believe in the existence of 12 imams, semi divine descendants of the Prophet Muhammad through his son-in-law 'Ali. Toward the end of time, according to the beliefs of Shi'ism, the 12th imam will return to topics persuasive on ACS International School bring truth and justice to mankind.
Other traditions with sacred scriptures are more tolerant of myth, for example Hinduism and Buddhism. Running through certain central texts of the Hindu sacred tradition is the theme of the write, contrast between the One and the Many. Thus, the philosophical poem known as the Bhagavadgita contrasts the person who sees Infinity within the ordinary finite world with the person who merely sees the diversity of appearances. Yet this ascetic and abstract view by no means excludes a rich and extraordinarily diverse mythology, which is reflected in think critical the tremendous variety of Indian religious statuary and which mirrors the write College, religious complexity of Indian society. A justification for the coexistence of an ideal of unity with a pluralistic reality is think Anne’s found in the Rigveda, where it is written that although God is write and essay One the sages give him many names. Buddhism also finds room for exuberant mythology as well as for the plainer truths of argumentative essay American sacred doctrine. Buddhism embraces not only the teachings of the Buddha about the pursuit of the path to Enlightenment and Nirvana but also the exotic mythical figures of Yamantaka, who wears a necklace of skulls, and the grossly fat god of wealth Jambhala.
Myth and the Arts. Oral traditions and written literature. Myths in ancient civilizations are known only by virtue of the fact that they became part of a written tradition. In the case of Greece, virtually all myths are literature in the form in which they have survived, the oldest source being the works ascribed to the Greek poets Homer and write, Hesiod (usually dated, in written form, to think Queen Anne’s the 8th century BC). Literary forms such as the epic have frequently served as vehicles for transmitting myths inasmuch as they present an authoritative account. The Homeric epics were both an example and an exploration of heroic values, and the poems became the basis of education in write and essay classical Greece. The great epics of India (Mahabharata and Ramayana) came to function as encyclopedias of knowledge and provided models for all human existence. In principle, the sort of relationship that exists between myth and literature exists also with respect to the other arts. In the case of architecture and sculpture, archaeological discoveries confirm the primacy of mythical representations. Among the earliest known three-dimensional objects built by man are prehistoric megalithic and sepulchral structures.
Mythological details cannot actually be discerned, but it is argument essay generally believed that such structures express mythological concerns and that mythical images dictated the shape. An especially intriguing example is the stone circle at write and essay College Stonehenge in southern England. Axes of this construction are aligned with significant risings and settings of the Sun and Moon, but the idea that the circle was built for a religious purpose must remain likely rather than certain. Grave monuments of rulers are among the most important remains of ancient civilizations such as the Edith Cowan, Egyptian pyramids; and the sepulchral structures of Chinese rulers since the and essay College, Chou Period, c. 1111-255 BC). There is worldwide evidence that in archaic cultures man considered the points of the compass to how to write Stenden of Applied have mythological affiliations (e.g., the and essay, West and death or the East and a new beginning). Mythological views even influenced building activity.
One architectural feature that can have mythological significance is the column. In a number of popular traditions the sky is journal article critique Harrow believed to be supported by one or more columns. The relatively strict separation between religious and civil architecture that modern man is perhaps inclined to take for granted has not existed in most cultures and periods and perhaps is not universal even in modern times. Even when art ceases to represent mythological matters outright, it is still usually far from representational. That art has ceased to represent mythology is write and essay Appleby College challenged by some theorists, who argue that what seems to be abandonment of mythological forms is really only a change in mythology. Essay Of Applied Sciences. The opposing arguments are analogous to the favorable or unfavorable attitudes toward myth that religions have developed. Myth is one of the principal roots of drama. And Essay Appleby. This is particularly obvious in to write persuasive International the earliest Western drama, the tragedies of classical Greece, not only because of the write, many mythological subjects treated and the plays' performance at literature essay Stenden of Applied Sciences the festival of College Dionysus but also because of the how to write literature Stenden University, playwrights' mythlike presentation of events and facts. An example of such presentation is the story pattern, notably the way retribution follows transgression.
Another feature of and essay Greek drama that is relevant to the subject of myth is the fact that the role of the a good argument Cowan University, chorus was taken by write Appleby a group of journal critique Harrow School ordinary citizens. In Greek tragedy the heroic past was presented and explored by a chorus of nonheroic individuals; hence the meaning of the write and essay, inherited myths was examined by a collectivity that can be seen as standing for the wider collectivity (more than 10,000 in number) that constituted the article Harrow, audience at the plays. In its songs the chorus frequently had recourse to expressions of a proverbial kind, using the distilled wisdom of the community to account for the strange and often disturbing events represented in the plays. The origins of drama are obscure, but Theodor Gaster, an American historian of religion, has suggested that in College the ancient eastern Mediterranean world the interrelationship of myth and ritual created drama. Elsewhere, dramatic presentations (as in Japanese No plays and the Javanese wayang) are similarly rooted in myth. Dance has been a medium for the expression of mythological themes throughout the world and in all periods for which there is evidence. Especially common are dances aimed at ensuring the continuity of fertility or the success of hunting, at International curing the and essay, sick, or at achieving shamanistic trance states. An aspect of the article review Edith Cowan, decay of ritual in the modern West is the write, tendency for dance to lose its close and direct connection with the life of the community. A further consequence is that the role of dance in embodying and exploring a community's myths has often been overlooked, and dance may have become further removed from myth than any other form of argument essay art in the Western world.
There are important and significant exceptions, however. Write College. One of the most notable is the work of the American choreographer Martha Graham, who frequently used mythical themes--often drawn from Greek antiquity--as the how to write essay Sciences, inspiration for her ballets. Myth and music are linked in many cultures and in various ways. For example, numerous stories ascribe the origins of music to a figure, usually divine, who lived in the mythical past. Thus, in ancient Greece the lyre was said to have been invented by Appleby the god Hermes, who handed it on to his brother Apollo as part of a bargain. Critical Queen Anne’s. From then on Apollo played the lyre at the banquets of the write, gods, while the Muses sang to his accompaniment. The Foundation Tone.
An ancient Chinese myth tells of the discovery of the foundation tone, which, in addition to being a musical note of specific pitch, also had political implications, since each dynasty was thought to have its own proper pitch. Tones are an indispensable part of Chinese literature, as characters in poetry and prose were chosen according to tones and rhymes for their euphony. How To Write Literature Of Applied Sciences. This use of language helps in reconstructing the pronunciation of Old Chinese and Middle Chinese, since the Chinese writing system is logographic. The foundation tone was produced when Ling Lun, the founder of Appleby College Chinese music and help with American University Preparatory School, a scholar, went to the western mountain area of China and cut a bamboo pipe in such a way that it produced the correct sound. Appleby. He is said to have traveled to a distant land and made a set of topics on ACS International School 12 flutes with bamboo. This set of flutes could produce 12 tones and became the basis of music. Throughout the world music is played at religious ceremonies to increase the efficacy and appeal of prayers, hymns, and invocations to divinities. The power of music to charm the gods is write Appleby movingly expressed in the Greek story of Orpheus. This mythical figure goes to the underworld to try to have his dead wife, Eurydice, restored to life. By means of how to literature Stenden University his lyre playing and singing he is able to win over even the god of death, so that Eurydice is allowed to leave the underworld.
The continuing potency of the myth (including its tragic conclusion--Orpheus is forbidden to look back at his wife but does so and thus loses her again) is shown by the fact that it has been retold in Europe by numerous composers of opera since the early 17th century. That a particularly close connection exists between myth and music has been argued by Appleby College Claude Levi-Strauss. In an analysis of the myths of certain South American Indians ( Myth and History. Myth and history represent alternative ways of looking at the past. Defining history is hardly easier than defining myth, but a historical approach necessarily involves both establishing a chronological framework for events and comparing and contrasting rival traditions in order to produce a coherent account. The latter process, in particular, requires the presence of writing in order that conflicting versions of the journal article critique Harrow, past may be recorded and write and essay College, evaluated.
Where writing is absent, or where literacy is University restricted, traditions embedded in myths through oral transmission may constitute the write and essay College, principal sources of authority for the past. Topics Persuasive On ACS Cobham School. Hence, myths may be cited when a situation in the present is materially affected by what version of the past is accepted. For instance, if a dispute arises among the Appleby, Iatmul of a good University Papua New Guinea over the rights of different clans to write and essay Appleby College possess land, the essay Edith Cowan, contending parties take part in oral contests involving the recitation of write College long lists of mythological names and other details from the myths. Since each clan's view of the mythic past has implications for the ownership of estates by persons living in the present, victory in these contests is Harrow School a matter of write College direct practical importance to the participants. Even in societies where literacy is widespread and where a considerable body of professional historians is at work, it may still be the case that a majority of the population form their views of the past on the basis of inherited mythlike traditions. Examples from the 20th century in Europe would be the polarized communities (Protestant and Roman Catholic) of Northern Ireland, or pro- and anti-Communist sympathizers in Greece.
In the former case, the two communities have different and irreconcilable pictures of the events related to write Stenden Sciences the partition of Ireland. In the latter case, the course of the civil war (after the end of World War II) is viewed quite differently by the two groups. These rival traditions may be described as mythlike because they are narratives with a strong validating function--the function of justifying current enmities and current loyalties--and they are believed with a quasi-religious faith against which objective historical testing is all but powerless. Finally, similarities to myths may be present even in the work of those who are justifiably described as historians. A clear instance of and essay Appleby this is the ancient Greek writer Herodotus, the article critique, so-called father of history.
He had the Appleby College, radically original idea of writing an account of the struggle between the Greek world and its barbarian neighbours during the Persian Wars, an account that combined and evaluated a range of disparate and often conflicting pieces of information. On these grounds he should certainly be described as a historian. Yet, his work is full of themes and story patterns that also occur in think Greek myths--for example, transgression against the gods leads to retribution; again, people who live at the margins of the Greek world are imagined as having customs that are the exact inverse of their Greek equivalents. In the work of Herodotus there is no incompatibility between myth and history; both historical events and College, the patterns into which such happenings are perceived as falling form part of his overall enterprise: namely, to conduct an critical School inquiry (the meaning of the write and essay College, Greek word historia) into the past. As with the persuasive essays International School, distinction between myth and science, then, that between myth and history is by no means a straightforward one. Cosmogony and creation myth are used as synonyms, yet properly speaking, cosmogony is a preferable term because it refers to the origin of the world in a neutral fashion, whereas creation myth implies a creator and something created, an implication unsuited to a number of myths that, for example, speak of the origin of the world as a growth or emanation, rather than an act. Even the term origin should be used with caution for cosmogonic events (as well as for other myths purporting to describe the beginning of things), because the origin of the world hardly ever seems the focal point of a mythological narrative--as a mythological narrative is not a matter of inquiry into the first cause of things.
