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B.S. Degree Annotated Rationale Essay. My goal is to complete a bachelor degree in Business, Management, and Economics with a concentration in Marketing, especially concentrating in markets for the multicultural segments in the United States. [s2] Additionally, I want to elsevier Leysin American School focus generally on Universiteit Amsterdam the cultures of segmented groups and how to market to elsevier Leysin American those specific cultures from a knowledgeable perspective. As such, I have designed a concentration that interweaves those broader elements of service Kingswood culture (how humans understand their worlds and the contexts in which they understand them) with a study of different groups that represent major ethnic groups within the United States after all this is the direction that this country is headed for. Although I have changed my degree plan several times I seem to elsevier review American always come back to marketing, coupled with a focus on multicultural marketing. This country will continue to develop into a diverse society; it will be essential for companies that want to market their products to the diverse consumer to understand the essay writing Rosseau Lake College various multicultural consumers in American School, the U.S.
According to The University of San Francisco School of Business, business leaders need a sophisticated understanding of their target audiences often multiple audiences with significant differences of Lake College race, culture, and, of course, gender. The University of San Francisco Multicultural Marketing curriculum is designed to elsevier review Leysin give the student the skills needed to market successfully to many demanding, though sometimes very subtly different cultural groups. Their multicultural marketing curriculum adds Marketing Research, Consumer Behavior, Marketing Management, and three courses dealing with culture to the standard expectations for a business degree. Blending these with ESC guidelines, I have marketing Research, Consumer Behavior, and multiple courses that provide insight into different cultures (e.g., American Ethnic History, Sex and essay Rosseau Lake College, Gender in Cross-Cultural Perspective, Caribbean History and Leysin American School, Culture). I have introductory marketing from Colorado Technical University, and will take the Marketing Communications, Marketing Research, and Consumer Behavior courses at ESC. The ESC Area of Study Guidelines for a concentration in Marketing also state that students who work in Marketing need to develop skills in “critical reading, interpretation, and writing. Students should have an understanding of ethics, globalization, diversity and cross-cultural differences, and organizations.” Students pursuing upper-level work in Marketing should acquire conceptual vocabularies, knowledge of sources, and on school Rosseau, critical skills appropriate to their areas of focus or lines of inquiry.” I will gain the critical reading, interpretation, and writing skills in review, all of my upper-level courses, and especially my upper-level courses in marketing, which require analysis and advanced-level writing skills. I address the how to a quote essay Institut Rosenberg ethics guideline in review School, my course in Marketing Communication, which has a strong “focus on ethical issues confronting marketers.” I address the globalization guideline with courses such as E-Business and Marketing and Academy, the Virtual Marketplace.
I have addressed the organizations guideline through my course in Organizational Behavior Principles. And I have addressed the Leysin American guideline about diversity through my many courses dealing with culture. I want to combine the more specific focus on think critically Roedean School marketing with a more general focus on ethnic groups and elsevier review School, culture, or the context in which marketers operate. Although the write a quote Institut courses that provide these ethnic and cultural perspectives are not in my concentration, they do provide important background for my concentration, given my goals to focus on marketing to elsevier Leysin diverse populations. [s5] To provide a broad sociological perspective, I have included a course in American Social Problems, which provides an essay on school Rosseau Lake introduction to sociological concepts. To provide historical, artistic, sociological, philosophical, and cross-cultural perspectives, I have included American Ethnic History, Sex and Gender in Cross-Cultural Perspective, Television and review Leysin, Culture, American Ethnic History, Artistic Expression in a Multicultural America, and Cultural Anthropology. My Essay Kingswood School? All of Leysin American these courses provide a broad investigation of the concept of workbook “social and cultural norms and belief systems,” and create a good understanding of social, creative, philosophical, and historical contexts in which I am applying the elsevier review Leysin concepts of marketing. These courses will help fulfill my general goals of completing a bachelor degree in marketing, and gaining a focus to School better understand ethnic groups within the U.S. The classes in Cultural Studies will give me an in-depth insight into the concept of culture and a better understanding of being in someone else’s shoes so to speak. Communication skills I have courses in American School, Communications for Professionals and Interpersonal and Small Group Communications. Information management I have a course in Information Design and I have extensive knowledge utilizing an thinking critically Mount information system designed to disseminate information at my workplace. Economics I have a course in Principles of Economics 2. Ethical and Leysin School, social responsibility My course in Mercersburg, Marketing Communications has a strong focus on ethics in elsevier review, marketing.
Quantitative skills I have courses in Statistics: An Activity Based Approach and Marketing Research. Understanding people in an organizational context I have courses in Organizational Behavior Principles and Managing Human Resources. Additional courses such as Sex and Gender in Cross-Cultural Perspective provide deeper understanding of people in an organizational context. Understanding organizations within broader contexts I have courses in Marketing and the Virtual Marketplace and E-Business. My extensive experience working in a large non-profit organization, along with my courses dealing with various cultures, creates a good understanding of organizations within a broader context. I have also addressed the SUNY General Education guidelines in my overall degree plan. [s8] My range of how to critically Roedean courses includes Television and Culture (humanities), Statistics (math), Human Nutrition (natural science), American Social Problems (social science), College Reading and Composition (basic communication), American Ethnic History (American history), Ballet Artistic Expression in review Leysin American, a Multicultural America (the arts), Cultural Patterns in Western Civilization (western civilization), and on school, Caribbean History and Culture and Leysin School, Cultural Anthropology (other world civilizations).
Many of my general education courses helped to create my liberal arts associate degree. I have covered nine of the ten general education areas with over critical thinking workbook 50 credits of general education. I have addressed the ESC guidelines for a degree in Business, Management Economics with a concentration in Marketing as well as the SUNY General Education requirements in my degree plan. With the completion of my Bachelor of Science in Business, Management Economics, with a concentration in Marketing, I feel I will be highly qualified for career opportunities that may arise, that require a bachelor degree and analytical, communication, and elsevier review American, people skills. I have always considered myself to be a creative individual who devises situations that will enable me to express myself. I have researched the following job descriptions in thinking critically Northfield Mount, my current workplace and believe that a bachelor degree will help me move toward these careers: Marketing Coordinator, Multi-Cultural Marketing Planner, and Product Services Coordinator. [s9] These careers will require my expertise in elsevier Leysin, marketing, communication, and knowledge of the world’s cultures and how to interact within diverse communities. Additionally, I have numerous work experiences in the Music Film Industries, and the nation’s largest non-profit organization that allows me to critical thinking work with a diverse group of people, coupled with my academic learning which will add to my repertoire of communication, creativity, and inclusion. The ability to effectively communicate with my colleagues through written communication, and to use computer application programs to heighten my presentations, the understanding of the specific demographics that we need to reach, and knowing the Leysin School proper marketing plan to implement will all collectively aid in my ability to develop a successful professional career in marketing. Comment [s1]: The student provides personal reasons that motivated her to complete a degree. Comment [s2]: The student clearly states her Area of Study and Concentration.
Additionally, she indicates briefly how she has individualized her concentration by writing Lake, focusing on multicultural marketing. Elsevier Review Leysin? The rest of this paragraph deals with her educational goals. Comment [s3]: The student offers her research, providing evidence that the concentration she designed is academically valid. Because ESC guidelines deal with marketing concentrations in general, and Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, do not specifically include information about multicultural marketing concentrations, the student researched another college that did offer that focus. She used the information she found to help understand and realize her goals; she knew that she did NOT have to mimic the other college’s program exactly. The rest of this section presents her research and conclusions based on that research. Elsevier Leysin American? Comment [s4]: The student clearly refers to the ESC Area of write essay Institut Rosenberg Study Guidelines and shows in this section how she has addressed those expectations in her concentration. Comment [s5]: The student explains her individualized focus here, and talks about how courses in review Leysin American School, her general learning support and integrate with her concentration courses.
Comment [s6]: The student explains how she has addressed the general business guidelines as well as the specific concentration guidelines. Both general and specific guidelines are important, as each one identifies somewhat different areas of critically Mount skills and knowledge that are expected in this type of degree. Review Leysin? Comment [s7]: Here the Vrije student reflects briefly on the importance of certain liberal arts courses to marketing professionals. Elsevier Review School? Comment [s8]: The student explains briefly how she is fulfilling the SUNY General Education Requirement. Comment [s9]: The student briefly explains her research into potential career paths, conducted through interviews with professionals at her current place of thinking critically employment. She reflects on elsevier Leysin School how she has developed important skills related to these career paths. Comment [s10]: A nice way to close, as this last paragraph parallels the thoughts in the introduction. The student provides personal reasons that motivated her to complete a degree. The student clearly states her Area of how to a quote in an Study and Concentration. Additionally, she indicates briefly how she has individualized her concentration by focusing on multicultural marketing. The rest of this paragraph deals with her educational goals.
The student offers her research, providing evidence that the elsevier review Leysin School concentration she designed is academically valid. Because ESC guidelines deal with marketing concentrations in general, and do not specifically include information about help Universiteit multicultural marketing concentrations, the review Leysin School student researched another college that did offer that focus. She used the workbook Mercersburg Academy information she found to help understand and realize her goals; she knew that she did NOT have to mimic the review Leysin other college’s program exactly. The rest of this section presents her research and conclusions based on that research. The student clearly refers to the ESC Area of Study Guidelines and shows in this section how she has addressed those expectations in her concentration. Write My Essay School? The student explains her individualized focus here, and talks about how courses in her general learning support and elsevier review American, integrate with her concentration courses.
The student explains how she has addressed the general business guidelines as well as the write my essay Kingswood School specific concentration guidelines. Both general and specific guidelines are important, as each one identifies somewhat different areas of skills and knowledge that are expected in this type of elsevier School degree. Here the student reflects briefly on the importance of certain liberal arts courses to marketing professionals. The student explains briefly how she is auf dem Rosenberg fulfilling the SUNY General Education Requirement. The student briefly explains her research into potential career paths, conducted through interviews with professionals at her current place of employment.
She reflects on how she has developed important skills related to these career paths. A nice way to close, as this last paragraph parallels the thoughts in the introduction.
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resume sap korean Samples represent that of an elsevier review actual working technical professional found on essay, the WEB and modified to elsevier review American School protect the privacy of these professionals. Human names, company names, colleges, software product names are intentionally made up. 56 Old Town Road. Irving, Texas 75459. 6+ years of Functional Expertise in SAP MM, PM PP with touch points in Purchasing, WM, and FI/CO. Involved in Rosenberg, over 40 implementations Globally.
3+ years as Global Manager for MM functions covering 120 sites. Skilled in 3.0, 4.5 and American School 4.6 clients of SAP PP/MM Configuration enhancement skills in 4.5 4.6. SAP Clients DEC Unix 4.0 D , AIX 3.0, 4.5B, 4.6C with configuration in 4.5B and 4.6C Internet HTML. Training webpage designer. Client / Server Oracle Forms/Reports, VB, Access, Crystal Reports, COBOL400, RPG400.
Applications Windows 2000, Windows NT, Access, Power Point, Microsoft Word, Microsoft Access, Lotus Notes, CSI Vibration Analysis Industries Automotive, Food and Beverage, Aircraft, Paper, Pharmaceutical, Industrial. HTML Certification-Techneon Learning Institute SAP Boot camp-Garden and Plants TSTI Assoc. of Mech Almeda BS CS. Techneon AIS, Irving, Texas. SAP Implementation/Sustaining Manager. Co-Lead PP upgrade from workbook 3.1 to 4.6C. Mapped system requirements for Job Functions. Led As Is To Be functions in the upgrade from Leysin American SAP 3.1H to SAP 4.6 for thinking critically Northfield, PP module. Created / presented Training materials for upgrade. Elsevier Review American! Designed and implemented training materials for help to write Vrije, End Users highlighting upgrade enhancements and elsevier new functionality. Enhancement Configuration of write in an auf dem Rosenberg, Navigational Profiles.
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Certified on write a quote in an essay Institut auf dem, CSI equipment and programs. Managed all day to day activities of Leysin, #2 producing shop in Nation. References will be furnished upon request. Samples represent that of an actual working technical professional found on the WEB and modified to protect the privacy of these professionals. Human names, company names, colleges, software product names are intentionally made up. Strategic Air Co., Swampscott, South Carolina. SAP Basis Administrator. Hardware: OS390-RS6000SP Database: DB2 Contract Worldwide rollout and support of thinking critically Northfield, SAP 4.0b. Knowledge Warehouse, BW Support.
Install languages. Maintain internal company training system. Troubleshoot Basis problems, apply OSS notes, review hot packages. Elsevier Review Leysin School! Daily systems checks. SAP North America, Miller, Illinois. SAP Basis Instructor. 100 Travel to Boston, Philadelphia, Chicago, Atlanta, and San Francisco to instruct and co-teach SAP BASIS.
Certified in the following SAP courses: BC325 Software Logistics Release 4.6 Competence-UNIX/ORACLE Release 4.6 SAP50 R/3 Basis Technology Release 4.6 BC305 Advanced R/3 System Administration Release 4.6 BC090 R/3 Under Unix Release 3.1H BC120 BC Computer Center Management Release 3.1H JSB10 System Administration I Release 3.1H. Advanced Technologis, St. Louis, Missouri. SAP BASIS Administrator. Hardware: CompaQ DEC-OSF Database: ORACLE SAP Version 4.5B and 3.OE Customers: Ford Motors Company and General Motors. Support for two production rollouts, and an upgrade. Assisted senior Basis lead with SAP Security and critical Mercersburg CTS using the TMS system. Leysin School! Recruited to relocate to Advanced Technologis; 4-months after joining the critically Mount, company, it downsized during bankruptcy and moved the elsevier Leysin American, data center from St.
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IBM Corp, Rochester, New York/Santa Clara, California. SAP Basis Administrator. Category/Subcategory: Software/Applications Consulting Location: NY Division: Global Services Hardware: RS6000 - OS 390 SAP Version: 3.1.H Customers: Lotus Corporation, Worldwide Fulfillment, Printing Systems, And Fixed Assets. Review School! SAP Basis Administrator performing numerous duties including; installation, maintenance, and upgrade of SAP application code, otherwise known as the role of a SAP Consultant. This role carries primary responsibility for how to write a quote in an auf dem Rosenberg, problem determination and resolution for review Leysin, each SAP application system database server and application server. Responsibilities also include monitoring the SAP system, perform adjustments, tune and improve performance for the SAP, Database and AIX disciplines. Sebeco Chemical Co., St. Louis, Missouri. SAP System Manager. This position was outsourced to IBM Global Services in write my essay, 1997, and I became a member of review American, IBM.
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Parametric Scripts, Silver Lake City, Missouri. Performed Backups for Stratus, AS400, HPUX, and DEC VAX systems - ran jobs - provided support for mail order express pharmacy. Troubleshooter barcode system for United Parcel to VAX system. Universiteit Amsterdam! Transferred files using FTP functions between platforms. Minimized systems downtimes. Utilized Xerox printers. Automated VAX/VMS job Schedule. Working two jobs at the same time - rolled off Mastercard project and review Leysin took this one after contract completed.
ABC Energy, St. Louis, Missouri. System Manager 3-Mo. Contract. Contracted to provide support on how to a quote in an essay auf dem, third shift to review School Eveready Battery Company s VAX/VMS and standalone VAX/VMS systems. Responsibilities include backup, error resolution, and utilization of DCL and other software to provide for automation of operator functions. Software includes VMS, DCL VAX Cluster Console, Polycenter Watchdog, DEC Scheduler, and the Storage Library System. TDD Temps and Consulting, San Francisco, California. System Administrator/Programmer Contractor. Assigned to Cellular One, Sprint, Wells Fargo - Nikko, and Academy Electronic Arts providing VAX/VMS support to include backups; job scheduling within DCL, installed windows 3.1; troubleshot various client server problems online; transferred files across nodes - worked with Prime computer systems. Safe Medical Systems, Cupertino, California.
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Programmed 386 PC and performed backups on the Novell Network. Patient Billing. United States Air Force, Corpus Christi, Texas/Germany/New Mexico/Korea/California. Aircraft Security Specialist/ Transportation Specialist-Logistics. Provided Air Base Security in Germany for Air Shows and elsevier review American Flightline for McDonnell Douglas F-4 Phantoms. Thinking! Trained in Nuclear, Biological, and Chemical weapons and terrorism. Maintained a secret security clearance. Honorably Discharged. Community College of the Air Force Various Military Bases 1984. Muir Technical College Albuquerque, New Mexico 1990.
Samples represent that of an Leysin American actual working technical professional found on the WEB and modified to protect the privacy of these professionals. Human names, company names, colleges, software product names are intentionally made up. 2301 Wesley Street. Milwaukee, WI 53227. 5 year consultant and project lead with MBA, and 4.6b experience FI/CO, SD, TR consultant to 6 SAP R/3 implementations AP/AR/TR/CM/CR/GL/CCA/PCA/PA Accounts Receivable FI-AR Credit Management TR-CM Project manager on 4 implementations Lockbox TR-CM Configuration on Vrije, 3 implementation Vertex Sales Use Tax manager to 2 SAP R/3 implementations DART Data Retrieval Tool and Archive Project Manager Profitability Analysis consultant to 3 SAP R/3 implementations Project Manager on elsevier Leysin American, 5 SAP R/3 implementations Integration specialist with configuration experience in write School, FI/CO TR SD Report Specification experience 6 implementations. AC010 - Financial /Management Accounting Reporting AC040 - Cost Management and Controlling AC225 - Accounts Receivable and elsevier Leysin School Configuration BC660 - Data Archiving AC250 - Configuration Organization in how to write a quote essay Institut Rosenberg, Financial Accounting CA705 - Basics of the Report Painter and Report Writer CA710 - Advanced Functions of Report Writer CA950 - Configuration of Taxes and Purchases WC620 - Vertex / SAP Sales Use Tax Training L0930 - LIS - Logistics Information Systems. Sr. SAP Applications Consultant. Crystal Modules, Ellisburg, PA. Project Consultant - Commonwealth of Pennsylvania. End user testing and training Write Business Process Procedures Develop Interfaces and Conversions Lockbox testing.
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Tested Sales/Use tax functionality using Vertex. Created methodology to accept Credit Card Payments and post Automatically. Review Leysin! Design and develop Line layouts, Variants, Account assignment Models and help essay Vrije Universiteit Work Lists. Laid out elsevier review American integration and scenario testing. Specified 17 Reports required due to Business requirements. Worked with ABAP programmers and completed testing. Bolton Companies, Milwaukee, WI. Project Lead Consultant - FI/CO/SD/ABAPQuery/Vertex. Major distributor of write Kingswood School, restaurant supplies and equipment. 4.0B multi-company sales oriented environment with FI, CO, SD, MM, and WM. Managed Project for Credit and Accounts Receivable implementation addressing needs for Training, Configuration testing of core FI-AR, Customer and Credit Master Data conversion, defined and practiced steps needed for the integration process, and review American School Report development.
Configuration includes: Account Groups, Document types, Customer and Document number ranges, Terms of payment, Clearing functions - Posting Keys, Reason Codes, Automatic clearing, Account assignment, and Tolerance groups , Bank master data, Interest calculation, Statements, and Credit Management functionality. Service School! Cleaned legacy customer master data. Elsevier Leysin School! Reviewed customer address data, credit limits, dunning, line item displays, and carry forward balances. Write Service School! CO-PA configuration included building the operating concern, developing value fields characteristics, configuring summarization levels for reporting and assessments, cost center assessments to elsevier American segments, CO-PA reporting, forms, planning, derivation rules and structures, product and customer hierarchy, PA settlement, realignments, and integration issues with Sales Distribution. Project Manager of Vertex configuration in Rosseau Lake, both SAP, Master Data cleanup and Quantum Tax Decision-Maker. Review Leysin! Addressed Reporting Issues by developing ABAP Query and ABAP specified Reports. Kruger Power Systems, Denton, WI. SAP Project Member - FI/CO/SD/DART/Archive. Manufacturer of Electrical Transformers and critical thinking Academy supplies for the Utility industry. Member of FI/CO Team to improve SAP performance through implementation of ERP principles.
Responsible for Leysin, researching OSS Notes and transporting to Production Client. Write My Essay Service School! Trained Credit Department to utilize SAP functionality correctly. Specified programs and reports to be completed by ABAP programmers to aid Customer Service and the Credit Personnel to service customers. Elsevier Review School! Sales/Distribution SD Tested pricing procedures, availability checking, credit management, sales quotes, printed sales orders. Essay Writing On School Rosseau! SAP Project Team trainer in Report Painter and Report Writer. Project Manager for the implementation of DART, Data Retrieval Tool - Data extract required for Federal, State and Municipal Tax Audit purposes. Elsevier Review American! Project Manager for FI/CO and SD Archiving Project - This entailed the Mount Hermon, selection of a team of users who would support decisions made for Archive Objects.
Instrumental in CO-PA configuration, which included building, the operating concern, developing value fields characteristics, configuring summarization levels for reporting and assessments, cost center assessments to segments, CO-PA reporting, PA settlement, and integration issues with Sales Distribution. Started fact-finding Project as to the feasibility of Activity Based Cost Accounting for product cost development. Leysin American School! Trained in CO-ABC Activity Based Cost Accounting. Marvin Chemical Manufacturing, Euless, IL. SAP Consultant - MM. Chemical Manufacturer of to write Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, Water Treatment products.
Develop Report Writer Programs specific to elsevier review Leysin School analyze Order-related Product Costing requirements. Design LIS Information Structures to analyze Material and Order Costs. Create Transparent Tables to address specific reporting needs to be use in Report Writer. Train Client Personnel to service use Reports and create them in the future. TDS Industries, Redwood City, IA. SAP Lead Functional Consultant - FI/CO/SD/MM/Vertex. Chemical Manufacturer of Fertilizer and Distribution of supplies for the Agriculture Industry. Responsibilities as a Project Consultant are to define Feasibility, address Customizing needs for Terra Industries, Configuring with the IMG and Prototyping Accounts Receivable, Sales Use Taxation and Credit. Presented Re-engineering developments by means of As-Is and To-Be Modeling to elsevier review Leysin identify gaps, to my essay Kingswood Project Management to update the Business Plan. Defined and practiced steps needed for the integration process. Leysin American School! Involved with the Project Planning on a weekly basis as well as delivering status to Steering Committee.
Full configuration of the project covering the essay Amsterdam, following modules: FI-AR, FI-AP, FI-GL, and elsevier review American School SD-CR. Configuration includes: GL accounts, Account determination, Field Status Groups, Account Groups, Document types, Customer and Document number ranges, Terms of payment, Clearing functions - Posting Keys, Reason Codes, Automatic clearing, Account assignment, and Tolerance groups , Bank, Interest calculation, Statements, Dunning, and Credit Management functionality. Accounts Receivable FI-AR Cleaned legacy customer master data Reviewed customer address data, credit limits, dunning, line item displays, and carry forward balances. Teamed with Treasury Department to Configure TR-CM Cash Management. How To Critically Roedean! Cash Management configuration included account management, electronic bank statement, account groupings, Lockbox processing, liquidity forecast, cash management position, manual check deposit, cash concentration, and Leysin American the payment program. Developer of SAP Modifications which involves Interfacing Open Invoices between Legacy System and SAP, ABAP Program for Credit Reporting, and how to think School Treasury ABAP Modification to track financing arrangements. Review American School! High level of experience with SD-CR Credit and SD-MD Master Data developed on this project. On School Lake College! Contributed and exposed to SD-BF Basic Functions, SD-BIL Billing, SD-CAS Sales Support and elsevier review Leysin American School SD-SLS Sales.
Accounts Payable FI-AP Cleaned legacy vendor master data Reviewed vendor address data, purchasing limits, line item displays, and carry forward balances. Instrumental in CO-PA Profitability Analysis configuration, which included building, the operating concern, developing value fields characteristics, configuring summarization levels for reporting and assessments, cost center assessments to segments, CO-PA reporting, PA settlement, and integration issues with Sales Distribution. Familiar with CO-PC Product Cost Controlling and CO-PCA Profit Center Accounting used in the Configuration of this project. Mercersburg! Member for Reporting Team utilizing CO-PA Profitability Analysis, LIS - Logistics Information Systems and SIS - Sales Information Systems. Review Leysin! Special Ledger FI-SL Tested FI-SL configuration to write a quote in an Institut Rosenberg other SAP applications, General Ledger Accounting FI-GL , Profit Center Accounting EC-PCA , and Cost Center Accounting CO-CCA . Functional Trainer for the SAP Implementation team in Report Painter and Report Writer. User Trainer and Developer of training documentation for Taxes, Accounts Receivable and Cash Management.
Project Manager of Vertex configuration in both SAP and Quantum Tax Decision-Maker. Ashland Corp., Fort James, WI. SAP Team Lead - FI/CO/MM. Paper Manufacturer and Napkin Converter Distributor. Responsible for Configuration and Implementation changes of SAP Controlling CO , Financial Account FI and Procurement MM Modules. Utilized Re-engineering techniques to enact improvements in financial systems, procedures, processes and practices. Fixed assets FI-AA required configuration of asset classes, account determination, screen layout, asset under construction, capitalization, acquisition, depreciation, disposition, and reporting. Leysin! Managed and thinking critically reviewed Projects and Leysin American School Internal Orders by use of CO-OPA Order Project Accounting. Prepared annual Forecast and Budget by use of CO-PA Profitability Analysis. Material Master MM - Reviewed and tested purchasing groups, purchase requisition, purchase orders, contracts, price determination process, material types, and valuation classes.
Reconciled goods movement processing, goods issues, and goods receipts. Used Modules CO-CCA Cost Center Accounting and CO-OM Overhead Cost Control daily in analytical responsibilities. Responsible for interfacing data between Legacy System and SAP. Manager of team to provide both Functional Training to company employees. Member of ABAP Report development committee involved with Analyzing, Tuning and SAP Modification. Developed Report Painter and Report Writer programs to meet needs of management. My Essay School! Project Manager for conversion of payroll time keeping system to KRONOS and integration with LAWSON payroll program. Developed Activity Based Cost Accounting System using OROS software and interfaced with SAP.
Beta Laval - Westford, WI. Manufacturing of Dairy Industry pipes, values and fittings. Stevenson Paper, Inc. - Westford, WI. Wholesale Paper and Industrial Products distributor. Branch Manager - Green Bay. Operations Manager - Milwaukee. Master of Business Administration, University of Wisconsin. Bachelor of Business Administration, University of Wisconsin Major: Accounting. Samples represent that of an actual working technical professional found on the WEB and modified to protect the privacy of these professionals. Leysin American! Human names, company names, colleges, software product names are intentionally made up.
Simon has 17 years experience at the implementation and operation of how to think Roedean School, ERP systems. Simon worked in many implementations projects in different roles from elsevier review system analyst to project manager and was involved in critical thinking workbook Mercersburg, all aspects of implementation. Apart from that Simon has operational experience in Production Planning and Material Management. At early 1997 Simon started working at IBM IGS Israel as an SAP PP consultant. Since early 1999 Simon has been working in Leysin School, the USA where he completed by now three SAP Projects.
Currently employed by write in an essay auf dem DigitalWare Corporation. Certified APO Consultant: Two weeks full-time SAP APO Advanced Supply Chain Planning Optimization Training at the SAP Training Center at Chicago, IL. Certified PP Consultant: Five weeks full-time SAP PP track at the SAP Training Center at UK. B.Sc. Degree in Industrial Engineering 4 years, full time , Tel-Aviv University 1984 . Certified System Analyst 1990 . TOC Theory of Constrains, Constrained based Planning Seminar. 1994.
Full life cycle Implementation Projects 4 : Primary Module: PP - Production Planning / SCM. Secondary Module: MM - Material management LIS Logistic Information System / Flexible Planning Other modules exposure, integration and detail knowledge: SD Sale and Distribution / Supply-Chain PS Project System Upgrade Projects 2 Accelerated SAP ASAP Project one of the above 4 . Team Leader on SAP development project Technical skills: ABAP, CATT, ABAP Query. Elsevier Leysin! Industry exposure: Food, Metal, High-Tech. Training: Class Instructor on PP LIS Modules, Preparation of training scenario/documentation. PP Production Planning / Supply Chain. Implementation of the standard functionality of the thinking critically Northfield Hermon, PP module. Make-to-Stock and review School Make-to-Order environment.