Instead, cosmogonic myths are concerned with origins in the sense of the foundation or validity of the world as it is. Creation stories in and essay College both primitive and advanced cultures frequently speak of the act of creation as a fashioning of the earth out of raw material that was already present. In African cosmogonies, especially, the earth is preexistent. A creation out of nothing occurs as a theme much less frequently, for all that such creation myths are more satisfying to the philosophical mind. Philosophical questions, however, are less important in the justificatory systems set up by myth. Water, though important everywhere as a source of life and think critical Queen, image of endless potentiality, has a special role in Asia and write and essay College, North America, where the creator (often an how to write literature Stenden Sciences animal) is assisted by another figure, who dives for earth in the primordial ocean. The earth-diver helper sometimes develops into write Appleby, an opponent, or Satan-like character, in other areas--e.g., those touched by Zoroastrianism, an ancient Persian dualistic religion. Though hardly an explanation in the ordinary sense of the word, the theme accounts for the fact that evil is constitutive of the cosmos without holding the a good argument Edith Cowan University, creator responsible for it. Other widely diffused motifs are: the cosmogonic egg, found in the Pacific world, parts of Europe and southern Asia (e.g., in Hinduism); the write and essay Appleby College, world parents (usually in the image of sky and earth); and creation through sacrifice or through a primordial battle. Argument Essay Edith University. Creation through the word of the creator also occurs outside the Old Testament account (in Polynesia).
Cosmogony sets the pattern for everything else in most traditions; other myths are related to it or derived from it. Because man's inhabitable world, the cosmos, is the and essay College, crucial issue, no matter how various the contents may be and help American University, how different from one period to another, cosmogony probably is the clearest expression of man's basic mythological propensity. All cosmogonic accounts have certain formal features in common. They speak of irreconcilable opposites (e.g., heaven and earth, darkness and light) and, at the same time, of events or things totally outside the common range of perception and reason (e.g., a time in write which heaven and earth were not yet separated and darkness and light intermingled). In other words, the basic ingredients of man's world and orientation are presupposed yet are realized, constituted, or brought about anew in the narration. The narrative can arrive at such a reconstitution only by transcending the on ACS Cobham, limits of ordinary perception and College, reason. The origin of man is usually linked immediately to article Edith Cowan University the cosmogony. Man, for instance, is placed on write and essay the earth by God, or in some other way his origin is from heaven. Nevertheless, it is only in mythologies influenced by philosophical reflections that the how to write of Applied Sciences, place of man becomes the conspicuous centre of the cosmogony (e.g., Pythagoreanism, a Greek mystical philosophical system; Orphism, a Greek mystical religious movement; Gnosticism, a Christian dualistic and esoteric movement; and Tantrism, a Hindu and Buddhist esoteric meditation system).
Man is sometimes said to have ascended from the depths of the earth (as with the and essay Appleby College, Zuni, an American Indian people) or from review essay Edith a certain rock or tree of cultic significance. These images are often related to write and essay Appleby the idea of a realm of ancestors as the origin of newborn children. Man is also said to be fashioned from the dust of the ground (as in Genesis) or from essays International School a mixture of clay and blood (as in the Babylonian creation myth). In all cases, however, man has a particular place (because of write Appleby his duties to the gods, because of his limitations, or even because of his gifts), even though--especially in Queen many hunters' civilizations (e.g., the African San peoples and many North American Indian tribes)--the harmony of man and other forms of nature is emphasized. In most cosmogonic traditions the final or culminating act is the creation of man. Write And Essay Appleby. The condition of the cosmos prior to man's arrival is viewed as separate and distinct from the alterations that result from the beginning of the human cultural world. Creation is thus seen as a process of periods or stages, frequently in a three-stage model. The first stage consists of the world of with argumentative American University School gods or primordial beings; the second stage is the world of the ancestors of man; and the third stage is the world of write College man. The three stages are sometimes seen as interrelated; for example, the gods may be the creators of man or the ancestors of man, or ancestors may undergo a transformation to become men. Among innumerable tales of help with argumentative essay American Preparatory origin, one of the write Appleby College, most common types is critique Harrow related to the origins of institutions.
Certain initiation ceremonies or ritual acts are said to have originated in the beginning, in mythical times, this primeval moment of inception constituting their validity. Myths of Eschatology and Destruction. Myths of eschatology deal with the Appleby College, end. How To Literature University. The end is conceived of as the opposite of the cosmogony; it means first and foremost the origin of death but also, in a wider sense, the end of the world. Special forms of eschatology are prevalent in messianism (belief in a future salvation figure) and and essay College, millenarianism (belief in a 1,000-year reign of the elect). Myths about the origin of death, for which an added explanation has to write Stenden University of Applied be found in write Appleby the sense that death is not seen as automatically the end of life, are probably as widely diffused as creation stories. One of the most common types of such myths speaks of a primordial time in essay Edith Cowan which death did not exist and explains that it arose as the result of an error, as a punishment, or simply because the creator decided the earth would get too crowded otherwise. One example of a myth about the origin of death may be regarded as characteristic; it occurs, with variations, in many parts of the College, world. Among the Zulus the story is told that the supreme being Unkulunkulu. Unkulunkulu was the write of Applied Sciences, creator god of the Zulu. Unkulunkulu was believed to have grown on a reed in the mythical swamp of Uthlanga.
In the Zulu language, the name means ancestor. The god is in write Appleby College fact a genderless deity, though Biblical translations of the review essay Edith Cowan, god on the part of Christian missionaries to Southern Africa incorrectly label Unkulunkulu as specifically male. Unkulunkulu instructed the chameleon to take a message to mankind, saying that they would be immortal. But the chameleon moved slowly, since he stopped to write and essay have something to essays Cobham School eat (or, according to write and essay Appleby a variant, basked in the sun and fell asleep). In due course the how to write University, supreme being changed his mind and sent a lizard to men, telling them that they would die. The lizard arrived and delivered his message. When the chameleon eventually arrived, his message conflicted with what mankind had already been told by the lizard.
The chameleon was not believed, and men were mortal from then on. Expectations of a cataclysmic end of the world are also expressed by myths. A universal conflagration with a final battle and defeat of the gods is part of Germanic mythology and has parallels in other examples of and essay Appleby Indo-European eschatological imagery. In many primitive religions specific expectations about the end of the world do occur, but until recently they have not received much scholarly attention. An example of such a belief about the end of the world is topics persuasive on ACS Cobham International found among the Pawnee Indians. In their view, there will come a time when everything will disappear and the star of death will govern the world. The Moon will turn red, the write Appleby, Sun will be extinguished, and men will be turned into stars flying along the journal article critique Harrow School, route to heaven now taken by the dead. Messianic and write Appleby, Millenarian Myths. The hope of a new world surges up from time to time in a good argument essay Cowan University many civilizations. Many such religious movements flourished in write and essay College the 20th century in Melanesia, Africa, South America, and essay American University Preparatory School, Siberia.
Christian elements are usually detectable, but the basic element in virtually all cases is indigenous. These cults and movements centre on prophetic leaders, often emphasize the return of the write Appleby, dead at the renewal to come, and are convinced of a catastrophic end of the present world. In many cases, the culture hero is expected to return and article critique, lead believers in battle against write, the evil forces. Argument Essay Edith Cowan University. In the history of write Appleby College Judaism and Christianity, as in many primitive millenarian and article critique Harrow School, messianic movements, there is an Appleby expectation of review University a new heaven and a new earth. Myths of Culture Heroes and Esoteriological Myths.
A great many nonliterate traditions have myths about a culture hero most notably one who brings new techniques or technology to mankind--e.g., Prometheus, who supplies fire to mankind in write College Greek Mythology. A culture hero is generally not the person responsible for the creation but the one who completes the world and makes it fit for human life; in short, he creates culture. Another example of a culture hero is Maui in Polynesia, who brought islands to the surface from the bottom of the sea, captured and harnessed the Sun, lifted the sky to allow man more room, and, like Prometheus, gave fire to mankind. The bringer of culture is often also the bringer of health. Article Critique. Thus, the and essay Appleby, culture hero of the Woodlands and Plains Indians in North America is at the same time related to the foundation of the medicine society linked to to write persuasive essays School Shamanism. A comparable figure occurs in many traditions of classical antiquity or the Mediterranean basin generally as the good son--e.g., Horus, the son of the god Osiris in Egypt, or the figure of the king in the Psalms. Health and (spiritual) salvation are synonymous, and write and essay Appleby College, this is implied in the Greek word soter, which can mean both savior and think Queen Anne’s School, preserver from write ill health. Related to soteriological myths in many cases is the article critique Harrow, hope for a final and total salvation in write and essay which the good powers will triumph, such as through Saoshyant, the savior in Zoroastrianism.
In fact, Zoroastrianism shared with the Judeo-Christian tradition the notion of write University Sciences a Last Judgment followed by the ultimate salvation of the world. According to Zoroastrian belief, as the end approached heroes from the past would come to life and help in the struggle of good against evil. Saviors, the Saoshyants, would work toward the triumph of virtue and the spreading of heavenly light over all creation. Myths of Time and Eternity. The apparent regularity of the write and essay Appleby College, heavenly bodies long impressed every society. The sky was seized as the very image of transcendence, and argument Edith, what seemed to be the orderly course of Appleby Sun, Moon, and stars suggested a time that transcended man's eternity. Many myths and mythological images concern themselves with the literature essay, relationship between eternity and College, time on earth. The number four for the number of world ages figures most frequently. The Zoroastrians of ancient Persia knew of a complete world age of 12,000 years, divided into four periods of 3,000 each, at the end of which Ormazd (Wise Lord) would conquer Ahriman (Destructive Spirit). Similarly, the Book of Daniel (in the Old Testament) mentions four kingdoms--of gold, silver, bronze, and article University, a mixture of iron and clay, respectively--after which God will establish an everlasting kingdom. The notion of four world ages, sometimes associated with metals, occurs also in the works of and essay classical writers and in later speculative writings on human history.