Work experience includes the following PP sub-modules: Sales Operation Planning, Demand Management, Long Term Planning, MPS, MRP, Production Orders, Capacity Planning, Product Costing. Help Essay Vrije Universiteit! Analysis and configuration of PP Master Data including Material Master, Work Centers, BOM, Routing and CAPP. Other areas: Inter-Plant Planning, Sub-Contracting. Duties performed included analyzing business requirements, carrying out elsevier review Leysin School fit-gap analysis, process design, customization, and resolution of bugs with OSS and ABAP programmers. ATP configuration for writing Rosseau, PP, MM SD modules. Preparation and presentation of new concepts and solutions to senior management. Special emphasizes on the ability to implement overall Supply Chain/ logistic planning cycle and deliver business results: improved customer service and reduced inventory levels. Preparation and execution of key users training classes.
Team Leader on SAP development project to enhance Make-to-Order/ Project System functionality. MM Material management. Detailed knowledge of purchasing, material files, and stock handling processes. Work experience includes the following MM sub-modules: Inventory Management, Forecast Based Planning, Purchasing, Vendor Evaluation and Physical Inventory. SD Sale and Distribution.
Detailed knowledge of sales processes from supply chain perspective. Elsevier Leysin American! Work experience includes distribution functions, cross-plant distribution, ATP across plants and delivery procedures. PS Project System. Detailed knowledge of essay writing Lake College, integration points between PP/MM and PS. Experience with operation of Project System processes. LIS Logistic Information System. Detailed knowledge of LIS, implementation of review Leysin School, LIS including both Standard Flexible Analysis. Conceptualization, design and management of development project. My Essay Kingswood School! ABAP: Report design and programming. ABAP Query reporting. CATT Data upload.
Preparation of training scenarios on the system, training documentation. Class Instructor on School, PP LIS Modules. Application software skills MS Office : presentation, spreadsheet, word processing applications and Access Database. Morgan Korea - The Korean subsidiary of Morgan. Project: Managed by SAP America. Overall implementation covering modules FI/CO, PP, MM SD.
This is an thinking Accelerated SAP project that focus on implementing R/3 version 4.6C quickly with a small team in order to meet budget constrains SME market . School! The project is based on essay Lake College, the PCC Pre-Configured Client for consumer industries a component of ASAP methodology and elsevier School tools. Role: Sr. SAP PP and Kingswood MM Consultant. Implementation of standard functionality of the PP and MM module of version 4.6C of review American School, R/3 in a discrete manufacturing Make-to-Stock environment. Duties includes analyzing business requirements, carrying out fit-gap analysis, process design, customization, master data upload, integration testing, key users training and resolution of bugs with OSS. PP sub-modules implemented: Sales Operation Planning, Demand Management, Long Term Planning, MRP, Production Orders, Capacity Planning, Product Costing. Analysis and configuration of PP Master Data including Material Master, Work Centers, BOM and Rosseau College Routing.
PP Master Data upload via CATT s including Material Master, Work Centers and BOM. Significant involvement in review Leysin American, the MM module implementation, business process design and fit-gap analysis. Dassin Industries - The world leader Engineer-to-Order Production Lines Machines cooperation. This project was part of a worldwide SAP implementation and critically Northfield is responsible for elsevier review American, USA, Canada and UK sites. The project offices are located in Wisconsin, USA.
Project: Overall implementation covering modules FI/CO, PS, PP, MM, WM, SD. The project included: Implementing R/3 version 4.6C for a large new site. Upgrade project from 4.0B to 4.6C. Support for other 4.0B sites. Role: Sr. SAP PP Consultant. This project was highly integrated in nature and requires knowledge of several modules and School integration understanding in order to make a contribution. Planning issues includes both Make-to-Order and Make-to-Stock strategies. Elsevier Review Leysin American School! PP sub-modules implemented: Sales Operation Planning, Demand Management, MRP, Production Orders, Capacity Planning, Product Costing and Sub-Contracting. Analysis and essay writing College configuration of PP Master Data including Material Master, Work Centers, BOM, Routing and CAPP due to the engineering nature of the organization the project had strong emphasis on PP Master Data creation procedures and review Leysin American interface with a PDM product . Integration points included strong emphasis on integration with the PS module as well as MM, WM, SD and CO.
CAPP Master Data upload via CATT s. ATP configuration for on school Lake, SD, MM missing parts and PP. SAP development project: Conceptualization, design and management. This project provides enhancements to standard SAP for review Leysin American School, Make-to-Order environment. The unique aspect about this project was that it provided new functionality without ANY modification to standard SAP code. TDR Steel - One of the largest steel companies in the USA. The main facility is think Roedean School located near Chicago and other three production plants and distribution centers are spread across the nation. Project: Overall implementation and project covering modules FI, CO, MM, PP, SD of elsevier review Leysin American School, R/3 version 3.0F. The project took place in a multi-company/ multi-plant environment and included upgrade project from 3.0F to 4.5B. Role: SAP PP and MM Sr. Consultant. Implementation of write a quote Institut, standard functionality of the elsevier review Leysin, PP module of version 3.0F of R/3 in a discrete manufacturing environment.
Duties include analyzing business requirements, carrying out fit-gap analysis, process design, heavy customization, training key users, and resolution of bugs with OSS and ABAP programmers. The client recognizes that my work led to significant improvements in business results in the Supply-Chain area including substantial reduction in stock levels and improved customer service. PP sub-modules implemented: Sales Operation Planning, Demand Management, MRP, Production Orders, Capacity Planning, Product Costing and Rosseau Lake Sub-Contracting. Elsevier American! Analysis and configuration of PP Master Data including Material Master, Work Centers, BOM and Routing. LIS.
ATP configuration for SD and PP. MM sub-modules implemented: Forecast Based Planning, Purchasing, Vendor Evaluation and Physical Inventory. ABC Japan IS unit at Tokyo, Japan. Role: Training assignment: Preparation of critical Academy, training scenarios on the system, training documentation. Class Instructor on PP LIS Modules. SEDECO Netherlands - Seed Business.
Role: SAP PP Consultant. Improvement/ support re the standard functionality of the PP module in a discrete manufacturing environment. Customer: Lock-Safe Ltd. - The largest security doors and locks concern in Israel with exports to the EC USA. Project: Overall implementation and roll-out project covering modules FI, CO, MM, PP, SD of R/3 version 3.0F. The project is taking place in a multi-company 5 , multi-plant environment. Role: SAP PP Consultant. Implementation of standard functionality of the review American, PP module of version 3.0F of R/3 in discrete manufacturing environment. Duties include analyzing business requirements, carrying out fit-gap analysis, process design, customization, training key users, resolution of how to think School, bugs with OSS and ABAP programmers.
The project is American characterized by unique PP solutions per company/plant, large amount of Kingswood School, master data and elsevier Leysin complexity of logistics processes. Role: PP track at essay Universiteit Amsterdam, the SAP Training Center at UK April 1997 . Further PP training. Pre-Sale support of SAP including product presentation to Leysin potential customers and preparation of quotes for SAP projects. Other ERP/MRP Projects/Engagements. GURON Information Systems. Role: Founder Owner Manager. Guron is the sole representative of Inmass/MRP MRP System in to write essay Vrije, Israel.
During 1996 Inmass/MRP has been sold and installed at 5 High-Tech Companies, among them Metalink NASDAQ: MTLK , US Robotics Israel, Aptel Ltd. Simon has done the Product Management for all companies. Main: Sales, Pre Post Sale Support, Product Management, implementation of elsevier Leysin American, Inmass/MRP. Role: Manager of Information Systems. Implementation of INMASS/MRP. Implementation of TQM projects. 50 reduction of Raw Material Stock and overall improvement of the company Operation Process.
Development of applications in MS Access. Telecom Australia Pty Ltd. Note: From July 1990 to April 1993 my family and my essay service I have lived in American School, Sydney Australia. Role: MRP System Specialist. Implementation of SYMIX ERP/MRP System. Operational responsibilities to Production Planning Control, Purchasing and Stock of PABX Product Line. Israeli Military Industries employed by a Software House named Informix. Role: Project Leader Senior Consultant. AMAPS MRP package.
The current Client Server version is DB Implementation, multi-plant environment at three Divisions, mainly at thinking Northfield Mount Hermon, the Rockets Systems Division. ARDS Food Industries - the largest food company in elsevier Leysin American, Israel. Role: Purchasing System Implementation Project Leader. AMAPS Purchasing module Implementation in thinking critically, a multi-plant environment. Participation on elsevier Leysin American School, the overall Implementation in a multi-plant environment. J. Gladstone Assoc. - Consulting Engineers During university studies. Role: Various projects: Optimization of Northfield, Work Processes, Warehouses, Plant Layout and Time Study.
MS Access for Developers - 1995 MFG/PRO ERP package course - 1993 SYMIX ERP package course - 1992 AMAPS MRP package courses - 1984-5. Samples represent that of an review Leysin American actual working technical professional found on the WEB and modified to protect the privacy of these professionals. Thinking Workbook! Human names, company names, colleges, software product names are intentionally made up. I am providing a resume that highlights some of my skills in SAP with specific details focussed on my training and Project Management skills. I am an incorporated individual who has spent the last 7 years providing management, training and support for review Leysin School, 8 SAP implementations. To Write Essay! My value add is review Leysin American School my strong grasp of thinking critically Mount, business needs and broad knowledge of elsevier Leysin, SAP process requirements with the view to changing business processes and enabling end users. My roles during this time have included: Project manager for how to think critically School, several midsize technical and review Leysin American training projects. Change Management leader for rebuilding quote to cash sales process Process Planner for SAP and Operational Support. Team lead for critical workbook Mercersburg, operational and SAP Helpdesks. Course Creator and Editor of SAP training in PS, PM, FI/CO, MM and HR.
SAP End User Trainer for PS, PM, MM and HR. Career Manager, Mentor and trainer of junior staff, field trainers and super users. Escalation and Change Control Coordinator. My exposure to business has included both domestic and international oil and review Leysin American School gas production and distribution, electrical and telecommunications utilities, grain marketing and educational and government environments. I have the strong business background that enables me to map work processes to application functionality. My Master s degree in Computer Applications, computer network certification Novell CNE , and Win95 support certification provide the strong technical skills and broad knowledge base for developing efficient solutions to complex issues.
I can provide you with the skills needed to sustain your clients in thinking Northfield Hermon, responding to the challenges of implementing new technology. Leysin! I thank you for your attention in this matter and urge you to call me to discuss this or any questions you may have. I look forward to that conversation. Samples represent that of an actual working technical professional found on the WEB and modified to protect the privacy of these professionals. Human names, company names, colleges, software product names are intentionally made up. 40 Green Ivy Ave. Revere, WI 54313. An outstanding technical leader in the SAP R/3 Basis and how to critically cross application environment with over 20 years of experience in information systems including 10 years supporting SAP. Has been involved in elsevier review School, planning, implementation and support of SAP R/3 and R/2 Basis systems. Has experience with SAP R/3 releases 2.2, 3.0, 3.1, 4.0, 4.5, 4.6 and thinking critically WAS 6.10.
Also has experience with BW and APO. Has been very successful in mentoring the client staff at each of his assignments due to extensive teaching experience. Experienced in team leadership and technical project management. Team player who always gets the job done. SAP R3 Experience Highlights:
6 years of Basis planning, implementation and support. 6 years of review Leysin American, system tuning and performance. 5 years corrections and transport. 5 years troubleshooting and debugging including RFC, gateway, ALE, Workflow . 4 years security with full security implementations and profile generator. 4 years troubleshooting functional problems including ABAP trace.
4 years installation and upgrade. 4 years UNIX HP, DEC, AIX 4 years NT 3 years ALE 3 years backup and recovery 2 years ABAP with screen painter and essay writing Lake menu painter 2 years Internet, ITS, IAC 1+ years APO 1+ years BW 1 year Workflow 1 year Archiving. JSB10 - System Administration I. JSB20 - System Administration II UNIX, Oracle. JSB40 - System Administration III CTS. CA010 - SAP Authorization Concept. BC - SAP R/3 Performance. BC - SAP ABAP 4.0 Update.
BC600 - SAP Business Workflow Introduction. BC610 - Building and using SAP Business Workflow. BC355 - APO Administration. BC555 - Livecache Administration. March 2001 Current. Project: Internal SAP Projects - March 2002 Current. Provided Basis support for 20 systems. Provided APO support Provided BW support. Review Leysin American! Provided ITS and Workplace support. Supported MS Exchange Connector. Help To Write Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam! Provided Corrections and Transport support with STMS.
Installations and upgrades APO 20B,30A, BW 20B,21C,30A Provided SAP Security support. Project: Advanced Education - April 2001 March 2002. Provided Basis support for 15 systems. Review School! Provided APO support Provided BW support. Involved in how to think critically Roedean School, problem solving of many functional problems. Helped manage technical aspects of ASAP. Supported SAP on review Leysin, IBM AIX/SP UNIX and Red Hat Linux. Provided ITS support for Collaborative Demand Planning, BW Web Reporting and R/3 Web reporting.
Set up Central User Administration. Helped develop the time zone strategy. Helped setup MS Exchange Connector and Fax Sr. connections. Academy! Provided Corrections and Transport support with STMS. December 1999 March 2001. Project: Fidelity Group, North America - June 2000 March 2001. Provide Basis support for elsevier review Leysin School, 9 systems. Team Leader of 46C upgrade. How To A Quote In An Auf Dem Rosenberg! Provided Corrections and Transport support. Provided Performance tuning and monitoring support. Elsevier Leysin American School! Completed several systems copies and refreshes.
Completed several Oracle restores and recoveries using ADSM. Client copies of critically School, large production clients. Helped troubleshoot application problems. Supported SAP on IBM AIX/SP UNIX with ADSM and EMC2. HACMP testing and support Archiving. Project: Sacramento/Pharmacia - December 1999 June 2000. Provided Basis Support for 23 systems 5 production with 57 servers Provided Corrections and review Leysin American Transport support Provided support for printers, OSS, and security. Think Critically School! Provided Monitoring and troubleshooting of RFC and Gateways. Provided Performance tuning and monitoring Installed Archiving Information System and Legacy System Management tools Applied SAP Notes to 23 systems. Implemented Technical Upgrade of elsevier review American School, 3.1H HP34-HP58 with retrofit of SAP Notes Used ABAP trace and other tools to solve application problems Provide monitoring and troubleshooting for ALE problems.
Helped with upgrade of R3 3.1H to how to think critically Roedean School 46B and installed Platform-independent GUI Created Data Dictionary components in support of review School, ABAP development Supported SAP on Compaq and HP UNIX. December 1996 December 1999. Project: ABC - July 1999 November 1999. Provided all the Basis support for implementation of 45B on my essay service Kingswood School, Windows NT Provided Corrections and Transport support with STMS Installed KPMG R2I Chemical Template and SAP Consumer Products Installed 4.5B and upgraded from 4.0B to American 4.5B. Critical Academy! Used Document Management System, Archiving and did XIOS planning. Installed ITS and used IACs to communicate between SAP and Internet.
Did Planning and Sizing for APO,B2B, and BIW. Project: Ashley Pump - June 1999. Performed a Basis audit on Windows NT and SAP 4.0B system Provide infrastructure planning Did performance and tuning on 4.0B development and production systems. Project: Great Builders - March 1999 April 1999. Recommended changes to Windows NT SAP system based on Audit Review Worked on Business Workflow in classification system Provided Performance and tuning recommendations Analyzed their SAP file systems and gave archiving recommendations. Created automated startup and shutdown scripts. Project: Dragonfly - August 1998 February 1999. Provided all the Basis support for implementation of 4.0B on Windows NT Provided Corrections and review School Transport support with STMS Installed WINFAX and thinking Mercersburg connected to SAP FAX interface Provided a Full Security Implementation with Profile Generator Provided all Network support and Windows NT support. Provided Functional support implementing MM, PM, HR, PP, SD, WM, QM Wrote 2 applications in Leysin School, ABAP including transactions with screen and thinking Northfield menu painter. Project: SAP America at Cupertino - February 1997 July 1998. Provided Basis Support for 27 systems 5 production Provided Corrections and Transport support Applied SAP Notes to 25 systems.
Used ABAP trace and other tools to solve application problems Provided Security troubleshooting and support Provide support and troubleshooting for elsevier Leysin, Workflow, ALE, and ITS Installed beta SAP IAC for critically Northfield Mount Hermon, web requisitioning Provided Monitoring and troubleshooting of RFC and elsevier American School Gateways Provided Performance tuning and monitoring Supported SAP on essay Vrije Amsterdam, Digital and HP UNIX. Project: SAP America at elsevier, Groton Networking - December 1996 and March 1997. Installed 3.0E on AIX Upgraded 3.0E to my essay service Kingswood School 3.0F on AIX. Warren Clark Corporation. October 1990 December 1996.
SAP R/3 Technical Project Leader. Responsible for American, planning, implementation and support of the SAP R/3 Infrastructure and UNIX system management. Upgrades and thinking Mercersburg Academy Production responsibilities in the areas of: Capacity Planning System Tuning Back-up and Recovery System Maintenance Procedures User Security Correction and Transport Responsible for System Tuning, Database Administration and Operating System support for production site. SAP R/2 Technical Support. Responsible for planning, implementation and elsevier review Leysin American support of R/2 Infrastructure for Europe and Australia R/2 systems. Upgrades and Production responsibility in write service Kingswood School, the areas of: Capacity Planning System Tuning System Configuration Analyzed performance options of VSE and MVS and then assisted in moving R/2 system to MVS. Project leader for Lotus Notes Infrastructure design and implementation. Elsevier Review Leysin! Web server implementation on Northfield Mount, Sun Solaris Responsible for performance of review School, MVS systems and associated software. Ariadna Mutual Life Insurance Company. Capacity and Equipment Planning.
Responsible for Institut Rosenberg, all mainframe equipment purchases. Managed a capital equipment budget, which averaged 5 million per year, including the purchase of a 10 million Amdahl computer and millions of review, dollars in disk purchases. Responsible for managing performance of MVS systems. MVS Systems Programmer. Responsible for MVS and essay writing Lake JES3 systems. Installations and upgrades of MVS, JES3 and elsevier review American School other infrastructure products. Problem solving for all MVS systems. Responsible for disaster recovery for MVS systems. Bachelor of Science, Mathematics, University of Wisconsin. Master of Science, Mathematics, University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee. Qualifying and help to write Vrije Universiteit Preliminary PHD Exams, Mathematics,
University of elsevier Leysin School, Wisconsin-Milwaukee. Samples represent that of an essay writing on school Rosseau Lake College actual working technical professional found on Leysin, the WEB and modified to protect the privacy of these professionals. Write My Essay Service Kingswood! Human names, company names, colleges, software product names are intentionally made up. SAP HR, MM - ABAP Technical / Functional Consultant. SAP R/3 Team Lead Technical Consultant with 5+ years experience in elsevier Leysin School, HR, MM, SD, FI/CO and thinking Mercersburg Academy PM up to version 4.6 C 4 years US experience, including Public Sector, Pharmaceutical, manufacturing, transport, Process Industries and big 5. Worked in Full life cycle implementation, Upgradation Project. ABAP skills set include Data Archive Reports, BDC, Data Dictionary,Report Writer, SAP Script, Transactions, ALE, Idoc, Query,Interface programming, SAP Business Work Flow. 16 years rich functional experience in manufacturing industries Excellent communication skills and natural team player. Software: SAP R/3, Forms-4.5 and Reports 2.5/ Developer 2000 Languages: ABAP/4, C SAP Modules: HR, MM, SD, PM, FI/CO. BS Mechanical Engineering. Diploma in review American, Management. Post Graduate Diploma in Marketing Management.
Diploma in Unix, C and Oracle. 1. Johnson Systems, Inc., Atlanta, GA. ABAP Technical Consultant - SAP HR / 4.6C CEI. Environment: IBM - Server and Windows 2000 / Windows ME - PC. Responsibilities: Worked on critically School, the out bound interface from SAP to review School Frick Company dealing with Unemployment data . Analysis of the existing system Gathering requirements for the development of College, Interface Preparing User Interface design documentation. Develop the program Test the program with respect to its performance and accuracy.
Transport the program from Development box to Quality assurance box. 2. Durham Cement, Littleton, NH. June 01 to Nov 01. ABAP Technical Consultant - SAP HR / 4.6C CEI. Environment: IBM - Server and Windows 2000 / Windows ME - PC. Analysis of the elsevier American School, existing system Gathering requirements for thinking critically Northfield Hermon, the development of review American, Interface User exits. Preparing User Interface design documentation. Develop the write my essay Kingswood, program Test the program with respect to its performance and American School accuracy. Transport the program from Development box to Quality assurance and Production box.
Worked on the following User Exits and Interfaces. Benefit Life / ADD Plan - To change Employee Cost and how to a quote essay Employer Credit for each age band and salary. Benefit Retiree Plan - Using Custom Table Flex dollar amount obtain employee / employer cost. Salary and Leysin Age freeze for Life/ADD and LTD Plans. Cats User exit for single screen solution for employee Pay information for HR/Payroll and employee time for work order. Critical Mercersburg Academy! Refresh Cat2 time entry screen when wrong entry made. New Hire Data Payroll data to Frick Company Unicare Dependent Care Spending Unicare Health care spending Unicare - Medical Dental Eligibility Credit Union Deductions Gelco-cost Center data Incentive Pay details. Also developed Custom Info type - 9000 tables. 3. Mayflower Pharmaceuticals, Boston, MA.
ABAP Technical Consultant - SAP HR / 4.6C CEI. Environment: Main frame Sever - Windows 98 / 2000 - PC. Analysis of the existing Legacy Reports Gathering requirements for elsevier, the development of the help Vrije Universiteit, report program. Preparing User design documentation. Develop the program Test the program with respect to its performance and accuracy.
Transport the program from Development box to Quality assurance and Production box. Worked on the following reports: Event management reports Employee turn over reports Compensation Report Age years of review Leysin American School, service Report Benefit Insurance plan premium report HMO Participants to vendor report Group Universal Life Payments report. 4. American Airlines, Fort Worth, TX. ABAP Technical Consultant - SAP HR / 4.6C CEI. Environment: Main frame Sever - Windows 98 / 2000 - PC. Analyzed Payroll and Time management reports requirement and prepared High level and detailed specification and collected basic requirement for my essay School, coding the Report programs. Performed Gap analysis and formatting report specification. Preparing User design documentation.
Develop the program Test the program with respect to elsevier review American its performance and accuracy. Some of the reports are: Shift time recording report. Wage type statement. Tax setup exemptions. Workers Compensation information report. 5. Mount Hermon! MIRAMIS Pharmaceuticals, Rochester, NY. ABAP Technical Consultant - SAP HR / 4.0b. Environment: Windows NT Sever - Windows NT - PC. Worked as Technical Consultant in the OMNI Project - implementation of elsevier, Gross to Net Payroll and merging of two company data RPR HMR . Performed Gap analysis and formatting report specification.
Preparing User design documentation. Develop the program Test the program with respect to its performance and accuracy. The following are some of the Mount, work done by me here: Created a Dynamic Program to update Info type 0003 whenever Info type 0014 or 0015 created for retired and elsevier review Leysin School terminated people. Worked on Schema to extract information for Insurance Benefit using UBEN features and User Exits Modified STD SAP RPLICO10 program - Flexible employee report to suit client requirement. Northfield Mount! Developed a Interface program for Metlife Insurance company. Modified STD SAP RPCLJNU0 Payroll Journal Report to elsevier review American School suit client requirement. Write Kingswood School! Modified Remuneration statement Report RPCEDTUO to suit client requirement. Labor and Liability report Deduction Wage type Summary reports. Base Payroll / Work Hours Report. 6. Review! Advanced Technologies, Raleigh, NC.
Team Lead ABAP Pricing - SAP MM / SD - 4.5b. Environment: IBM - main frame Server - IBM -PC. Worked as Team Lead in MMLC- Pricing Technical team consisting of Mercersburg, six members both as support function and testing of elsevier review Leysin, Data Integrity in critical thinking workbook Mercersburg Academy, 4.5b version of SAP MM module and SD Module. Performed Gap analysis and formatting Program specification. Preparing User design documentation. Develop the program Test the program with respect to its performance and accuracy. Worked in the following Areas: Worked on review School, Parallel currency and Euro currency in the pricing table Enhance Program ZDMRFAXX - for pricing with development class ZDMM Update Pricing tables - ZPRCTAB, ZDMRFA.
Changed Table Domain to accommodate increased Italian Lire currency and modified Screen using Screen painter. Modified Program ZDMLOGRP to show errors in the count. 7. Write A Quote! Amtrak, New Ark, NY. ABAP Technical Team Lead - SAP HR Payroll- 4.0b. Environment: IBM - AS400 Server With Windows 98 PC. Led a team of review American, four members in Mount Hermon, designing, implementing and elsevier review Leysin maintaining the project plan for implementing Data Migration and Interface between SAP and Legacy. Data Archived for data conversion from ASCII character to SAP system using EBCDIC Charter set Worked on SAP Business Work Flow related to essay Universiteit Amsterdam Employee Hiring including employee events such as when an employee is review Leysin American hired, or leaves the writing on school Rosseau Lake, company, or is elsevier review Leysin reassigned within the company. Responsible for the analysis Work Flow like New Hire, Leave of help to write essay Universiteit Amsterdam, Absence LOA , Termination, Retirement with pay, Retirement without pay Design of batch programs, documentation, testing, and Data migration of over thirty info types in elsevier Leysin, organizational management, Payroll, Tax, benefits and workbook Academy Master data for over forty thousand employees. Use Interface toolbox PU12 to elsevier upload master data interface from flat file to SAP with a specific format using Interface Toolbox Conversion master data, payroll data, Benefit Tax data with a specific format using Interface Toolbox Responsible to create Batch data conversion program for migration of Northfield Mount, Legacy data into SAP data in to elsevier Leysin American Master data, Payroll, Benefit, and tax Info types like Group1- basic Info type 0000,0001,0002. Group2-Info types 0006, 0007, 0008, Group3-Info types 0014,0015, Group4- Info types 0207,0208,0209,0210, Group5- Info types 0169, 0170 etc.
Responsible for the analysis, design of Interface programs, documentation, testing of out bound interface and custom info types. Developed an ADP interface including code mapping to wage types using custom code in essay Rosseau, the processing time for block of ADP master data. Developed three Interface Programs for Wyatt using Idoc. Additional responsibilities - Post Implementation Support in identification of errors and eliminating them. 8. Kruger Cements, Arlington, PA. ABAP Technical Consultant, SAP- 3.1h - PM. Environment: Unix Sever - Windows PC. Responsible for creation of Batch program for data migration in Plant maintenance module, testing and documentation of data transfer. Utilize Proteus tool to create Batch data programs linking various fields with rules.
9. Parametric Decisions, Nashville, TN. Functional consultant in SAP HR 3.1h. Environment: Oracle Database NT-server - Windows PC. Responsible for the analysis of Payroll reports, Gap analysis and formatting report specification. Some of the reports are. State / Local Tax body info report Tax body Audit trial report Payroll balancing Wage Tax information report Check / Advances in excess of 5000 10000 report.
Workers Compensation report. Responsible for creation of technical coding sheet with various fields. Responsible for creating specification for testing reports and classifying them. 10. Duglas Brothers Incorporation, Chicago, IL. SAP Functional / Technical consultant MM.
Environment: Unix Server - Windows PC. Member of MM Functional team in American School, identifying upgrade requirements. My Essay Service Kingswood School! Responsible in identification of elsevier, up gradation patches and applied patches. Responsible in thinking Mercersburg Academy, creating program for pricing using BOM, Customer over due balance. Responsible in creating SD reports Daily Customer Unshipped orders, back order.
Enhancement of Program RFDOPR00 FI Customer evaluation over due balance . 11. Alpha Petrochemical Company, Saudi Arabia. ABAP Technical consultant. in SAP HR 3.0e Payroll. Environment: Main-frame Server - Windows PC. Responsible to Prepared detailed design documentation for Technical requirement. Responsible to review Leysin develop Report Program. Some of the SAP-reports upgraded to suit client requirement: Wage type summary - Program name RFFOD_U Pay roll summary - Program name RPCLGAOO Payroll register - Program name RPCLSTRX Bank list for help to write essay, direct deposit - Program name RFFOD_U Gosi Report - Emp No wise - Program name RPCLSTRX Gosi Report - Gosi No wise - Program name RPCLSTRX Introduction of review Leysin American School, Cheque no in writing Rosseau Lake College, Allocation field - Program name SAPMF05L. The following are some of the elsevier Leysin American School, reports developed. Temporary Employees list Employee wise monthly Travel and Expenses report Reservation Ticketing MM module Polyethylene movement summary FI/MM/SD - module Reservation Pick Ticketing Shop Paper - PM module Monthly work schedule for essay Universiteit Amsterdam, the employees. 12.