Judaism developed the view of a 1,000-year period between the essay Stenden University Sciences, four world ages and write and essay Appleby, the everlasting kingdom (hence the article essay Edith Cowan University, words millennium and millenarian). Although other numbers occur (three, six, seven, 12, and 72), four is dominant. In ancient Mexico this world was held to be preceded by four other worlds. India, in both Hindu and Buddhist texts, has developed the most complex system of world ages and and essay, worlds that arise and come to an end. Journal Article School. Here, too, the number four is important--e.g., the four ages (yugas) of decreasing length and write and essay, increasing evil. Many writings, often with large numbers, reflect exact astronomical observations and calculations. Some mythologies--e.g., those of the Mayan in Central America--have developed sophisticated views interrelating time and space. Mythological accounts of repetitions of worlds after their destruction occur not only in India but also elsewhere, such as in Orphism and in the Stoic philosophy that flourished in classical antiquity.
Myths of Providence and Destiny. In attitudes to the idea of a link between human activity and the stars, the most familiar example of which is critique School probably astrology, there is a broad range of write and essay Appleby College mythical motifs between astrological calculations (in the sense of an attempt at an intellectualized account of what is happening) and devotional self-surrender. There are many occasions at which a man may be filled with doubt about his own fate or the journal critique, fate of College his community. In some myths divine supremacy is marked by a god's mastery over article Cowan University fate. Marduk, the patron god of Babylon, acquires the tablets of fate in Appleby College his primordial battle preceding the creation. There is no doubt about Zeus' supremacy in the Greek poet Hesiod's genealogical account of the gods, yet in the works of Homer, Zeus is powerless to defy fate and save the life of a good argument Edith his son Sarpedon. Mythological views of providence, destiny, or fate are given precise shades of meaning dominant views in a tradition concerning justice and divine law, the philosophical problem of determinism, the theological problems of theodicy (justification of a good god with observable facts of evil), and predestination. An important difference in mythological accounts of providence exists between those traditions that speak of the creation of the world as a result of God's will (as in Judaism, Christianity, and write Appleby College, Islam) and those that attribute worldly phenomena to causation by a lesser being (as Buddhism does).
Myths of how to write University of Applied High Beings and Celestial Gods. Supreme celestial deities occur in many mythologies, with various qualities and attributes, in many shapes, and with great diversity in cultic significance. A cardinal distinction exists between the write and essay Appleby, supreme being in many archaic or polytheistic traditions and the God of the great monotheistic systems (Judaism, Christianity, and Islam). Even though certain qualities seem alike in many cases (e.g., transcendence, omniscience), the literature essay Stenden University of Applied, God of the Appleby College, latter arose historically in a reaction to polytheistic views and practices and demonstrates his supremacy accordingly, whereas the more archaic types of supreme beings nowhere show that aggressive aspect in their mythologies. The exalted status of archaic supreme beings and celestial gods does not necessarily involve exclusion of other supreme beings. Outstanding examples are Vishnu, Shiva, and the great goddess in Hindu literature, who are each described as supreme yet do not reduce the reality of the others. How To Essay Stenden Of Applied. Supremacy is and essay not as unambiguous and a good argument essay Cowan, general a term as it seems, and in Hinduism it refers first and foremost to the perfection (i.e., the and essay Appleby, idea that a deity is supremely perfect) of a deity in himself. The sky seen as a sacred entity is an topics to write persuasive on ACS International all but universal belief. It is often related to or identical with the highest divinity.
Nevertheless, supreme beings are always more than what can be explained from celestial phenomena alone, for they are often called creators of the write Appleby College, world, founders of the order of the critical Queen School, world, and protectors of law; and they are praised for their eternity and write and essay, goodness. Often, the supreme being that created the world does not--or has ceased to--receive attention in critical Queen Anne’s the cult, although he may still be invoked in moments of great crisis. In a good many ancient agricultural societies, the idea of and essay a great goddess prevailed instead of Harrow a male creator-god. The great goddess (as in the ancient Middle East and India) is venerated principally because of her omnipotence, especially her power over life. The sky god-creator sometimes cedes to a divinity who is also related to the sky but apparently is experienced more concretely because of his activity. Such a divinity (especially in pastoral cultures) can be a god of write and essay College atmospheric phenomena (storm, rain, thunder, or lightning), whose power for the good of the people is extolled.
In spite of his power, however, he is one of argumentative American University Preparatory School several gods, and in some cases (Yahweh in ancient Israel and Allah in Islam) one such god retains the write and essay Appleby College, full creative function of journal article School early creator gods, and in him all true divinity is concentrated. In addition, a divinity related to write Appleby the Sun rather than the heavens can assume preeminence; this has happened in some ancient imperial traditions (e.g., Egypt, Inca Empire). Among sky gods who remained important in the mythologies of ancient civilizations are Zeus in Greece, Jupiter in Rome, and T'ien in China. Myths Concerning Founders of Religions and Other Religious Figures. Although the founders of great religions (Confucius, Zoroaster, the Buddha, Moses, Jesus, Mani, Muhammad) are generally conceded to have had actual existence, information about them is couched in legendary terms that have many mythological features. The same is true of many other religious figures (prophets, saints, or gurus [Hindu spiritual teachers]). Those traditions that have preserved the memory of essay University their founders have, as a rule, carefully emphasized the elements that function most mythologically, in the sense that they state categorically realities that could not be known in any ordinary fashion or that raise the founder above ordinary historical conditions. Examples are the account of Jesus' prayer in and essay College Gethsemane, which no one heard according to the text itself, his statement that he was before Abraham, and his prophecies.
Buddhist texts state that the Buddha not merely surpassed all yogis in article School knowledge of previous existences but, in fact, had conquered time. Well known too are his predictions concerning the course and decline of write Appleby Buddhism and (in Mahayana texts) his promises as to critical Queen Anne’s School the future spiritual attainments of the bodhisattvas. Other examples are Muhammad's eschatological teachings in and essay College the Qur'an and those of Zoroaster. Myths of Kings and persuasive essays Cobham International, Ascetics. Genuine myths concerning kings are found only in traditions that know a form of sacred kingship. Temple records from ancient Babylon mention offerings to kings who were considered divine. Hymns addressed to them make references to the king's union with a goddess--i.e., the mythological motif of the sacred marriage.
One of the epithets for the king in and essay ancient Egypt was endowed with life or imparting life. The twofold meaning of the epithet is significant and journal article Harrow School, can serve to write and essay make the mythology of sacred kingship understandable in Queen other places as well, because the write and essay Appleby, function of the king is in fact double. He mediates between the divine world and the world of man, representing each to the other. Hence, in Egypt a sacrifice by an individual was understood as offered to the king and at the same time by the king. The king's role of mediator and protector brings royal mythologies close to myths of culture heroes. Solemn procedures in which kings become divinities occur relatively late in history. An early and most conspicuous case of such an apotheosis (becoming divine) is that of Alexander the how to literature Sciences, Great, who was called a god in his lifetime. Later, apotheosis took place for Roman emperors, although there are no cases of an emperor being accorded divine honours in his lifetime. A great many legends have accumulated around the and essay College, figures of kings (e.g., around King Asoka of India and King Arthur in Britain). Stories about the Holy Roman emperor Frederick I Barbarossa and Charlemagne have a somewhat eschatological mythical flavor, because they are said to with argumentative University Preparatory School dwell each in his mountain (in the KyffhSuser and the Untersberg, respectively) until they appear again to act as saviours in a crisis.
Most narratives about great ascetics, as well as other saints, could be regarded as legends rather than myths. College. There are, however, instances of how to write Stenden University of Applied Sciences saints or ascetics who are presented as a more than worldly model, so that a case can be made for the mythological function of their legends (e.g., al-Hallaj in Islam and St. Francis in Christianity). In the case of traditions that have asceticism as an integral part, certain figures and the legends around them do indeed function as exemplars. Myths of Transformation. Countless stories exist concerning the origin of Appleby College peculiar rocks, properties of animals, plants, stars, or other features in the world. A Good Argument Essay Edith. In addition to such etiologic tales there are several myths that speak of cosmic changes brought about at the end of write Appleby primordial times. An altogether different and extensive mythology exists concerning initiation rites and other rites of passage that involve transformation of man's being. Cosmic transformation may concern an original world, without proper human means of existence and without death, that was transformed through a certain event (e.g., the death of help with argumentative University Preparatory School Hainuwele, a type of primal being known as a dema, or ancestral, deity) into the world known to and essay College mankind, a truly inhabitable world with vegetation, animals, and help argumentative essay Preparatory, other features that had not existed before. On a wider scale are myths that could be appendages to write and essay Appleby College cosmogonic myths but that have not turned into mere etiologies.
Many myths akin to the type of the dema deity like Hainuwele, The Coconut Girl and to the culture-hero type - like Prometheus - account for events, such as the invention of agriculture, domestication of animals, and the use of write literature Stenden University fire that have transformed the world for the benefit of man. Many others are just as closely related to write and essay Appleby cosmogonic accounts but tell of setbacks in primordial times. In agricultural societies, for example, myths have been collected that ascribe the unevenness of review essay University land or the formation of mountains to an ancient mishap or evil force. In rites of passage (e.g., rites accompanying birth, attainment of maturity, marriage, death) the contents of myths are acted out. In each case the intention behind the rites is that man's mode of being be affected, indeed transformed. Through the birth ceremony the child becomes a person, and through initiation an adolescent becomes an adult, a member of a sodality, or a warrior.
There is and essay College a great variety of topics to write essays on ACS Cobham International customs in different communities and traditions, but everywhere these rites dramatize graphically the cosmic processes and realities expressed in language in myths. In many traditions the myths of the community are conveyed to the novice at the time of his initiation. Even in the major world religions rites of passage are still performed, as evidenced in such ceremonies as circumcision, Baptism, weddings, and mortuary rites. In all instances, the rites derive their meaning from the core of the tradition, and for that reason man's existence is regarded as transformed. In some cases the transformation derived from the write Appleby, dominant myth is far-reaching. The initiated shaman is article Cowan University able to transcend the ordinary human condition and overcome dangers that would cause the and essay, death of a noninitiate. Through his initiation he is believed to essay Stenden of Applied have gone through death and thus conquered it. In certain Hermetic (an occult magical tradition) and Gnostic texts the certainty of attaining divine being is clearly expressed.
Myth in Modern Society. Secularization of Myth and Mythology. Deciding the extent to which there has actually been any secularization of myth involves a problem of definition. If myth is seen as the product of a past era, it is difficult to determine at write College what actual moment that era ended. Thus, it is virtually impossible to state precisely when a certain mythical theme becomes a mere literary theme or to determine in general when myths are no longer being created. It is more fruitful to recognize that symbols, myths, and rituals are all subject to change over time.
Nor is article Harrow School secularization an irreversible process. It is instead a process that takes place time and again. Write. Secularization movements and movements toward mythification of a phenomenon, narrative, or idea are aspects of the same historical processes. There have also been many types of secularization; the one brought about in Western society since the Middle Ages is help argumentative essay Preparatory only a single example. Another instance was the development in archaic and classical Greece (sometimes referred to--with great oversimplification--as a movement from myth to reason) whereby fundamental questions about the nature of the universe came increasingly to receive answers in terms of write and essay College philosophical, as opposed to mythical, reasoning. On the other hand, although the secularization of modern times is literature University of Applied not a unique phenomenon, it is a new and complex type, to which many factors have contributed.
Scientific, particularly astronomical, discoveries of the late medieval and Renaissance periods were accompanied by a new trust in cosmic laws and an increasingly abstract notion of and essay Appleby God. More or less Euhemeristic historical accounts that were common in the Middle Ages and were a symptom of a certain secularization process themselves gave way to literature essay University Sciences history writing, focusing on Appleby College psychological, social, and economic facts. In philosophy, naturalism of various sorts opposed notions of transcendence that earlier systems had taken for granted. The most common tendency in modern society has been to regard the characters and events in mythical accounts as not real or as by-products of realities that are not transcendent but rather immanent. This secularization in modern society, like earlier secularization processes, is essay Cowan University accompanied by a process whereby new myths are formed (see below Political and social uses of and essay Appleby College myth). Demythologization of major religious traditions. Demythologization should be distinguished from secularization. A Good Argument Essay Edith. Every living mythology must come to terms with the world in which it is transmitted and to that extent inevitably goes through processes of secularization. Demythologization, however, refers to write and essay College the conscious efforts people make to how to essay Stenden University of Applied Sciences purify a religious tradition of its mythological elements. The term demythologization (Entmytho-logisierung) was coined by Rudolf Bultmann, a German theologian and New Testament scholar. In the strict sense of the write and essay, word, demythologizing efforts have been limited to theological discussions in 20th-century Christianity.
Even after secularization has taken place a certain mythological residue may persist. Edward B. Tylor, one of the founders of argumentative essay University Preparatory anthropology as an academic discipline in the 19th century, coined the use of the word survival for write Appleby, customs and beliefs that continued to be adhered to long after the context in which they had had their meaning had ceased to exist. Because such customs and review essay Edith University, beliefs may be regarded as mere superstitions, the word survival usually has a slightly derogatory overtone. There are many survivals of myth in this sense. The myth of the noble savage, well-known from the write College, 18th-century writer Jean-Jacques Rousseau, can be understood as a survival of a paradisiacal mythology: Western man expecting to find evidence of paradise on earth. The secularization process in modern times has affected symbolic behavior (cult, ritual, liturgy) and symbolic objects (sacred places) more than myth, however. Nevertheless, commonly accepted forms of mythology in modern society do not permeate all parts of society or fulfill all needs. (In all likelihood, no society has ever been perfectly homogeneous in its myths.) At the same time there exist profound mythological needs in modern society, and some are filled by myths borrowed from submerged or alien traditions.
Modern society's neglect of cosmic symbolism (which in contrast was widespread in archaic tradition) has provoked certain reactions, such as the continuing interest in astrology, which may even be seen as an attempt to present a coherent account of the cosmos. Help With Argumentative Essay American. And the huge scientific advances of the 20th century have given rise to a literature, science fiction, that resembles myth, even down to an eschatological element. Political and Social Uses of Myth. In the industrialized Western society of the 20th century, myths and write and essay, related types of article essay Cowan tales continue to be told. Urban folklorists collect stories that have much in common with the tales collected by the Grimm brothers, except that in the modern narratives the lone traveler is likely to be threatened, not by a werewolf, but by a phantom hitchhiker, and write and essay College, the location of his danger may be a freeway rather than a forest. Computer games use sophisticated technology to represent quests involving dragons to be slain and princesses to be saved and married. The myth of Superman, the superhuman hero who saves the world and preserves the American way, is a notable image embodying modern Americans' confidence in the moral values that their culture espouses. Not dissimilar are myths about the early pioneers in the American Wild West, as retold in countless motion pictures. Such stories often reinforce stereotypical attitudes about the moral superiority of the settlers to the native Indians, although sometimes such attitudes are called into question in think critical Anne’s other movies that attempt to demythologize the Wild West.
A particular illustration of the power that myths continue to exert was provided as late as the 1940s by the belief in the existence of an Aryan racial group, separate from and superior to the Semitic group. This myth was based in College part on the assumption that peoples whose languages are related are also related racially. The fact that this assumption is critical Anne’s School spurious did not prevent the Aryan myth from gaining wide acceptance in Europe from the 18th century onward, and it was eventually to provide a supposed intellectual justification for the persecution of the Semitic Jews by their Aryan Germanic superiors during the period of Nazi domination. This episode suggests that, in politics, a myth will take hold if it serves the interests and focuses the write and essay College, aspirations of persuasive School a particular group; the truth or falsity of the myth is irrelevant. In a sense, of course, this function is merely an extension of its more general role in religion, where a myth, as well as addressing questions such as a society's place in the cosmos, may serve to justify a particular kind of governmental organization. Although politics is often regarded as having taken over the role once played by religion or myth in write College Western society, the help essay Preparatory School, situation is more complex than such a generalization would imply. Just as myth has always had a strong social and write and essay, political element, so political movements and theories have mythical dimensions. For instance, a mythological component has always been important in critical Queen Anne’s School keeping political units together, from villages to nations. Recently, however, this mythical dimension has gained prominence with the rise of competing myth-like ideologies such as capitalism and communism; the word ideology might indeed be replaced, in and essay Appleby much contemporary discussion about politics, by the term mythology.
Finally, crucial terms in modern sociopolitical discussion, such as freedom and equality, although they have a long and complex philosophical history, are often posited in a good argument essay University a manner analogous to the function of myth presenting its own authority.
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Rules are one thing, but trends are another. After a period that could almost be described as “anything goes” in terms of resume length, the pendulum in this Twitter-inspired, short-attention-span age has swung back toward shorter resumes. “The norm for most resumes/CVs is one to two pages, even for very experienced professionals,” says the and essay Findings of Stenden of Applied Sciences 2011 Global Career Brainstorming Day: Trends for the Now, the New the Next in Careers , published by the Career Thought Leaders Consortium. The publication went on to note that a survey of HR/recruiters on LinkedIn indicated an overwhelming preference for a second page. Even against write Appleby within this climate of shorter resumes, each individual situation dictates resume length. After surveying career experts, we developed some guidelines to help you determine the right length for your resume. It should be noted that length is help University Preparatory School, primarily an issue that pertains to the traditional, formatted, “print” version of your resume. For resumes in electronic formats that are intended to be placed directly in keyword-searchable databases, page-length is immaterial. “The length of your resume doesn’t matter to an applicant tracking system,” affirms Jon Ciampi, CEO of Preptel, a company that aims to and essay Appleby College help job-seekers penetrate these systems (as quoted in an article on Harrow School, CIO.com by Meridith Levinson). “It will scan your resume regardless of whether it’s two pages or four. And Essay Appleby? Submitting a longer (say three or four page) resume that allows you to pack in more relevant experience and keywords and phrases could increase your chances of ranking higher in how to write essay University of Applied Sciences the system,” Ciampi says in Levinson’s article. Thus, this article’s guidelines apply either in situations where your formatted resume is screened by human eyes without having been placed into a keyword-searchable database or after a keyword search has narrowed the write Appleby field of applicants. Resumes for new grads and entry-level job-seekers are often, but not always, one page.
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Others question executives’ ability to prioritize if their resumes are longer than two pages. Since recruiters pass candidate resumes on to client employers, they must also consider employer preferences. Journal Article Critique School? “Most of my clients profess that they are too busy to College read anything lengthier — thus, I deliver what they require,” said Chris Dutton, director at Intelligent Recruitment Services and persuasive essays on ACS, Owner, Intelligent IT Recruitment, Manchester, UK. Recruiter opinions about resume length have been colored in recent years by write and essay Appleby the growing practice of reading resumes on a computer screen rather than printing them. Journal Article School? Resumes that might seem too long in write print are acceptable on screen. For many decision-makers, page length is less important than providing sufficient details. “I … encounter quite a few resumes that have been stripped of any detail in order to confine them to one or two pages,” said Pam Sisson, a recruiter for Professional Personnel in Alabama. “My immediate response is to argument essay Edith Cowan ask for a more detailed resume. A resume that’s three or four pages but actually shows the qualifications and experience necessary for a position is much preferred, in my opinion, to one that has cut out all the substance to meet some passe idea of write and essay College a one-page resume.” John Kennedy, senior IT recruiter at Belcan agreed: “Resume length is of very little importance so long as the information is accurate, verifiable, and pertinent to the position.
If a candidate has 20 years of experience directly relating to the position being applied for journal Harrow and that experience is verifiable, it should be listed even if the resume goes four-plus pages.” Given that employers screen resumes for as few as 6 seconds, a resume must quickly capture the reader’s interest. “As long as the resume grabs the attention of the hiring manager, it is the right length,” says McCown-Guard. “Whatever the length of the resume, the critical factor is to make absolutely certain that your reader’s interest is piqued within the first half of the first page,” cautions Laurie J. Smith, president of and essay Appleby College Creative Keystrokes Executive Resume Service. “Of equal or greater importance [to length] is concise writing, short paragraphs, brief lists of bullet points, and good organizational strategies that ensure the resume can be quickly skimmed,” notes the Findings of 2011 Global Career Brainstorming Day: Trends for the Now, the New the Next in journal article School Careers . “In addition, it is essential to and essay use strong merchandising and positioning strategies to bring the most relevant information to the forefront. Creating a strong impact “above the fold” — on the top half of the first page of the resume — has become increasingly critical for job seekers in article essay Edith Cowan one of the most competitive employment markets we’ve ever experienced.” Whatever page your resume ends on, text should fill at least a third to a half of the write page.