ABC Software International Ltd., Madras, India. Functional Consultant - SAP MM, 3.0e. Responsible for the analysis, design, configuration, documentation, testing, and final implementation of Details will be given separately Materials Management Inventory Management System Warehouse Management System. Details of Functional experience spanning sixteen years in Engineering IT Related Manufacturing Industries will be provided upon review School request. Materials management Module. MM005: Overview of Materials Management.
MM010: Introduction to Materials Management; MM020: Purchasing Guide; BC160 : ABAP/4 for help to write Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, new Programmers; BC030 : R/3 Data dictionary. BC170 : ABAP/4 Programming;
BC175 : Report programming techniques. BC180 : ABAP/4 Data Interfaces; BC185 : Programming logical databases. BC200 : ABAP/4 Query; BC220 : Introduction to On-line Programming. BC230 : Advanced techniques in On-line Programming; CA110 : SAP Script Texts, styles, Layout sets. CA120 : SAP Script Programming interface.
Samples represent that of an review American actual working technical professional found on essay Rosseau Lake, the WEB and modified to protect the privacy of these professionals. Human names, company names, colleges, software product names are intentionally made up. 1204 Hillcrest Drive. Irving, TX 76207. Results oriented, team player who can significantly reduce costs improve organizational efficiency using skills in Enterprise Resource Planning ERP , Project Management, Finance Training. Business Process Improvement Customer focused.
SAP configuration Project Management MBA, financial planning Training development, delivery. Horizon, Dallas, TX. SAP SYSTEMS SPECIALIST. Saved Horizon 30 million with implementation of American, Warehouse Management WM process via SAP Plant Maintenance PM and essay writing on school Rosseau Lake Materials Management MM modules Performed requirements gathering, analysis, and mapping of business processes Configured Plant Maintenance: FLOC, equipment, orders, master data Configured Materials Management: master data, material codes, storage locations Production Planning PP module experience: MRP, BOM, work centers Also worked with the following modules: Asset Accounting AA , Project Systems PS Created ABAP and Workflow design specification documents, utilized user exits Wrote Design Interface Specifications to legacy systems, Smallword COEMOD Worked with programmers, debugging coding and interfaces Performed system testing, unit, string, integration, with negative positive scenarios Wrote test scripts, performed system validation, and production support Performed data cleansing,conversion with extracts using Access VBA SAP IBIP Created training documentation, trained all levels of users at elsevier review American School, multiple locations Handled support Help Desk issues for users in thinking critically Northfield, several states Coordinated security issues and all changes to user authorization profiles Developed SQL reports on Horizon s Data Warehouse system VFrame pulling data from 90 different systems including SAP, PeopleSoft Hyperion using the Viador web portal. North America Computers, Dallas, TX. SAP SYSTEMS SPECIALIST. Saved North America Computers 10 million with implementation of SAP modules, Sales Distribution SD , Materials Management MM and American HR Training Events module Promoted from National Training Contracts Project Manager Won Best Run Project award from CEO of SAP, 1999 Configured SAP Sales Distribution, 32,000 orders at 5M per month Configured SAP Materials Management MM Utilized recursive Bill of Materials BOM Configured HR Training Events, handling 1 million customers per year Also worked with the following modules: Finance FI , Control CO Directed go-live and production support operations Supervised both configuration and ABAP customization Created training documentation, trained users at critical workbook Mercersburg, multiple locations Handled Help Desk issues for 200 locations, 800 people. Instruments Maintenance, Amarillo, TX.
ORG DEVELOPMENT SPECIALIST. Played major role in TI s winning of the Baldrige National Quality award in elsevier Leysin American School, 1992 Directed TQM and help to write essay Universiteit Teaming for Excellence project, over 2000 participants Facilitated Strategic Planning process, won UNT best paper award Managed all IT division performance measurements, reduced cost/turn-over Utilized the Oregon Productivity Matrix, improved team accountability Coordinated SEI related activities, tracked group metrics Directed all Quality Programs and related training Implemented Motorola s Six Sigma, tailored to software staff Taught Cycle Time Defect Reduction, participated on design teams Certified as DDI team trainer, delivered 100 classes. Instruments Maintenance, Amarillo, TX. IT FINANCIAL MANAGER. Promoted from Computer Operations Manager, reduced cost 25M per year Consolidated control staff, reduced from 5 sites to 1 Managed financials for elsevier review Leysin American School, 24 cost centers, 20 computer product lines Directed capital acquisitions, division allocations and streamlined process Negotiated maintenance contracts with Honeywell, Xerox saving 12m annually Implemented SAS interface to voucher register, improving lease accrual process. Instruments Maintenance, Amarillo, TX. Promoted to School Department Planner, improved MLO forecast variances Managed manufacture of E-Beam Systems, electrical and mechanical assemblies Handled 250K in purchased components, implemented master scheduling Coordinated fabrication with machine shop, improved cycle time Monitored final system test in clean room facility, completed life cycle study. SAP Plant Maintenance L0100, PM configuration L0815, 2000.
SAP Human Resources HR050, HR Training Events HR515, ASAP,1999. MBA Amberton University, Garland, TX 1993. MS Industrial Technology UNT Denton, TX 1979. BS Industrial Technology UNT Denton, TX 1975. Windows, PC and NT * SAP Sales Distribution Module SAP Plant Maintenance Module SAP Materials Management Module SQL and Oracle DB s Excel, Word, Powerpoint Access VBA coding MS Project and Lotus Notes Map Linx and elsevier Leysin American School Visio. Samples represent that of an actual working technical professional found on the WEB and modified to protect the privacy of these professionals. Essay Amsterdam! Human names, company names, colleges, software product names are intentionally made up. 154 Lakeside Drive.
Toronto, Ontario, Canada. 13 years of strong IT and Logistics Management experience including app. Review American School! 5 years of consulting on help Universiteit, core SAP Logistics modules SD, MM and WM - 4 Full Cycle projects . Experience of SAP CRM and Siebel CRM projects. Certified SAP SD and MM consultant. PMI certified Project Manager PMP . Elsevier Review School! Well versed in Project Management methodologies as in PMBOK : FAST TRACKING, CPM, PERT, EV, GANTT, WBS, and my essay service School Flow Charts. Elsevier Review Leysin! Experience of Implementing, Configuring, Customizing, Post Go Live support User training in think Roedean School, CRM, SD, MM WM.
Integration with FI/CO/PP/QM/PM. Implementation, customizing and user training of Siebel 5.0. MBA Marketing and BS Mechanical Engineering degrees. Organized and Result oriented. Highly developed project management, communication, presentation, negotiation, administrative, analytical and elsevier American School customer service skills with strong team commitment. ASAP / Value SAP Methodology SAPScript, ABAP Query, EDI/IDOC and CATT. Test Scripts, Unit Integration Testing and Post implementation support. Business Process End User Procedures. CanadaPharmex Inc., Toronto, Canada.
Principal Consultant / Project Manager. CanadaPharmex is the thinking Hermon, largest Canadian Pharmaceutical company employing more than 4500 people. Being in the healthcare sector, CanadaPharmex is elsevier review School governed under cGMP and FDA regulations. As a Principal consultant I provide 3rd. Vrije Universiteit! level support to around 600 users in SD, MM and WM. Am responsible for writing functional specs for special enhancements/modifications and for review School, coordinating developments with ABAPers. Am responsible for smooth working of interfaces with Third Party software/equipment like FMC AGV, Nova SKU and Freight Management System in warehouses, EDI Gentran Subsystem , ECCnet, Credit Card authorization system, Airmiles loyalty program and other Reseller related custom developments. As Project Manager am responsible for managing IS department projects relating to SAP enhancement, modification and development. This includes writing of Project Charters, Scope planning, resource and risk planning, issue management, implementation and post golive support. Am currently managing following projects for how to think Roedean School, Fiscal year 2002- 2003: SAP system landscape upgrade.
SAP Support package upgrade from 4.6C Support Pack 14 to Support Pack 32. CanadaPharmex Warehouse Expansion. Elsevier! Corp Review of how to write a quote essay auf dem Rosenberg, Upgrading from 4.5B to 4.6C versus moving to American School CanadaPharmex Inc. s 4.6C system. Artonics Inc., Montreal, Canada. Logistics Application Consultant. Artonics is a SAP CBS Partner for the Eastern Canadian Provinces. Was involved in following projects on behalf of Artonics: Bike Motors Corporation, Montreal, Canada, Nov.
2001 Mar. 2002. Bike Motors is the largest independent distributor of Motorbike accessories in Canada. Was the Project Manager and thinking Northfield also responsible for implementing SAP CRM 2.0C Internet Sales . Both B2B and B2C business processes were implemented. Project involved customizing of elsevier Leysin, R/3 and CRM, data replication, Web Shop creation and essay writing Rosseau Lake College activation, Product catalog maintenance publishing, special development for ATP in CRM and review School Web interface, and user exits for Northfield Mount Hermon, customer based plant determination.
Also responsible for review American, User training. Greenville Group Inc., Greenville, Canada, Feb. How To Write A Quote In An! Oct. Elsevier Review Leysin School! 2001. Greenville Group is one of the largest manufacturers, designers and distributors of caskets and funeral products in North America. Full cycle French language project involving FI/CO, MM, SD, QM, WM and critical Academy PP modules 4.6C . Review Leysin American School! Was responsible for SD and WM and also acted as proxy project manager. Main areas covered were Sales commissions, Rebates, Free Goods handling/Promotions, Special Pricing, Returns Processing, Bar Code integration, Serial Nos., EDI, Taxes, Shipping functions, Invoice lists, LIS, Variant Configuration and special Quality Notifications. Complete Warehouse setup was done in Toronto and write service Kingswood School Laval. Make to Order and American Make to Stock strategies. Also provided Super/End user training.
Telecom Networks Inc., Montreal, Canada, Jul. 2000 Feb. Writing On School College! 2001. Was a High Tech., start-up that designs and markets specialized products for the telecommunications industry. Elsevier Review School! Full cycle project involving FI/CO, MM, SD, and PP module 4.6C using Value SAP methodology. Help To Write Amsterdam! Was Team Lead for SD and MM. Review American School! Main areas covered were Variant configuration, Sales commissions, User status management, Third party operation, Consignments, Special RMA, Taxes, shipping, SIS, stock transport orders, procurement and inventory management.
Special Buy to Order strategy. Conducted Super User training. Spot Consulting at how to essay Institut auf dem, Hydro Quebec, Isofab, AVW Telav, Rotalec, Buscuit Leclerc, Draxis, and elsevier review Leysin Bike Motors. Training assignments at Celestica and Isofab. BioMed Optoelectronics Inc., St. Louis, MO, USA. Feb 1999 April 2000. BioMed Optoelectronics provides Digital Imaging, Sensor, Telecommunications and Lighting technologies to Customers in on school, Biomedical, Communications and Industrial markets.
A Global roll out project involving St. Louis - USA, Vaudreuil - Canada and elsevier review Leysin Manila - Philippines. Provided SD functional expertise during project implementation and customisation phases 3.1H . Consulted, configured and fine tuned the R/3 system processes, Established master data, sales, billing, pricing and credit management. Post Go-live support. Carter Oil Ltd., Pakistan. March 1994 Feb 1999. An Affiliate of Chevron - Texaco. Team Lead Siebel Project - Nov. 1998 Feb.
1999. Mapped Business processes, performed requirements analysis and help to write functional customization to create customer information categories, individual views, tool bars and options. Trained users in elsevier Leysin American, setting options and using queries. SD Team Lead SAP Project - March 1997 Dec. 1998. A Global Template Rollout project involving India, Nepal, Bangladesh and Pakistan. School! Involved from Conceptual Design stage. Significantly contributed in As is To be analysis, Business Processes / Blue Print finalization, QA checks, Integration and User acceptance testing. Review! Organized end user documentation training. Configured: Global Settings, Organizational Structures, Free Goods using sales BOMs, complex Pricing, Rebates, Credit Management, Billing, Output determination SIS. Integration with FI/CO, PP, MM and WM.
Supervised configuration of shipping function, packing, transportation and on school Rosseau Lake College warehouse management. Area Business Manager - March 1994 March 1997. Played key role in Product availability, Packaging, Pricing and Product launch decisions. Developed and elsevier School successfully managed effective distribution network throughout the critically, region. Achieved and exceeded sales target two years in a row.
Managed sales of USD3.0M. Review School! Supervised a team of write service Kingswood, 9 Marketing Officers and reported to Distribution Manager. USF Refrigeration Industries Limited, Pakistan. Aug 1992 - March 1994. URIL is the elsevier Leysin American, largest manufacturer and marketer of essay writing on school Rosseau Lake College, durable goods in Pakistan with a staff of over 4000 and annual revenues of over USD65 million. Managed sales of Dawlance brand of consumer appliances through extensive dealer network. Elsevier Review American School! Managed complete logistics operation and sales of USD5.0M. Managed administrative and financial working of the branch and 2 warehouses. Supervised a staff of 23 and reported directly to to write Universiteit the Managing Director. United Pakistan Refinery Ltd. July 1989 Aug 1992.
UPRL is the largest multinational oil refinery in Pakistan. Planned and supervised the maintenance of rotary/stationary equipment and tank farm. Technical correspondence and labor management. OPERATING SYSTEMS: Window 95/98/2000 and Windows NT 4.0. American School! MS DOS. ERP: SAP R/3. 4.6C, 4.5A, 4.0B, 3.1H 3.0F. CRM: SAP, Siebel. Others: MS Office, MS Project, Visio, Page Maker. SAP20, LO530, LO531, WNAWMI, TASD40. Masters in Business Administration MBA . Bachelor of Engineering BS in Mechanical Engineer.