If the last page of your resume amounts to just a few lines of text, it’s best to condense so that the preceding page becomes the last page of your resume. How To University Of Applied Sciences? Conversely, don’t add superfluous text just to fill up the last page of your resume. “I never fluff up content for the sake of filling space,” says Teena Rose of Resume to Appleby Referral. “Irrelevancies can dilute the overall effectiveness of the resume.” The end of essay your resume, Rose notes, “should offer additional value and not be perceived as leftovers.” Don’t sacrifice your resume’s readability to make it conform to arbitrary “rules” about resume length. It’s always pitiful when we have to whip out the magnifying class to read the tiny 8- or 9-point type on the resume of a job-seeker who has gone to write College absurd lengths to limit his or her resume to a certain number of pages. Don’t forego readable type (we suggest no smaller than 10.5 point; 11 to 11.5 is better), comfortable margins (some resume writers say 1 inch all around; we’ve gone as small as .7?), space between lines, white space, and how to write literature University of Applied, a pleasing, eye-attracting layout just to cram your resume onto X number of pages. “It’s less taxing and write and essay Appleby, time-consuming to read one and argumentative, a half or two well-formatted pages than one page where everything’s squished together,” observes one expert. “Those resumes that do contain detailed information, but are literally ‘crammed’ into one page, are now frowned upon,” says Cooper in his Resume Critique Writer software. “It is simply too difficult for a hiring director to read the tiny print and and essay, jam-packed information squeezed into a one-page stuffed resume.
Companies that once insisted on one-page resumes are perfectly happy with a clearly-written, concise, and well-formatted two-page resume that is easy to read, yet has the detailed information they now need.” Page numbers, headers, and footers can aid continuity in a resume that is two or more pages. All resume pages beyond page one need to be numbered. Critique School? Some job-seekers choose a “page 2 of 3” model. “If you decide to go with two or more pages, be sure to include your name and College, appropriate page number at the top,” suggests Ann Baehr of Best Resumes. Review University? “And organize all of the information with distinct categories to make it easier for the reader to write and essay Appleby College find what they are looking for at a glance.” Including your name close to the page number is highly desirable in case resume pages get separated from write literature Stenden each other. However, repeating your entire “letterhead” from the first page of your resume on subsequent pages can be confusing and take up too much space. Career-management coach Don Orlando takes a novel approach to a footer designed to entice the employer to keep reading the write and essay Appleby College resume: “At the bottom of my multi-page resumes, there is a [customized] footer that reads something like this: ‘More indicators of review essay Cowan University performance General Motors can use now…'” It’s OK for write and essay College a resume section, such as your experience, to straddle two pages of your resume, but avoid splitting the description of a given job over two pages. Help American University? Finish describing a job on one page, and begin detailing the next-oldest job on write and essay College, the following page. Final Thoughts on Job-Seeker Resume Length.
One more guideline to consider is that one-page resumes are typically expected for School networking and at job fairs. If you’re still torn about write and essay how long to make your resume, consider contacting a qualified resume writer for an expert consultation. Questions about some of the terminology used in this article? Get more information (definitions and links) on key college, career, and topics on ACS International School, job-search terms by going to our Job-Seeker’s Glossary of Job-Hunting Terms. Katharine Hansen, Ph.D., creative director and and essay, associate publisher of Quintessential Careers, is an educator, author, and blogger who provides content for how to Stenden Sciences Quintessential Careers, edits QuintZine , an electronic newsletter for jobseekers, and blogs about storytelling in the job search at A Storied Career . Write And Essay? Katharine, who ea ned her PhD in organizational behavior from journal article critique Union Institute University, Cincinnati, OH, is author of Dyn mic Cover Letters for New Graduates and A Foot in t e Door: N tworking Your Way into the Hidden Job Market (both published by Ten Speed Press), as well as Top Notch Executive Resumes (Career Press); and with Randall S. Hansen, Ph.D., Dynamic Cover Letters , Write Your Way to a Higher GPA (Ten Speed), and The Complete Idiot’s Guide to Study Skills (Alpha). Visit her personal Website or reach her by e-mail at write kathy(at)quintcareers.com.
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And that goes for anyone else reaching to write and essay perform at a high level. Don’t expect to ever improve if all you do is journal critique School asking me how I do it? Follow my tips here and START doing it. The more your practice writing the easier it will become to you. Write Appleby College! Back in the days it took me 2-5 days to write, edit and have my articles approved on EzineArticles.
These past weeks when I decided to start submitting articles there again, I had my article written, proof-read and approved under an how to write University hour – each time I posted. What did the trick? Practice. That’s all! I have way more practice than when I started submitted articles there 7 years ago. Write And Essay College! Now this one might be tough for some, but there is no doubt that if you don’t have or can’t develop a love for writing it’s going to Edith make it much harder for you. I have an asset, I love writing. Write And Essay! I’ve always been in love with words, as much as I’ve always had an aversion for numbers. It’s that same love for persuasive essays Cobham School words that made study Drama, and and essay Appleby learn languages with ease. I love words in any language, because they sounds like music to me.
But that’s just me, you don’t have to love words that much to become a good writer. You can learn to love it , or at least, learn to love it more than you do now. You can try to write literature essay University develop such asset. Write And Essay! A good way to start developing love for article Edith University writing is reading. Try to write read as much as you can. Argument University! It doesn’t really matter what you read, as long as it’s good writing and and essay Appleby College pleasant to read. Try to examine how much fun the writer had to a good argument Cowan University write this. Try to find out if there are some interviews of and essay, them speaking about article review essay Edith Cowan, their writing. In other words, try to write and essay Appleby associate with writers as much as you can through their writing and experiences. There you have it. All the ingredients that I put in my writing recipe.
Do you think you could develop those further to help YOUR writing going? Please, leave your thoughts and comments down below. I hope you enjoyed this post, and will start applying those tips now. Please, let me know what you think and add your thoughts down below in the comments. If you found this information valuable and would like to share it, you should add the RSS feed of this blog to the social media sharing platform of your choice. The feed is http://www.sylvianenuccio.com/feed/ Don’t forget to add “ via @SylvianeNuccio ” to tweet, so I can thank you. Sylviane Nuccio is a professional Writer/Content Strategist and a Success Coach. She is a regular contributor to help with American University Preparatory School Huffington Post, International Living and Chamber of Commerce.
She helps new entrepreneurs to become financially free. How to Write a Professional Academic Essay. Are Blog Posts Useless Self-Promoting Content? Why You’re Making A Huge Mistake If You’re Not Publishing On Linkedin. Wow! I can only imagine how much passion you have for writing. This is an awesome article and the way you blended these 5 most important success principles into this topic, is just fabulous! Another important ingredient I would like to add if I can, will be the attitude of persistence because temptations, distractions will come in your way. You#8217;ve got to be persistent in your efforts. I think that is a very important aspect which most people seem to write and essay Appleby College ignore and fade away eventually.
What do you think? Yes, indeed, persistence is critical School certainly a good point to add. Write! Without persistence I wouldn#8217;t be able to think Anne’s do this week in and week out. Thanks for adding this very important one, kumar. Thank your for write and essay College coming and for argumentative essay University Preparatory adding your thoughts here #128578; Once again#8230;Thank You Sylviane! I do get stuck a lot when writing. After reading this, I know I have to improve my mindset. I get so many ideas and have a notepad to jot them down on write Appleby College, so I can write about something.
I do love to write, always did since I was a kid, but when it comes to my blog, I think I have too many ideas. This brings me to to write persuasive essays on ACS Cobham #8220;planning#8221; Good tip here I have to and essay Appleby do! I noticed the picture you used of the appointment book. Write Literature Stenden Of Applied! I have one that I use for making appointments to talk to clients. Now, after reading this, I have to find a way to incorporate my writing #8220;plan#8221; in the same book so I don#8217;t get all confused. Does that make sense? I take you blog very seriously because you, as a professional writer, guide me.
Hey, that#8217;s why I come here#8230;to learn! Thanks so much. Appleby! I have to critical Anne’s work on Appleby, that mindset of mine! Donna Merrill invites you to read..EMDR Therapy. And I surely appreciate your comment here #128578; and feel over joyed that people actually learn from me. But that#8217;s what blogging is all about.
We all learn from article review Edith Cowan each other, I think. Yes, the picture of the planning section reminds the reader of making appointments with their writing. For me some days and times is #8220;writing time#8221; no matter what. College! I know I#8217;ve got to, because if I don#8217;t it means no article or no post. Not a good thing #128578; Maybe you just need to slow down on the ideas and organize them post by post, Donna. If you have any questions, just ask me #128578; Thanks for coming. Sylviane, thank you very much for these tips! I have recently started blogging but sometimes, I have no idea what to topics essays School write about!
Your post gave me some great ideas and not to mention, it helped me to be more organized when writing posts! Thanks again for the valuable tips! I#8217;m glad if I could help any. Nice to have you here and hope to see you again. 7000 words? Plus full time job? And, I thought I was busy.
You seem to have summarized everything, Sylviane #128578; I especially liked the College, parts about mindset and practice. On ACS School! Those two are real important. Always be in writing mode? I love that (I remember being in drawing mode. Recently, I began to write and essay Appleby College put some time into drawing, and ever since that I have been able to visualize the things around me imagining to School draw my surroundings with pencil). I have wanted to be in writing mode, but heck no.
I just have one excuse time (I suppose I do have time. Write And Essay Appleby College! Like the 3-4 hours I use for Edith Cowan University entertainment, particularly reading comics and watching cartoons? :D). I do love thinking though. That#8217;s my equivalent of write Appleby College, writing. I just think, think and think. Besides, I think I don#8217;t need to write 7000 words a week. I love writing, but I have a stronger passion for learning and experimenting. Anyways, thank you for a good argument essay Edith University sharing these amazing tips, Sylviane #128578; Appreciate it! You are funny!
If you have time for cartoons, I sure you can squeeze some writing into there. There#8217;s no doubt about that. Drawing is a great occupation, though, but it seem that you#8217;ve got some time on your hands, so, that#8217;s right no excuse for you #128578; Thank you for coming, Jeevan. Of course #128521; I am spending most of my free time on reading comics (I have read comics in the past just one or two issues. Right now, I am going back and reading the major issues.
I am a fan of Superhero fiction, and I watch Superhero movies. Then, why not read comics? :D). Write College! I also do spend time on learning languages and other things. I have to stay on top can#8217;t slack off, especially since I am not taking any classes this semester #128512; Really good tips I#8217;m like you I have a blog post just about think Queen Anne’s, every day plus a missive every day to my email list, plus articles that I write for extra cash it really adds up! There are many times I#8217;ve had a 5000 word day! If I#8217;m on a roll with a good subject, I can get a 500 word article done in write College, half an hour. But you#8217;re right mindset is the most important thing if you think that you can, you can! That#8217;s great. I can see that you are a writer all right, you write more than me #128578; Thanks for Harrow coming and sharing this with my readers. That#8217;s some really great advice Sylviane. My biggest struggle is write and essay Appleby College writing mode.
I have all the help argumentative essay University, other #8220;ingredients#8221;, but usually, I#8217;m doing a lot of write and essay, different things and I#8217;m multi-tasking. So, when it#8217;s time to think Queen Anne’s write, it takes time to get into the writing mode. I want to start the and essay College, very second I hit the keyboard, but I keep thinking about some other tasks and that#8217;s something I need to keep working on. Hi Jen and nice seeing you here. I guess it#8217;s a habit that you got to get. Being on writing more is really a habit, and article critique Harrow like any habit it can be worked at. Write Appleby! At first it will be an effort but the more your repeat something the more natural it becomes over time. Put some reminding notes around you to essay University Preparatory be thinking #8220;writing.#8221; Hope this help a little bit.
Thank you for coming #128578; Like you said in one of the lines: #8220;practice! practice!! practice. #8221; that is write College what makes you perfect in anything in life, then when you add your practice a little tutorials, then you emerge a great champion. Topics To Write Essays On ACS School! Thanks Sylviane. Yes, practice is write and essay Appleby everything, because what you don#8217;t practice tends to face or melt away. They is critical Queen Anne’s School no substituted for practice. You#8217;re welcome and thanks for coming here #128578; Thanks for sending me the link to this post. And Essay Appleby! I find that I have many ideas for posts, and many of them end up on my blog. My problem I guess is planning and how to literature essay Stenden University discipline. And Essay! I would say that about help with argumentative essay American School, half the write and essay College, time the post isn#8217;t written when I thought it should have been. I don#8217;t know if this is actual disappointment or a result of being too ambitious. I do know that when new listings come into the site, or when i am chasing down a potential sale with the client and buyer; that i often get behind on Anne’s School, my writing.
And a week or so ago I left to take part in a festival with my family. Appleby! There was rain, so I got my blog post done that week; but I have had difficulty getting back on a good University, schedule since coming home. And I find my problem isn#8217;t number of words. I am often criticized for writing long article or at least encouraged to make them shorter and use shorter sentences. I also find that i get better responses when i break my thoughts up with photos or links. And Essay College! What has been your experience with this? I do like ezign articles for the fact that they won#8217;t approve anything shorter than about 700 words. Argument Edith Cowan University! Thanks for the helpful post. Take care, Max. Just before I forget, EzineArticles accept articles of write and essay College, 400 words only, but I guess it#8217;s when you become a platinum writer. If you are at the basic level it might be 700 words now, back it the days it wasn#8217;t.
In other words, the more they trust you, the shorter articles they let you write. As I read your comment, I think that the help with essay American Preparatory School, reason you can#8217;t post on write Appleby College, time is article review essay Edith University because your blog post has not become a priority in your mind. If you don#8217;t make it a priority, this will happen time and time again, because life keeps us busy and distracted. If my blog posts were not a priority they wouldn#8217;t make it on time almost ever. I think that it#8217;s not so much the length of the post that matters as much as how it#8217;s written. If people complain about the length it could be because of the write College, way it#8217;s written. The basic recipe is short phrases, short paragraphs, use of examples and metaphors as much as possible, and images if it helps as well. By the way, I have a free writing tutorial coming up soon that might help you too.
Thanks for coming #128578; Excellent and just what I needed. It does not surprise me that you write 7000 words in a week. A Good Essay Cowan! How impressive is Appleby College that. One point that you made that is excellent is about setting your mind to succeed and think critical School then planning your success.
I have a long way in my writing, but it#8217;s a great goal to meet. My mode is learning to write College love writing what I know about#8230;simply to release my thoughts to the universe. Anne’s School! Thank you again. You write very well, so I have no doubt that you#8217;ll be able to improve and write Appleby College achieve the goals that you want to essay Edith Cowan achieve with your writing. For all of us it takes time and practice, but we can do it #128578; Thank you for coming, Gladys. Wow that is a lot of and essay, words in a week. Persuasive On ACS School! It is great you can do it. I just do not like writing so much. I never see myself as a writer but I seem to be doing more and write College more of it. I currently run two blogs the one you know and my Empower one.
I write several times a week on the EN blog and only once on critical Queen, my suejprice one. Most of my posts are not 1000 words. I actually like being in write and essay Appleby, front of to write essays International School, a video more and then wrapping some words around it. I really admire you for write and essay College being so planned and achieving so much writing. Yes it is mindset but you also have a love for writing.
Mine is think Anne’s not really a love. Thanks for and essay College sharing your schedule with us. Article Essay Cowan University! See you later in the week. It seems that you write a lot for someone who doesn#8217;t like it. So kudos to write and essay Appleby College you #128578; Of course, love of writing helps, that#8217;s why I added it here on this post. I can#8217;t see someone not liking to write at all writing that much.
I can tell you#8217;re having fun with your videos. Review! Doing what we like always shows #128578; Thank you for coming, Sue. i really thank you for such a nice blog . i agree with post and specially in case for planning we should do planning so to have a better result earlier . Write College! you are good going keep it up. Thank you and I#8217;m glad you came visit this blog again. Thanks for a very thoughtful post, indeed! As a writer, I also appreciate the points you have articulated. Article Essay Cowan University! There are a number of great takeaways here: 1. Believe in yourself. I think we all have more potential than we give ourselves credit for.
2. Scheduling your writing time should be seen as scheduling your success. 3. Being a great listener and observer are key tools available to us at write and essay Appleby all times. I appreciate your writer feedback. Writing, like for everything else, requires some believing in review Cowan University, ourselves, indeed. If we doubt our writing will be affected. No doubt about and essay, that! Thank you for your input. A Good Edith Cowan! Wow Sylviane, very impressive post I must say! 7,000 words scare but but if you put it into smaller parts and pieces it can be managable. (Not for me each week but some, yes) Practice is important as well as planning and I would add passion is really important you touched on that about loving it. Obersvations are wonderful they can get you fired up to write on a particular topic that you would not have thought about.
I#8217;d love to know how long it took you to write this post Sylviane. Well, to write this post didn#8217;t take me long at write and essay Appleby College all. That#8217;s what save my butt every time #128578; It took me about how to literature essay Stenden University of Applied, 30 minutes to write the first draft on Sunday morning. On Sunday afternoon I read it again and Appleby College edited what was needed. That took me maybe 45 minutes.
Than, I spend maybe 15 minutes picking my pictures and compressing them. Monday morning just before publishing I did a last review and made sure everything looked OK. That took me another 20-25 minutes, I#8217;d say. So, even when you add it all up, it#8217;s not that bad for an almost 15000 word post. Thanks for argument essay Cowan this question, Lisa #128578; Thanks Sylviane, that does sound about right.
Good to know #128578; 7000 words! (whoo that#8217;s a lot)#8230; but hey you made it possible Sylviane. I can tell that you really love writing. I know you can#8217;t wait to write and essay Appleby College come home after work to put your thoughts and think critical Queen Anne’s School ideas on paper, or in this case on Appleby, your blog. Journal Article Critique Harrow! These are some great tips to follow.
I especially like always being in writing mode. I can definitely relate to this. Everyday I can see something that I can write about whether it be reading other blogs or listening to one of and essay Appleby College, my coworkers opinions about a certain subject. There#8217;s always material. University! You just have to keep your eyes and ears open to it. Thanks for sharing! Being on writing mode is and essay College what makes writing come easy, and I#8217;m glad you do practice that. Article Critique Harrow School! I#8217;m very happy if my love for writing is showing. Thank you for mentioning that #128578; Thank you for coming and have a great day!
For me, the most important are only two things; planning and the motivation. 1. Planning is great to give me an Appleby idea. Here I uses Evernote to Harrow keep track of College, all my topics. Whenever i find a good topic, simply jot it down for article review essay later reference. 2. Motivation or like what you say, writing mode. On those days, I could easily finish one article in an hour complete with everything (images, links etc). Write College! That is article School like I am on steroids! Yup, that#8217;s me.
But due to hectic life, I usually publish one to and essay three posts max per how to literature essay of Applied Sciences week. Grr. Thanks for and essay Appleby College sharing! I totally know what you mean by #8220;being on steroids#8221; and wrap up a blog post super fast. Article Essay Edith University! It#8217;s what I do on a regular basis.
It seems that the busier you are the more you brain become efficient at getting things done fast. You are right, planning and being motivated are two very, very important things that we need to have. Sorry for the late reply, by the way, and thank you for coming. Write Appleby! A lovely post about developing a successful strategy behind writing 7000 words a week. The right frame of mind and a passion for writing is the argumentative American School, key focus point that can help us achieve this task. When you are in and essay, the right mindset, the words keep coming all their own without much of our effort, although, reading is also an help argumentative Preparatory School important habit to and essay Appleby enhance our writing skills. Thanks for sharing your deep insights for helping us to write Stenden Sciences write more by practicing it more. Yes, indeed, I wouldn#8217;t be able to write College write without the help with argumentative essay Preparatory School, right mindset. For me it#8217;s a must. I couldn#8217;t write if I wasn#8217;t reading regularly either. reading is a must.
I have not mentioned it here because I#8217;ve mentioned this many times before, but thank you for adding it here. Sorry for this late reply. I do appreciate your visit #128578; Well I am totally agree with you that To continue writing and to be a good writer, Planning and Practice is most important. Appleby College! Actually planning and Practice is important to make any work successful. Review Essay Cowan! I want to share my personal experience, As you are telling that practice is most important for writing blog post, Yes I agree with you. If I write a blog post daily then It helps me to improve my writing skills but whenever I stops writing for 4-5 days or 1-2 weeks then after that interval of Appleby College, time , I don#8217;t understand how to Preparatory start writing a good post. This is true that we need planning and write Appleby College practice is review essay University very important because Practice makes perfect. Right.
Thanks for your valuable sharing. #128521; I#8217;m so glad you#8217;ve mentioned your own experience here which shows how constant practice is write Appleby College very important, especially for help with argumentative essay American someone new. I agree. Thank you for telling us this. Write And Essay Appleby College! Thank you for coming and sorry for the late reply of your comment. A Good Argument Edith Cowan! Just been a crazy week for Appleby me. Absolutely Sylviane I was shaking my head as I was reading the title. I know that seems like a lot but you do writing for a living where the majority of us don#8217;t. Now I also know you have three blogs and although I only have the one that I write for I do post twice a week and literature Stenden I#8217;m always going over 1,000 words per post. So do some of write Appleby, my comments count too? They may not be as long as Harleena#8217;s but some of them are. I bet if I were to copy them all for argumentative Preparatory an entire week and paste them in a document on top of my posts I#8217;d probably have close to or over 7,000 words per week. lol#8230; I might have to test this just to see.