Samples represent that of an actual working technical professional found on my essay, the WEB and modified to protect the privacy of elsevier American School, these professionals. Human names, company names, colleges, software product names are intentionally made up. Michelle Flynn has over critically Northfield 15 years experience in Information Systems. She specializes in Leysin School, SAP R/3 Basis Administration and has strong leadership and technical skills. Her hardware and operating system experience includes RS/6000, AS/400, SUN Microsystems, Compaq, and Unisys using UNIX/AIX, OS/400, Solaris, and Microsoft NT respectively. Her database experience includes Oracle, DB2, and critically Hermon Microsoft SQL Server 7.0.
Her storage management experience includes EMC Symmetrix Systems. 7 Years dedicated to the SAP R/3 BASIS module, Michelle has performed Basis activities on five full end-to-end implementations. Experience includes implementation project management, hardware sizing, SAP R/3 installations and upgrades, OSS configuration, change request management, client landscape design, stress test activities, mentoring new R/3 Basis teams, R/3 monitoring, performance tuning, system administration, database administration, technical problem solving, security operating system and review School SAP , cutover tasks for SAP R/3 Go-Live, production support, storage / backup management and business continuation strategies. R/3 implementations for critically Mount, the following: a large computer retailer 2000 end-users , a large china / crystal retailer 200 end-users , a global fuse corporation 1000 end-users , a large furniture corporation 500 end-users , and a global telecommunications corporation 3000 end-users. Project planning, process workflow and elsevier School implementation, end-user training, intranet design, and database design.
R/3 Data Center Migration Lead, R/3 Performance Lead, R/3 Basis Mentor, Lead Basis Consultant, Systems Analyst/Basis Specialist, and thinking workbook Systems Administrator/Configuration Control. EMC Wizards Conference 2001, SAP TechEd 2000 1999, SAP 4.x Basis Administration Training, SAP R/3 Implementation for AS/400, SAP Core Competency Courses, SAP Basis Concepts, SAP R/3 Overview, Oracle Administration, UNIX Administration and Leysin Solaris Administration, various workshops on Basis processes and how to think Roedean School procedures. SAP Basis Certification, 1999. Computer Information Systems, Devry Technical Institute. B.S. Elsevier School! Business, Major: Marketing 1990, Utah State University. North America Computers - Dallas, TX. September 1999 June 2001. Consultant, IBM Global Services.
Industry: Retail / Computing. Hardware Platform / OS / Database: Windows NT 4.0 ? MS SQL 7. EMC Control Center, Timefinder, SRDF, PowerPath. Compaq Servers Proliant Models. Project Scope: Implementation, configuration and how to a quote in an Institut auf dem Rosenberg data center migration of SAP R/3 v. 4.5B and 4.6B . Performance Lead responsibilities included maintaining defined CPU, DASD, and response-time dialog and background process thresholds, installing and elsevier American configuring monitoring tools for EMC and SAP?s CCMS and making recommendations to thinking critically Northfield Hermon improve the performance of the Leysin American School, R/3 Systems.
Basis team Lead responsibilities included all R/3 Basis implementation tasks with emphasis on business continuation, storage management, upgrade management, and backup and recovery strategies using EMC tools Timefinder and SRDF. Components being implemented: FI, SD, TEM, BTO, BW, APO. Specific Roles: Senior SAP R/3 Basis Administrator, R/3 Data Center Migration Lead, R/3 Performance Lead, Basis Team Lead, Basis Mentor. Jane Aikens, Inc., NJ. Consultant, IBM Global Services. Industry: Retail / China, Crystal.
Hardware Platform / OS / Database: AS/400 / 0S/400 V4R4M0. Project Scope: Implementation and configuration of SAP R/3 v. 4.5B . Primary responsibility included mentoring individuals on all R/3 Basis implementation tasks ranging from write my essay service Kingswood School installation to elsevier review Leysin ?go-live? platform sizing, installation, system monitoring/tuning, system/client management, support center reorganization, pre-production analysis, etc . Modules being implemented: FI, Retail. Specific Role: Basis Consultant - SAP R/3 - IBM Global Services. Callahan Corporation, Des Plaines, IL. October 1998 August 1999. Consultant, IBM Global Services. Industry: Fuses Automotive. Hardware Platform / OS / Database: AS/400 / 0S/400 V4R3M0 / DB2. Project Scope: Implementation and configuration of SAP R/3 v. 4.0B . Responsibilities included all R/3 Basis implementation tasks ranging from installation to ?go-live? platform sizing, installation, system monitoring/tuning, system/client management, pre-production analysis, etc . Modules being implemented: FI, CO, PA, PD, MM, PP, QM, SD.
Specific Role: Lead Basis Consultant - SAP R/3. Modern Furniture, Malden, NC. September 1998 - October 1998. Consultant, IBM Global Services. Hardware Platform / OS / Database: AS/400 / 0S/400 V4R2M0 / DB2. Project Scope: Performance improvement on how to think, SAP R/3 system v. 3.1H . Responsibilities included adjusting profile parameters to improve system performance, monitoring the R/3 system log, which included analyzing, recommending, and implementing solutions. Monitoring hardware usage via OS/400 such as CPU levels, disk arm utilization, system messages, and job logs. Also, collected LIC and COMM traces for TCP/IP analysis by IBM Rochester acting as an School ?on-site? liaison between Century Furniture and IBM Rochester.
Specific Role: Basis Consultant - SAP R/3 - IBM Global Services. SouthTelecom, Irving, TX. April 1994 - July 1998. SAP Basis Administrator. Hardware Platform / OS / Database: SUN E10000 / Solaris / Oracle. Project Scope: Implementation and configuration of SAP R/3 v. 3.1H . Responsibilities included developing and how to write a quote Institut implementing policies and procedures for the GTE National SAP Support Center with emphasis on the SAP Basis change control processes. The processes consisted of control of review Leysin School, fixes OSS Notes and Hot Packages , and the corrections and transports workflow. Other Basis responsibilities included system administration and critically Roedean School profile configuration, client copies, deployment of Leysin American School, system utilities, security administration, and technical problem solving. Participated in how to Roedean, establishing a support center for 3,000 SAP R/3 end-users.
Responsibilities included SAPGUI deployment to local and remote sites. Designing and implementing the GTE SAP communications plan to notify end-users of elsevier review American School, system outages. OSS administration including functionality troubleshooting and correcting OSS connectivity outages i.e., network connections, Frame Relay connections, saprouter process and OSS user administration. How To Critically Roedean School! Applied SAP vendor code repairs. Designed and review Leysin Implemented the GTE SAP Issues Tracking System SITS which included PowerBuilder design, Oracle administration, beta testing, enterprise-wide workstation deployment, and end-user training. Populated Lotus Notes database, ?GREGG? GTE Repository of Mount, Enterprise Graphical Groupware which included in-depth analysis of the GTE legacy systems. Prior to R/3 Basis administration at GTE Corporation, Michelle was the lead Webmaster and elsevier review Leysin set up the intranet site for the upcoming SAP project team.
This intranet project included obtaining hardware, software Netscape Enterprise Server , selecting a team of my essay, webmasters for each functional and technical area in the department, training the webmasters and administering the Leysin, web server. Specific Roles: SAP Basis Administrator, Unix / NT Systems Administrator, Web Administrator / Web Master. Samples represent that of an actual working technical professional found on the WEB and modified to protect the help to write essay Universiteit, privacy of these professionals. School! Human names, company names, colleges, software product names are intentionally made up. AN INDUSTRIAL EXPERIENCE OF OVER 9 YEARS AND SAP EXPERIENCE OF OVER 6 YEARS IN HR/FI. 9 Years Total IT experience including Consulting, Implementation, development, Configuration, Production Support and Training. Implementation of service Kingswood School, complete life cycle of HR project from Project design phase, Mapping customer requirement in SAP, continuing with configuration, testing and implementation of various HR modules till supporting the end users in various sub modules of HR. Specialization in Personnel Administration Master data, Benefits, Payroll functions , Personnel development Qualifications, Appraisal management, Succession planning and integration with PA , Compensation Management including integration with PA, Time management and Organizational management including integration with cost centers in CO module. Knowledge of the country specific infotypes. Worked extensively with Wage types and their valuation. Expertise in other application areas: Employee Self Service ESS , Travel and Event Management, Time management, Travel and expense management, CATS, Integration of CATS with other modules like PP, MM, SD etc., Has extensive configuration experience as a team lead in managing HR implementation experience in version 3.1h to review Leysin School 4.6c.
Implemented projects under ASAP methodology. Hands on to write essay Vrije Amsterdam, experience in elsevier review School, ABAP/4 Designed and conducted courses for the client implementation team. Excellent communication, configuration and project management skills. M/s Addison Logistics Transportation solutions Worldwide, FL. Led workshops to obtain process configuration details for blue print and project scope determination. How To In An Essay Institut Rosenberg! Setting up of Wage types in elsevier American, Infotype 0008.
Configuration of time management data integrating with Material Management though usage of CATS Cross Application Time Sheets. Successfully configured adhoc query for flexible reports. Responsible for developing work plan for thinking Northfield Hermon, gross payroll run including supervision of Leysin American School, SAP R/3 and client resources through realization phase. Essay Writing! Interfacing HR Master data with ADP. Off cycle payroll configurations. Setting up of Benefits along with Cost implications. Review School! Integration configuration to FI/CO through wage type mapping to symbolic accounts and G/L accounts. Conceptulized and configured the Time Structures including infotype 0007. Prepared and configured Work schdueled rules and Shift rules. Configured Event Management data including cost implications.
Reviewed deliverable contents including Business Process Procedures BPP s and unit test and integration test scenarios. Go live support for Post Implementation issues from head office to how to write a quote in an Rosenberg users across geographical locations. Imparting training classes to super users. M/s Roland Lloyd Inc., NY. Conducted brainstorming sessions with the management and super users and designed the elsevier review American, Enterprise Structure, Personnel Structure and Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam Organizational structure and mapping them into review Leysin School SAP. How To Write A Quote Essay Institut Auf Dem Rosenberg! Developed design template for Global SAP HR implementation for HRIS project for elsevier review Leysin School, 87 countries round the globe. In An Auf Dem! Involved in Business Process Reengineering, change management and knowledge transfer. Involved in GAP analysis and designing of the elsevier review Leysin School, data from legacy system to SAP including data mapping to various infotypes. Altering the critical thinking workbook Mercersburg Academy, structure of the elsevier review Leysin American, standard infotypes to Mercersburg user specific designs. Configuration of Personnel administration module including setting of review American School, Action types, invoking dynamic actions.
Conceptualizing pay structure-pay grades and levels for the entire organization across different geographical locations. Configuring various wage types to suit the client requirement of various countries. Development of compensation packages for thinking critically Hermon, the organization. Linking evaluated jobs linked to positions for setting up compa ratio parameters. Configuration of Budget types, Budget values, Compensation components, setting up of eligibility rules and guidelines using matrix and calculation variants for compensation adjustments including Long term incentive plans.
Integration of Personnel development data with compensation management linking with various appraisal models. Prepared specifications for user exits. Imparted Training to various team heads across geographical locations- namely Portugal, Spain and Slovak republic. Resolved issues: If standard wage types are missing for Leysin American School, a country code, setting those wage types on country specific infotypes. Translation of data to various country specific languages and customizing the country specific infotypes for a common reporting requirement. Led the client team to design of the to be process master data maintenance in SAP. Configured various master data screens, action menus and infotype selection of menus. Led workshops to obtain process configuration details for blueprint and project scope determination. Configuring work schedule rules using a flexible calendar. Lead consultant for data mapping between legacy systems Tesseract and help essay Universiteit Amsterdam PEPOLS and SAP Personnel Administration, Organization management, time and elsevier American School Payroll infotypes. Setting up of ESS configuration linking the data to individual infotypes of employees.
Being a team member of in help to write essay, house support team had an active role in recruitment analysis and elsevier Leysin American selection procedures, analysis of staffing status. Help To Write! Streamlining of Leysin School, standard personnel actions in SAP HR module. Setting time based authorization checks using CATS including layout alterations. Setting up comprehensive benefit packages in SAP for the organization including COBRA administration. To Write Essay Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam! Configuration of payment wage types including processing classes, evaluation classes and attributes. Configuration of Gross Payroll. Elsevier Leysin! Setting up succession planning models. Creation of flexible holiday calendars in to write Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, SAP. Creation of time structures-Work Schedule rules for flexible reporting structures. Setting up of qualification structures in Personnel Development submodule.
On line support to review Leysin American all super users including FI areas. M/s West India Hotels Ltd.-A Leading company in Hospitality sector. Optimum utilization of available resources through most remunerative channel. Optimization of profitability for all departments for all operational areas. To Write Essay Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam! Systems audit for better Productivity Team member for compensation adjustment and job evaluation exercise conducted M/S McKenzie Ltd. M/S Indian Express Ltd.-A leading company in courier Industry.
Heading the accounts department integrating the accounts department with other department particularly human resource department. Chartered Accountant from The Institute Of Chartered Accountancy of India. Cost and works accountant from elsevier review American School The Institute of Cost and Works accountants of India. Oracle Financials from Northfield Mount Hermon Institute of Chartered and Financial Institute of review American, India. Trained on ASAP methodology by Pegasus Consulting group. References: Available on request. Samples represent that of an Kingswood actual working technical professional found on Leysin American School, the WEB and thinking critically Northfield Mount Hermon modified to elsevier Leysin American protect the privacy of Lake College, these professionals. Human names, company names, colleges, software product names are intentionally made up. SR. SAP ABAP/4 TECHNICAL CONSULTANT.
7 SAP Project implementations with 2 full cycle implementations Programmer/Analyst with over 5 years SAP ABAP/4 FI/CO, MM, SD, PP and IS-CD experience with SAP R/3 3.1H, 4.0B, 4.5B and 4.6C. Over 7 Years of strong industrial experience in review Leysin School, Materials Procurement, Inventory Management and Stores Management. Extensive experience in critical workbook Mercersburg Academy, Customization and Configuration in elsevier review School, MM and ABAP. Working as Senior ABAP/4 Technical Consultant on SAP Script, Classical and Interactive Reports, Dialog Programming, Interfaces, Batch Data Communication BDC ,Legacy System Migration Workbench LSMW , ABAP/4 Development Workbench, Data Dictionary, BAPI, SAP Job Scheduling, ABAP/4 Query, RFC , ABAP Debugging ,SAP Enhancements, Performance Tuning, and Cross-applications such as ALE/IDOC s. Extensively worked on ALV ABAP List Viewer Has extensive knowledge in SAP R/3 MM, SD, PP and FI modules implementation and essay Rosseau Lake automated testing tools such as Win Runner and QARun. Additional Oracle 7.3 and Visual Basic 5.0. Possesses excellent analytical, programming and communication skills.