Your tips are great and although I don#8217;t use them all myself I do have my own. I#8217;m definitely dedicated to writing my posts each week and and essay Appleby College never having missed one yet I#8217;d say I#8217;m doing pretty good. Even through death I#8217;ve still posted and even that day I had no internet connection I still found a way. My goodness, that#8217;s dedication. So your tips for writing and staying on schedule are really great because I know a lot of Queen School, people have issues in this area.
I#8217;m often times surprised by this because we all know that in write, order to blog you have to write about a subject that you really love and never get tired of. I guess for journal article Harrow any subject though we all have our moments but for the most part I never run out of Appleby College, ideas. I can#8217;t imagine not enjoying actually writing the think Queen Anne’s School, posts. These really are great and I#8217;m of course going to share this post with all my friends because I know they#8217;ll appreciate learning this from you. Great share Sylviane and thank you for and essay Appleby letting us know how you stay on track with this. Well, I#8217;m sure glad we finally managed to journal critique Harrow get this comment of yours over here #128578; It#8217;s been another week of write and essay Appleby College, blog technical issues. In your case, Adrienne, I am sure that with your comments your amount of topics to write essays Cobham, words comes to that much or maybe more. As you said, I don#8217;t even know why people think that 3 blogs is that much when a lot of people who have one blog do post more than once a week on theirs.
My number, however, is without comments. If I add my comments then that#8217;s more #128578; words still. Thank you for write and essay Appleby College your valuable comment Adrienne, I wouldn#8217;t want to miss it #128578; This is important tips for bloggers who provide posts as their main contents. Well, I am so thankful for your sharing this. To me, keep the writing mood on is the hardest part, sometimes I just don#8217;t want to read, don#8217;t really know why #8230;. Thanks once again. Don#8217;t worry we all have those moments where we don#8217;t want to do anything.
For me it usually hits me towards the topics persuasive essays on ACS, end of the week. I don#8217;t want to read another post by Friday evening, but I catch up the write and essay College, next morning when my mind and topics persuasive body are rested. I#8217;m glad you found this post, and see you around #128578; It seems like the College, Universe is leading to your site! I have recently started my book project. Journal Harrow School! The planning and writing mode are the two key subjects that we were working on at the workshop. We have learn to schedule the writing, chapter by and essay chapter. We Have also learned that some people work better when doing #8216;writing retreats#8217;. Most people can express reasonably well in writing.
Having a professional copywriter to refine the writing is what is recommended. Having said that, it is always wiser to refine our own writing skills. You are spot on! Writing skill is an asset. Blog articles or Ezine articles stay on the internet forever. They are lasting assets! Viola Tam The Business Mum.
I#8217;m so glad You#8217;ve been attracted to this blog. Essays On ACS Cobham International School! Yes the write and essay Appleby College, Universe works well that way. I#8217;m so glad to know that some writing workshop are teaching what I mentioned here. That#8217;s great to hear! Thank you for argument Edith University coming and have a great week ahead! First time reader..first of and essay Appleby, all this is a great post, that really hits the point. Every blogger should use your tip for #8220;always being in a writing mode#8221;. I believe that working with other bloggers on rough drafts can also be a big help-discussing the topic and how it can be developed-#8220;be around others that write#8221;!
I know my name is close to essay Edith University Sylvia, but it#8217;s Sylviane #128578; Welcome here and write Appleby College I#8217;m glad you enjoyed this post. I will be sure to drop by your place as well and hopefully we can get to know each other better. Have a great week ahead! you ever saw the movie #8220;Alex Emma#8221; with Kate Hudson, very interesting movie, a writer must write a novel story in 30 days, first couple of weeks and he#8217;s still in the first paragraph, his mind is stuck, can#8217;t figure out what to write. lol, then they show us how a writer can go out in the real world to live an think Queen School ordinary day, and how he takes out little creative details from real life to write about, it is pretty creative actually. but the and essay, thing is , it#8217;s true, his technique works and it#8217;s creative, and to write persuasive on ACS Cobham School everybody can relate to it, Many thanks and Best wishes! Sylviane,Some really good tips here for building that writing habit.Sort of like your #8221;practice, practice, practice#8221; I think one of the keys is just doing it -whether you want to write Appleby or not.Raymond Chandler, who was a fairly prolific author, says he was always amazed at how to literature University how much other people could produce, so he set himself a rule. He would lock himself in a room with his typewriter for 4 hours a day. He didn#8217;t have to write, but he could not do ANYTHING else.It is important to sit down and do it, every day, regardless of whether you #8221;feel like it#8221;. This should mean no distractions: Facebook, TV and the like. It is easy to Appleby write when inspired, but better to do it as routine.
Great point that you’re making. Essay Edith! Practice is everything. Basket ball star player, Michael Jordan, once said that all that people could see in him was his “supposed talent, “ but what they forgot to write Appleby College realize is that while other players had long gone home he was still practicing until he couldn’t feel his feet anymore. There’s no mystery, most people who get results practice their butt off! So glad to review essay Edith see you here and sorry for the late reply. Thanks for the great post. You truly love what you are doing and I believe that it is what keeps you going and write and essay helps you to think Anne’s do more and more.
I myself have to make sure that I plan my week so that I set out time to write my posts and articles. Appleby College! I also make sure that I am in the right frame of mind as I do them. Thanks again for the great share! wow you for sure able to write more word in 1 entry post. it good to do because google will like this blog and a good argument Edith Cowan assume you make a good quality content. And Essay Appleby! Comments are closed. What Are The Chains That Are Holding You Down?
Do you have chains that hold you down? I’m not talking about topics to write persuasive essays on ACS International School, physical chains, of course, those could actually be cut off in and essay Appleby, just#8230;
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Comparative Essay Example Essays and Research Papers. ? Essay 1 The methods of political control used by the Han and Imperial Roman Empires were different, as in Appleby College the degree of article review Cowan University, citizen participation . in Appleby government because of how each empire utilized it to control the a good Edith University, people. Write Appleby College! However, the Anne’s School, use of theologies to justify rule was a similar method used by the two empires because it allowed leaders to win over the people in more ways than one. And Essay Appleby! In addition, the argument Edith Cowan University, use of militaries to control the population and outlying territories was a similar method because. Ancient Rome , Byzantine Empire , Constantine I 2376 Words | 6 Pages. GRADE 12 UNIVERSITY ENGLISH Unit 2: Comparative Essay Writing Summative Task Task: Select a particular idea or theme and/or . an aspect of and essay Appleby College, form and article review essay Edith Cowan University, style and and essay College, analyse the way it or they is/are depicted in Archibald Lampman’s poem, “In November” and one other poem.
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ethics essay papers WRITING A GOOD ETHICS ESSAY. The writing of essays in College which you argue in support of a position on Anne’s some moral issue is not something that is intrinsically difficult. However such essays may be rather different from those that you have written before. What I want to do in this handout, accordingly, is to write and essay Appleby, describe some of the more important characteristics of such essays, and to help with University Preparatory School, offer some suggestions which you may find helpful. 1. A Clear, Concise, Informative Introduction. A good introduction is and essay, short and to think Anne’s School, the point.
You should indicate exactly what your topic is, and the view that you intend to defend. You should also tell the write College reader how your discussion will be structured, so that he or she knows from the very beginning the general lines along which you will be arguing in support of your conclusion. You should also indicate, very briefly, your main line of argument. Article Critique! Finally, you should do these things as concisely as possible, so that you can get on with the business of defending the view that you are setting out on the moral issue in question. Suppose that you are writing about the morality of abortion. Write Appleby! You might begin your paper as follows: My topic is the morality of abortion.
I shall defend an extreme anti-abortion position by topics persuasive on ACS Cobham, arguing, first, that no satisfactory rationale can be offered for any moderate position on abortion, and secondly, that an extreme pro-abortion position cannot be accepted without also accepting infanticide. A person who reads this introductory paragraph knows exactly what view you will be defending, the write Appleby general lines along which you will be arguing in defense of that view, and the overall structure of your essay. Introduction Checklist: Key Questions. 1. Is my introduction concise? 2. How To Stenden Of Applied! Does it contain a clear statement of my main thesis? 3. Does it indicate very briefly my main line of argument? 4. Does it explain the overall structure of my essay? 2. And Essay College! The Offering of Reasons for help with argumentative essay American University Preparatory School, your View. After setting out your thesis, and outlining your overall approach in and essay the introductory paragraph, you need to have a section in which you offer reasons for accepting the view that you are advancing. Each reason should be set out in the form of an University, explicit, step by write and essay, step argument, so that the reader can see right off both what your assumptions are, and how they are supposed to write literature of Applied Sciences, support your conclusion.
Moreover, if you are offering more than one consideration in support of your thesis, it is Appleby College, important that different considerations not be mixed together in a single paragraph. Different arguments require at least separate paragraphs - and preferably, separate subsections, each clearly labeled with an appropriate heading. For the article Harrow School latter will not only help the reader to follow your argument: it will help you to think more clearly about the arguments you're offering. How many reasons should you offer in support of your thesis? It is best to and essay College, confine yourself to either one, or at most two, supporting arguments. Topics To Write Persuasive On ACS International School! If you offer more arguments, there is a serious danger both that you will not set out any of the write and essay College arguments in a sufficiently detailed way, and that you will not discriminate between interesting arguments in support of your thesis, and arguments that are at best marginal. In short, choose your best one or two arguments, and develop that argument (or arguments) in a detailed and circumspect way. Checklist for the Offering of Reasons:
1. Have I set out an argument (or at most two arguments) to provide reasons for thinking that my thesis is true? 2. Have I made all of my premises clear and explicit? 3. Have I developed my argument in a full and article Cowan University, detailed way, so that all of my reasoning is clear to the reader? 3. Consideration of Objections to your Arguments. After offering reasons for accepting your view, you need to consider objections. The crucial point to note here is that objections come in two forms. First, there are objections that are directed against the reasons that you have offered in support of your thesis, and which claim, therefore, either that some of your assumptions are implausible, or that some of your reasoning is unsatisfactory.
Secondly, there are objections that are directed against your conclusion, and which attempt to provide reasons for thinking that the view which you are advancing is false. Objections of the and essay Appleby first sort are especially crucial, and your main obligation is to address such objections. The reason is that if all that you do is to topics persuasive School, rebut objections to your thesis, and you fail to consider objections to your argument, then you haven't shown that you have made out a satisfactory positive case in support of your thesis. How do you arrive at interesting objections to your own arguments? The crucial thing is to look carefully at write and essay College, the assumptions that you have made, and to ask yourself which of those are controversial, in the sense that they might well be questioned by an intelligent, thoughtful, and well-informed person. Having located a controversial assumption, you need to consider why a thoughtful person might disagree with it, and then try to respond to that objection. Checklist for Objections to your Arguments: 1. Have I carefully set out the American University Preparatory School most important objection to each of my arguments? 2. And Essay! Have I then responded, in a careful way, to that objection (or objections)? 4. Consideration of Objections to your Thesis. After you have carefully considered objections to your argument (or arguments), the how to literature essay University Sciences next important task is to consider objections which, rather than being directed against the reasons that you have offered in support of and essay Appleby College your view, are directed instead against your view itself, and which attempt to show that your view is incorrect.
Here you need to set out any such objection (or objections) in a clear, careful, and dispassionate fashion, and then indicate why you think the objection in a good Cowan University question is unsound. How many objections to your thesis should you attempt to consider? Here, as elsewhere, trying to write Appleby College, cover too much ground can result in a weak and superficial discussion. Try to find the literature essay Stenden University of Applied strongest objection, and address it in a detailed way. Checklist for Objections to your Thesis: 1. Have I considered the most important objection against the thesis that I am defending?
2. Have I responded carefully to and essay Appleby, that objection? 5. Exposition of Arguments. At the heart of a paper that examines some moral issue in a critical fashion is the setting out of argument arguments - both arguments in support of your positions, and arguments directed either against some of your assumptions, or against your position itself. Whenever one is and essay College, setting out an argument, one needs to do so in a careful step-by-step fashion, so that it is clear to the reader both what assumptions the argument involves, and what the reasoning is topics to write persuasive essays Cobham International School, - that is, how one is supposed to get from the assumptions to the conclusion. One thing that it is very important to avoid is the setting out of more than one argument in write Appleby a single paragraph. Critical Queen Anne’s School! For this usually results in too brief an exposition of the arguments in question, and often in Appleby a muddling together of the two arguments, thereby obscuring the structure of the journal reasoning. Checklist for Appleby, your Exposition of Arguments: 1. Are my arguments carefully and explicitly set out think critical Queen School so that both all of my assumptions, and my reasoning, are clear?
2. Have I, at any point, set out more than one argument in write and essay a single paragraph? 3. Are objections and responses set out in separate paragraphs? 6. Logical and Perspicuous Structure. A crucial factor that makes for a good essay is the presence of a logical and perspicuous structure. Help Argumentative Essay University School! So it's important to ask how one can both organize one's discussion in a logical fashion, and make that organization perspicuous to the reader. The structure will be clear to the reader if you begin with an write Appleby, introductory paragraph of the sort described above, and then go on, first, to literature Stenden University, divide your essay up into sections (and possibly also subsections), and write Appleby College, secondly, to use informative headings to mark out those sections (and subsections). Help Argumentative American University School! The reader will then be able to see at a glance how you have structured your discussion. What makes for logical organization? If you do the things mentioned above, in sections I through IV, in the order discussed, the result will be an Appleby College, essay whose overall logical organization is very strong. That is to essay Edith Cowan, say, start by setting out your thesis, and outlining your overall approach in the introductory paragraph. Follow this with a section in which you offer reasons for accepting the view that you are advancing.
Then go on to devote two sections to a consideration of Appleby objections. In the first, set out, and respond to, objections that are directed against any controversial assumptions that you have made in arguing in support of your own view. Then, in the second, consider objections that might be directed against your thesis itself. Individual sections also need to be organized in write Stenden University Sciences a logical fashion. This is primarily a matter of setting out arguments in a step-by-step fashion, and of discussing different arguments in different subsections, as discussed above in section V. Checklist for write, Logical and critique Harrow, Perspicuous Structure: 1. Is my essay organized into sections in a logical fashion? 2. Are the write and essay sections divided into appropriate subsections?
3. Have I made the overall structure of my essay clear by using informative headings for sections and subsections? 7. Dispassionate and Unemotional Discussion. Another very important feature of a good essay is critical Anne’s, that the discussion be dispassionate, and that one avoid formulating either the issue, or relevant arguments, in a biased and/or emotionally charged way. Suppose, for example, that Mary is considering whether there should be a law against the sale of pornography. There are various ways in and essay which she can formulate this question, some of which will strongly suggest one answer rather than another.
She might, for example, ask herself whether people should be allowed to help with argumentative American University Preparatory School, amass fortunes as purveyors of filthy and degrading material that will corrupt people, and destroy the moral fiber of society. If this is the way she puts the issue, it will not be too surprising if she arrives at the conclusion that one certainly needs a law against pornography. Suppose, on the other hand, that what she asks is whether people should be prevented from having access to important information about something which is not only natural and very beautiful, but also a means of expressing feelings of tenderness and and essay, love. When the a good argument Cowan University question is phrased this way, it seems likely that she will arrive a rather different conclusion. Why are emotionally charged formulations bad? There are two reasons. First, they tend to alienate the reader or listener, thereby making it less likely that others will devote much time to a serious consideration of your arguments. But secondly, such formulations are even more dangerous with respect to write and essay Appleby College, one's own thinking, since what they typically do is to make it seem that the right answer is obvious, and this in turn usually prevents one from grappling with the argumentative essay University issue in a serious way, and from subjecting one's own view to critical examination. Checklist for Dispassionate and Unemotional Discussion:
1. Write And Essay Appleby College! Have I made use of emotively charged language? 2. Is my discussion dispassionate and fair throughout? 8. Overall Clarity and Conciseness. Many people, confronted with an essay that is Harrow, difficult to understand, but which is written in a style which sounds profound, tend to conclude that the topic must be a difficult one, and the writer’s ideas unusually deep. And Essay Appleby! The appropriate conclusion, however, will generally be a rather less positive one namely, that the author either has muddy ideas, or lacks the help argumentative essay American University ability to communicate his or her ideas to others in a satisfactory fashion.
Obscurity is write, not a sign of profundity. I suspect that this point probably needs to be labored a bit, as there are reasons for thinking that many people, in their secondary school education, are encouraged to express their ideas in a fashion which sounds profound. Consider, for example, the following experiment, carried out by two English professors at the University of Chicago. Joseph Williams and Rosemary Hake took a well-written paper, and changed the language to produce two different versions. Article Essay Cowan University! Both versions involved the and essay Appleby same ideas and concepts, but one was written in simplified, straightforward language, while the review other was written in verbose, bombastic language, loaded with pedantic terms. They then submitted the two papers to nine high-school teachers, and found that all nine gave very high marks to the verbose paper, but downgraded the straightforward essay as too simple and shallow. Write And Essay! Williams and Hake then repeated the experiment with a group of ninety teachers, and came up with similar results. Three out of four high-school teachers (and two out of three college teachers!) gave higher marks to a good Edith, pompous writing! What should you be aiming at, in terms of write and essay College clarity, simplicity, and intelligibility? One way of estimating how successful your essay is in these respects is by review Cowan University, considering how it would seem to a secondary school student who knew nothing about the topic. Would he or she be able to read it without difficulty?
Having read it, would he or she be able to say exactly what view you were defending and how you were supporting that view? If you can confidently answer ‘Yes’ to both questions, then all is write and essay, well. But if there is any room for doubt, then you need to rewrite your essay so that your ideas are expressed in a simpler and persuasive essays on ACS International, more straightforward way. Checklist for Overall Clarity and Conciseness: 1. To what extent is the write and essay writing clear and straightforward? 2. Is the writing concise? 9. Help With University! A Non-Religious, Philosophical Approach.
Many people defend ethical views by appealing either to and essay Appleby, religious or theological assumptions, or to moral principles that are religiously based. Such assumptions or principles are often of a highly controversial sort, and exercises 1, 2, and 3 were intended to illustrate how problematic an appeal either to religious and theological premises, or to moral principles that are religiously based, can be. It is a good argument Cowan University, possible of write and essay course, that there are religious claims that, although controversial, can be shown to be reasonable. Any such defense, however, is a major undertaking, and in an essay of this length, the chances of success in doing that are not good. In addition, however, any discussion of religious claims that is likely to be intellectually satisfactory requires a serious background in philosophy of religion. The Philosophy Department has a number of philosophers who are experts in think Queen Anne’s the area of philosophy of religion, and if you are interested in exploring religious issues, you may well want to consider taking one of the philosophy of religion courses that the Department offers.
This, however, is a course in and essay ethics, and here you need to confine yourself to non-religious, philosophical arguments: religious assumptions, and moral claims based on a religious point of view, are almost always going to be very controversial, and journal School, virtually impossible to defend successfully in an essay of the length you are writing here. Write And Essay College! Any such claims, then, are to be avoided. In the preceding sections, I have discussed the features that make for essay University, a good essay that is focusing upon the critical discussion of a moral issue. In this final section I want to write, mention briefly what I think is the most helpful idea for producing an essay that has these characteristics - namely, the formulation of an essay American University Preparatory, explicit plan, both for the essay as a whole, and for individual sections. To do this, you might proceed as follows. First, on a filing card, or a small sheet of write paper, list the main sections into which your discussion will be divided, as discussed above. Secondly, for each of those sections, take a filing card, and write down both the main claims that you want to advance in that section, and a brief description of any arguments that you'll be putting forward, or examining. Thirdly, for each of the arguments that you'll be discussing, write down, on article review essay Edith Cowan University another filing card, the basic structure of write and essay Appleby College that argument. Finally, re-examine everything that you have written down.
Can you see a more effective way of Queen Anne’s dividing the College discussion up into sections? Is there a better way of organizing the how to literature essay Stenden University material within a given section? Can any of your arguments be given a better step-by-step formulation? The plan that you initially draw up is not, of course, set in concrete, and as you do more reading for Appleby College, your essay, or talk to other people about the a good University issue that you're considering, you'll often see a better way of write and essay Appleby College organizing the essay Edith material, or other arguments or objections that you need to consider, and so on. You can then modify your original plan.
The crucial thing is always to have at least a tentative plan in mind, for even when you're just beginning to think about a topic, that will help you to do so in a focused way.