Strong commitment, dedication and efficient problem solving. SAP IMPLEMENTATION EXPERIENCE: MAXIM Motors , Sacramento , CA Implement By CGEY DDP Tax Finance Services , Santa Clara, CA Implement By SAP AMERICA FINE Vacations, Arlington, PA Implement By NET ACROSS Lilian Travel Impressions - Subsidiary of American, American Express , Tewksbury, PA By IBM TSS Flex Solutions, Phoenix, AZ Kane Breweries Distilleries Implement By SIEMENS Alexanders Pharmaceuticals Implement By SIEMENS Dr. Clark s Laboratories Implement By SIEMENS. MAXIM MOTORS - IMPLEMENTING BY CGEY. SR.
SAP R/3 ABAP/4 CONSULTANT. Studying the to write essay Amsterdam, User requirements and existing Developed Programs and review American Layout Sets, modified Print Programs, Transactions and Layout Sets to thinking get the elsevier Leysin, User required Output. Check Print Program. This report is thinking workbook Mercersburg used to Print the Audit Report details such as Report run date, File name, User Id , First Check , Last Check, Total number of Leysin School, pages, Total amount and Check details such as Client address, Check Number, Vendor number, Document number, Invoice number, Purchase Order number, Invoice date, Amount Discount, Net amount, Vendor or Customer address, Bank address, Bank routing number, Bank account number and workbook Total amount in elsevier, words. Check with Check Management Layout Set SAP Script. Modified the existing Layout Set F110_PRENUM_CHCK to writing College get the Check Print Program Output results. Purchase Order Layout Set SAP Script. Modified the existing Layout Set MEDRUCK to review School get the Company Header and Logo depend on Company code, Supplier address, Delivery address depend on to write Vrije, Shipping instructions, P.O Number, P.O date, Purchase agent, Purchase requisition, Requester, Payment terms, General description, Total Purchase Order Value and General terms and elsevier American School Conditions. DIGITAL DATA PROCESSING - IMPLEMENTING BY SAP AMERICA.
SR. SAP R/3 ABAP/4 CONSULTANT FI/CO AND IS-CD MODULES. Studying the User requirements, Preparing High Level Technical Specifications, Preparing Technical Specification, Preparing Unit Test Plan , Coding and Testing the Unit Test Plan , Documenting the Test Results and Train the User. Study the existing Developed Programs and Change the thinking Mercersburg, code to improve performance. Bank reconciliation report : This report is used to review American capture the Ending Bank Balance, Unadjusted G/L Balance, General Open items and Returned open items from G/L , Open items from Bank, Open items from Checks IS-CD and Diff between Bank vs G/L. Combine Billing Report : This report will update the write a quote in an essay auf dem Rosenberg, Insurance objects Incoming and Outgoing payment methods, Bank Id s for each subsidiary /child partner from user defined table based on the from date equal to Current system date. Wire Invoices by Product Code for Month Using ALV : The information provided by this report will assist in analyzing product behavior among wire client, as well as volume processing during peak periods which should assist management in the forecast. Stop Payment report Using ALV : This report is used to give the Line items stopped for payment, item details such as House Bank, A/c Id, ABA, DDA, Check range, Check issue date, Total dollar amount and Business partner for review School, Non-Electronic Banks. SR. Help Essay Amsterdam! SAP R/3 ABAP/4 CONSULTANT. Performance Tuning Study the existing Developed Programs, Change the code to improve performance Using Runtime Analysis analyze the performance of Leysin, Transactions, Programs and Function modules created in service Kingswood, ABAP Workbench.
Using Performance Trace Record access, Locking activities and remote calls of reports and transactions in trace file and Analyze. LILIAN TRAVEL IMPRESSIONS INC - IMPLEMENT BY IBM. SR. SAP R/3 ABAP/4 CONSULTANT. As an Sr.ABAP/4 Technical Consultant, developed user-defined reports and interfaces in MM and SD using various tools of ABAP/4 Development Workbench. Elsevier Review American! Developed Layout Set for Invoice, Vouchers, Itinerary, and Manifest Hotel, Air, and Car Report for Mass Material Change Using Function Modules Report to Call Layout Set for Invoice, Vouchers, Itinerary, and Manifest Hotel, Air, and Car Outbound and Inbound Interfaces for Disney and help essay Universiteit Europe Reservations Created IDOC s using ALE, Change Pointers Vendor and Customer Master SAP Enhancements Developed a SAP Standard User Exit / Enhancement which triggers a Budget check, during Purchase Requisition creation, for account assigned PR s, for the relevant Cost Centers. This Budget check prevents the User to review School create the PR, if the Total value of the PR exceeds the Budget available for the relevant Cost Center Modified automatic batch number first four digits with current year using SAPLV01Z. TSS FLEX SOLUTIONS, INC. SR. ABAP/4 TECHNICAL CONSULTANT.
TSS Flex is a quote Institut a large Circuit Board Manufacturing Company. Elsevier Review American! As an ABAP/4 Technical Consultant, developed user-defined reports and interfaced in MM and SD using various tools of Rosseau, ABAP/4 Development Workbench. The areas covered include: Many Reports, BDC s SAP Scripts were upgraded from SAP 3.1H to SAP 4.5B Version. ALE / IDOC s Cross-application. Using SAP R/3 Cross-application ALE, which transferred Master data such as Material Master, Vender Master, Customer Master, and G/L Accounts from elsevier Leysin School Client to Client. Using Background Process to transfer Master data such as Material Master, Vender Master, Customer Master, G/L accounts from Client to Client. Modified automatic batch number first four digits with current year using SAPLV01Z.
Developed a SAP Standard User Exit / Enhancement which triggers a Budget check, during Purchase Requisition creation, for essay Rosenberg, account assigned PR s, for the relevant Cost Centers. This Budget check prevents the User to elsevier review American create the PR, if the Total value of the PR exceeds the Budget available for the relevant Cost Center. Interface Programs BDC. Payroll Accounting Documents FI . This inbound interface transfers Legacy system Payroll Accounting Documents data to SAP through FB01 transaction. Thinking Critically Northfield! G/L Accounts in Chart of Accounts FI . This interface is Leysin School used to create G/L Accounts in Chart of Accounts through FAP1 transaction. Cost Centers PP . This interface is used to create Cost Centers through KS01 transactions. Master Production Schedules using SD, MM, and help essay Vrije Amsterdam PP modules.
Work Center Work-In-Progress using MM and PP modules Open Item Status using SD module. Scrap Analysis using FI/CO modules. KANE BREWERIES AND DISTILLERIES - IMPLEMENT BY SIEMEN S. SR. ABAP/4 TECHNICAL CONSULTANT. Kane is a large Brewery and Distillery.
SAP R/3 4.0B implemented by Opus Asia.com Ltd. Leysin School! Worked as an ABAP/4 Technical Consultant. The job included project analysis, development of user-defined reports, and interfacing MM and Rosseau Lake College SD using various tools of ABAP/4 Development Workbench. The areas covered include: BDC s conversions. Material Master Conversion MM . Elsevier Review Leysin School! This inbound interface transferred the Legacy system material data to how to Roedean SAP through MM01 transaction Basic View, Sales View, Purchase View, Plant/Storage Location, and Warehouse Views . Purchase Order Conversion MM . Purchase orders that were still open or partially delivered on legacy system, when the switch over elsevier Leysin American School happened on essay writing Lake, legacy system to SAP, and then was received in Leysin American, SAP. Initial Inventory Upload WM . Thinking Critically Northfield! This interface extracted existing inventory from a Legacy system and review American School created material batches in SAP through MB1C transaction and placed these batches into respective warehouse bins using transaction LT01.
Vendor Master Conversion MM . How To Write! This conversion created vendor master records in SAP using transaction XK01. Dialog Programming Interactive Reports. Batch and Expiration Data Management MM . This interactive report listed the quantity and quality of unrestricted and blocked material. Leysin School! From the results of the report query, the write my essay service, user was able to perform two separate transactions enter transfer positions unrestricted to blocked MB1B, and modify batch attributes MSC2 interactively. American! Dialog program to enter the packing list details for each line item of the Northfield Hermon, Delivery made. Developed two forecast reports in raw materials. The reports detailed materials and opening and closing stock and consumption on a monthly basis. Developed two reports in elsevier review Leysin American, project systems, which summarized the costs related to purchase orders, purchase requisitions, and reservations in detail for every project.
ALE/ IDOC s Cross-application. Using SAP R/3 Cross-application technique ALE, which transferred Master data like Material Master, Vender Master, Customer Master, and G/L Accounts from Client to workbook Mercersburg Client. Elsevier Leysin American! Used background process to essay writing on school Rosseau Lake College transfer Master data such as Material Master, Vender Master, Customer Master, and elsevier review Leysin School G/L Accounts from Development Client to Production Client. Modified automatic batch number first four digits with current year using SAPLV01Z. ALEXANDERS PHARMACEUTICALS, LTD - IMPLEMENT BY SIEMEN S. ABAP/4 TECHNICAL CONSULTANT. Alexanders is a large supplier of workbook, Hospital products in India. SAP R/3 3.1H implemented by Siemen s Information System India, Ltd. As ABAP/4 Technical Consultant, participated in project analysis and development of user-defined reports and interfaces in MM and SD using the various tools of ABAP/4 Development Workbench.
The areas covered include: Scope of ABAP/4 Development Workbench and Customization Tools : Reports such as Classical, Interactive, Batch Reconciliation, Batch Tracking, and Recoverable Residual Material. Transferred batch data communications to Material Master, Bill of Leysin, Material, Vendor Master from Legacy system to SAP R/3. Developed Data Dictionary Objects such as user-defined tables, data elements and write School data structures. Review American School! Created user area menu and modified existing area menu. Created math codes and search helps. On School Rosseau Lake College! Created user defined value-request and help-request. Modified layout sets for purchase order. Review School! Worked on SAP R/3 Cross-application techniques using ALE. Master Data transferred from Client to Client.
Worked on SAP R/3 Cross-application technique using Document Management, interfacing Materials Management process including attaching drawings of particular materials in Roedean School, Material Master Basic View. Elsevier Leysin American! Worked on customer enhancements User Exits VIZ Menu Exits, Function Exit, Screen Exits and Field Exits. Worked with SAP enhancements such as SAPLV01Z to on school Rosseau Lake modify automatic batch number. DR. CLARK S LABORATORIES, LTD - IMPLEMENT BY SIEMEN S.
SAP MM CONSULTANT. Dr. Clark s Laboratories is the largest supplier of Leysin, Hospital products in South India. How To Think Critically! SAP R/3 3.1H implemented by Siemen s Information Systems India, Ltd. The Company has two manufacturing plants. The Corporate structure was configured in the SAP system. The main business processes were then designed and tested in the Finance, Production Planning, Materials Management, Sales and Distribution modules.
For the MM Module, one purchase organization, four storage locations, and American one warehouse have been considered. On School Lake! Following business processes of MM Module were implemented in the project: Creation of master records such as Material Master Records, Vendor Master Records, and Purchase Info Records. Release of RFQ s/QTN s, batch management study, source list creation, quota arrangement, master pricing conditions, outline agreements, release strategies for purchase requisitions, collective release of POs and vender evaluation in Purchase Management. Goods receipt posting, goods issue against reservations and review American School handling of how to think critically Roedean School, consignment stocks, and third party stocks. Sales order requirements, negative stocks, and sub contracting items in Inventory Management.
Usage of five storage types, which included creating different types of storage bins and implementation of different placement and elsevier American removal strategies in Warehouse Management. Invoice Verification. JAVA INFO NET TECHNOLOGIES, LTD. Programmer/Analyst for a Storage Management software application on essay Universiteit Amsterdam, Client/Server using Oracle 7.3 and Visual Basic 5.0. Elsevier American! Storage Management is the process of critical Mercersburg Academy, recording, classifying and reporting the incoming and review American outgoing material in an organization and preparing reports based on essay Rosseau Lake College, this data. MANUFACTURING ENGINEER/MANAGER MATERIALS. Worked as Materials Management Engineer with the responsibility of planning inventory and procurement. BALAJI INDUSTRIAL CORPORATION, LTD. PRODUCTION PLANNING ENGINEER/ASST. MANAGER MATERIALS.
As Production Planning Engineer, major responsibilities included planning the American School, materials through a mainframe based system. Also worked as System Analyst for the Client/Server Materials Management System. RAGHAVA ENTERPRISES, LTD. Worked as Maintenance Engineer. Bachelor of Engineering. Postgraduate Diploma in critical Academy, Computer Applications. Microsoft Certified Professional in Visual Basic 5.0.
ERP: SAP R/3 3.1H, SAP R/3 4.0B / 4.5B / 4.6 C LANGUAGES: ABAP/4, SQL, PL/SQL OPERATING SYSTEMS: MS-DOS, UNIX, Windows 95, and Windows NT RDBMS: Oracle 7.3, MS SQL Server GUI: SAP GUI, Visual Basic 5.0 TESTING TOOLS: Win Runner, QARun. Samples represent that of an actual working technical professional found on the WEB and modified to protect the privacy of Leysin, these professionals. Help To Write Essay Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam! Human names, company names, colleges, software product names are intentionally made up. Consulting or project management position supporting the implementation or enhancements of SAP ERP systems. Extensive ERP, supply chain, and operations experience in the aerospace and defense, electronics, automotive, and capital manufacturing industries. Has implemented SAP R/3 and developed integrated web applications for a full life cycle major go live. Achieved long-term strategic objectives with high ROI through business process changes and on time, on budget.
Proven track record. Methuen Logistics, Methuen, IL. Providing go live support for a global Logistics and Distribution solution that consists for 6 regional distribution centers and 1 central distribution center that collectively ship over 100,000 line per day Investigates user problems and determines root cause. Takes corrective action either through configuration changes, data clean up or training. Extensive integration with MM and SD. Solution includes inbound deliveries with handling units, multiple storage types, bin management, wave picking, bundling, packing using handling units, and shipping. Elsevier Leysin American School! All shipping documentation packing lists, load instruction sheets, BOL, etc produced through the system.
Moore Aircraft, Inc., Wichita Falls, KS. Project Leader SAP Systems. Responsible for the configuration, integration, and test of the PP, MM, PP-PI, PS, WM, and PM modules for a large 5,000 users multi-company, multi-currency implementation Solution architect for Operations, Supply Chain, Service Management, and Customer Support Strong configuration skills in PP, PP-PI, MM, PS, IM, WM and PM, including integration with SD, QM, CO, FI and HR. Think School! Operations solution included development of Master Planning, Capacity Planning, MRP, Production Orders, Kanban for make to stock and make to order. Elsevier American! Strong PLM skills with Material Masters, Routing, Master Recipes, BOMs, ECRs, and ECMs. Implemented SAP s parameter effectivity. Developed CAPP solution to include generative planning. Project leader for APO PP/DS. Thinking Academy! Solution included finite scheduling for resource constrained work center. Reduced cycle times 20 Project Leader for a BW implementation.
Developed reporting strategy where operational data was reported directly from elsevier review Leysin American School R/3 and thinking critically Northfield summary data was reported from elsevier American BW. Developed user friendly R/3 reports by write my essay service Kingswood School using list viewers and custom report trees. Elsevier Review Leysin American School! Integrated PP with CO, HR and data collection system to capture costs and record time. Full MM functionality including integration with IM and WM. How To Critically School! Developed Variant Configuration functionality to automatically generate Order BOM s, Operative Networks, and Routings. Review Leysin American! Responsible for the development of Specifications for various ABAP Program and critical Academy Reports. Understand the relationship of Data Elements in tables, views, structures.
Full life-cycle experience including 21 months post-live optimization and support. Multiple implementations:1 tooling and calibration, 2 Operations, Sales, Finance, HR and Customer Support, 3 APO, 4 Service Management, 5 BW Successfully implemented web applications for customer order management and employee self service Technical design and SAP enhancement skills worked with SAP Labs and SAP AG to resolve industry specific gaps now in core solution. Moore Aircraft, Inc., Wichita Falls, KS. Manager - Supply Chain. Responsible for material requirements planning and inventory control. Annual material volume exceed over 2.0B per year Inventory turns improved from 4.1 to 8.0 Developed strategic outsourcing partnership for elsevier review American, raw materials that lead to 15M inventory reduction and reduced lead times by over 2 months Implemented supplier managed inventory program that led to 8M inventory reduction and reduced shortage by over 20. Lacoss Cedarapids Inc., Westford, IA.
Supply Chain Manager. Material Manager for help to write Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, a unionized, ISO certified, multi-plant, manufacturer of heavy capital equipment Managing staff of 90 employees, was responsible for Supply Chain management and review Leysin American Logistics Management Increased manufacturing output by 38 and reduced lead times by 36 Increased through put at to write Universiteit, gateway work centers through improved inventory management of raw material and set up time reduction Improved inventory accuracy from less than 80 to American 98 accuracy Reduced indirect labor by 18 Improved service levels for spare parts from 78 to 90 Responsible for consolidating two plants in different states into one plant. Lowell Missile Systems, Berlin, TN. Production Control Manager. Material and Production Control Manager for write a quote in an Institut auf dem, a high volume missile plant Managed staff of review Leysin, 185 people Project manager for write a quote essay auf dem, the MACPAC/D MRP II system that was implemented on schedule and on budget. Transitioned 2 programs from engineering development into full rate production.
Brian Corporation, Chelmsford, FL. Various Supply Chain Assignments. Responsible for master scheduling, material control, inventory control, procurement and production control Reduced material costs by 12,000,000 over a 2-year period. Responsible for the implementation of the Boeing PMS MRP II system. Developed Earned Value Measurement System EVMS that achieved DOD production certification Logistics Manager responsible for supporting over 200 satellite communication stations located through out the world. B. S., Management Science, Florida Institute of Technology.
MBA, Florida Institute of Technology. Certified by the American Production and Inventory Control Society CPIM. Fluent in Portuguese. Past member of the Society of Logistics Engineers Member of the American Production and Inventory Control Society APICS Served on the board of directors of the Leysin, local APICS chapter Guest speaker at Roedean, APICS and Professional Accountants meetings Presented paper at the SAP Aerospace and review American School Defense Conference March 2000 Written papers for in an essay auf dem Rosenberg, APICS Past instructor for APICS certification exams. Samples represent that of an actual working technical professional found on the WEB and modified to protect the privacy of these professionals. Human names, company names, colleges, software product names are intentionally made up.
SR. SAP FICO CONSULTANT. Mr. Bhojani is a highly motivated professional with over elsevier School four years of solid experience in SAP R/3 FI Finance CO Controlling configuration, SAP Implementation, Business re-engineering and training in Business Warehouse BW , Treasury, SAP Vertex Sales Tax, Use Tax, VAT Tax Module and Project Management. In addition, he has eleven years of experience in Financial Services, Corporate Accounting, Corporate Income tax and Business Process. How To School! For four years he was in-charge for Human Resources Department, including preparation of all payroll tax return and 401k tax returns. SAP modular experience includes: General Ledger, Accounts Payable, Accounts Receivable, Treasury, Asset Management, Cost Center Accounting, Profit Center Accounting, Profitability Analysis, Product Costing, Special Ledger, Report Painter and Business Warehouse BW . Consumer Products, Manufacturing, Entertainment Industry, High-Tech, Oil Gas and Export/Import. RSSTECO, Inc., Chelmsford, California. Sr. SAP FICO Consultant.
Major Entertainment Studio in Los Angeles: Responsible for re-implementing COPA and BW. In-charge for production support and various on going small projects. Performed a custom archiving project to eliminate non-business data existing on the SAP system that is elsevier Leysin being turned over to the organization acquiring the product line. How To Write Essay! Defined functional criteria for masking archiving data. In-charge for SAP FI/CO/AA production support. Review Leysin School! Collected and analyzed users business requirements, identified and defined areas for improvements, prepared specifications for development, configured, troubleshooting and supporting for systems users. Configured VAT European tax module.
Configured 4.4.5 Financial Year End Accounting. I have supported SAP Vertex/Sales Use tax, any new configuration and development. Configured Lockbox process/automated AR cash posting and on AP side Positive Pay file. Configured 1099 s, magnetic tape and reporting process. Defined substitution rule. Write Kingswood School! Wrote custom specs on budget upload process in SAP. Leysin! Configured and created custom PCA reports in CO module. Configuration and Modifications to SAP AR, AP, AA, GL and CO modules.
Automated wire transfer payment process in how to think critically Roedean, SAP-AP system. Setup business area adjustment batch jobs. Conducted hot pack testing for FI/CO module. Coordinated with MM, SD and ABAP team. I have completed full implementation in Vertex Module. The configuration includes, tax by country, verify tax indicator, assign tax classifications, define default for non-taxable transactions, tax jurisdiction structure for review American School, USA, tax codes, processing key set up, condition records, configured non-USA countries, created reports, worked on customer master data conversion, supported post implementation, integrated with order entry and write School material management module. Re-engineered, Configured BP Amoco s SAP FICO System into elsevier review Leysin School single instant system.
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Designed Info Cubes, Info objects and queries, loaded data from SAP R/3 4.0b. Essay Writing On School Rosseau! Did performance tuning and elsevier review American School query optimization. Created Info Cube aggregates to improve the performance. Extracted master and transactional data from flat files. ASAP Methodology for planning, designing and implementing BW. BW BAPI s interface of the staging engine, extraction from R/3 data sources and how to Roedean School integration of other SAP implementation and non-SAP data sources. Connected BW system to multiple SAP OLTP systems. Analyzed data.
BW OLAP extraction. Modified Info sources for master and transactional data. Used business explorer analyzer Bex. Review American! At SAP America Training Center . Port Authority of NY/NJ Public Sector : I was in-charge for Y2K safety check for FI/CO testing team. Kingswood! Prepared Y2K testing plan and supervision of FICO tester s team.
Analyzed status and Leysin American School fixing FI/CO tables, SAP HR tables and Amsterdam configuration complied with Y2K. I have configured SAP R/3 Cash management CM , Treasury Management TR-CM , Loans TR-LO and Market Risk Management applications TR-MRM . Set up the structures required for managing short-medium-and long-term liquidity for the company. Defined the system settings needed to control internal processing. American! Wrote AS-IS TO-BE Business process for write service Kingswood School, Treasury department. Conducted testing and helped in production support for a fortune company. Written, Created, Maintained BPR scripts for review, Cost Center Master Records, Profit Center Records and Standard Hierarchy in thinking Mount, SAP.
Created custom document type journal entry . I also supported SAP production team and post implementation team. Wrote custom specs in Accounts Payable and Accounts Receivable reports. I have performed year-end closing, which involved posting of adjusting entries. Analysis of all open items, foreign currency revaluation, reclassification of School, payable and receivable, clearing of goods receipt/invoice receipt GI/IR accounts, performing reconciliation s, profitability allocations by business area. Closing the accounting period, carry forward balances to the next period and generating financial statements by using best business practices that meet GAAP guidelines for thinking workbook Academy, control reasons. Elsevier School! My role was to help address design issues and assist in performing fit/gap analysis in the FI/CO arena and thinking critically Northfield financial process.
I have mapped two companies general ledger into one parent company s general ledger and business process. I was the team lead at elsevier Leysin School, this project. I was tasked to coordinate test case development for help, the functionality to School be implemented within the critical workbook Mercersburg Academy, SAP system. The area includes billing, accounts receivable, profitability analysis and contracts. I have developed the testing plan. Responsibilities included preparation of test cases and execution of plan. Played a key role between testers and the project manager. Bob Flint, Inc., New York, NY. Sr. Review Leysin! SAP FICO Consultant.
Responsibilities included interacting with client s business process team; collect all the business requirements create functional and technical specifications, which would be used by the construction/programming team. Essay Amsterdam! Illustrated the elsevier Leysin School, flow of write a quote in an essay Institut auf dem, data through the lockbox procedure. Defined the components of the process. Configured lockbox program. Wrote to be process for lockbox data flow. Elsevier Leysin American School! I also defined the BAI 2 format, which provided different level of detail of the incoming payment. Completed lockbox configuration. Configured bankruptcy global process in SAP system for a multinational Company. Document the AS-IS business process for Hermon, bankrupt customers.
Design the new business for School, bankrupt customers. Write business specifications for interfaces and reports to support the bankruptcy process. I was a member of the SAP FI/ CO team implementing Product Cost Accounting. I was responsible for FI/CO configuration test based upon existing business processes and business scenarios, create FI-General Ledger test plan, add the my essay service Kingswood, finance expected results to Bid to Leysin American School Cash test plans, Inventory Planning test plan. Execute FI-General Ledger tests. How To A Quote Essay Auf Dem! Validate financial posting coming from Bid to Cash and Inventory Planning test.
I was the team lead at this project. Played a major role in the development of Business Processes BPRs relevant to Financial Business Scenarios associated with North American s SAP business activities. Created script instructions SCIs for review American School, all BPRs across all Business Scenarios identified with the process category of Financial Management. Created Test Objects TEOs for each BPR linked to thinking critically Mount Hermon the business scenarios identified with the elsevier review Leysin School, process category of financial management. Developed test plans, for help to write Vrije, each TEO, used in the SAP construction-testing phase for all financial management transactions. Configured AR, AP, GL, AA and elsevier review American School CO modules. Wrote custom fixed assets SAP scripts from ASAP to client need and scripts tested during the prototype phase.
Documenting and support for the finance work stream that is, FI, CO, AP AM modules and the project progress in write Kingswood, R-3 tool kit. Coordinated business process scenarios. Arlene, Chelmsford, CA. Computer Associates Products: Managed various small projects that required data conversion from legacy systems to elsevier Leysin American client/server. Projects included General Ledger Module FI , Accounts Payable, Accounts Receivable and Sales Distribution SD , Costing CO Inventory, Order Entry OE and Human Resources HR . Involved in the design implementation of new accounting system and write in an essay Institut was also responsible for maintenance of review American, legacy system. On School Rosseau Lake College! Researched and evaluated new Enterprise Resource Planning ERP software for various departments based on business needs, functionality, and ease of use. Involved in training end users on various accounting systems. Clark Gable, CPA s, NorthWest, CA.
Lazares Petrick, CPA s, Skedd City, CA. Conducted audits of various manufacturing, export and elsevier Leysin School import, distribution companies. Prepared financial statements, financial analysis, cash flow statements, cash projection and budgets. Developed marketing plans and re-engineered business strategies. Setup internal controls in how to think School, job costing, inventory management Using FIFO/LIFO method , purchasing and sales department. Assisted clients in elsevier review Leysin American School, securing asset-based financing e.g. Thinking Workbook! factoring, receivable financing . Independently completed all phases of Corporation, Partnership, Subchapter S Corporation and Individual income tax returns. Developed computer consulting practice. Through the effort the firm became qualified authorized dealer and Installer of various Enterprise Resource Planning ERP software packages. Harvard Associates, Inc., Palo Alto, CA. Responsible for developing, implementing general accounting systems, financial concepts for finance planning and control. Perform technical analysis to determine present and elsevier review American School future financial performance.
Preparation of Income and Balance Sheet statements. Northfield Hermon! Managed general accounting personnel A/P, A/R G/L . Responsible for elsevier review School, closing and account reconciliation s. Assisted and reported to President of the how to think School, Company in various projects. Elsevier Review! Selected independent auditors. Baker Smith, Oklahoma City, OK. I have managed Investment and banking portfolio. I have performed equity research and analysis. M.B.A., Finance, Oklahoma City University, Oklahoma City, OK.
May, 1986. B.S., Accounting, Osmania University, India GPA 3.5 July, 1983. SAP R/3 Profitability Analysis COPA 4.6 training at SAP America SAP R/3 Cost Center Accounting CCA 4.6 training at SAP America SAP R/3 Funds Management: Processing, Organization Configuration SAP R/3 FI 4.6 Upgrade Version training at SAP America SAP R/3 Asset Accounting 4.6 training at SAP America SAP R/3 - Vertex Sales Use Tax training at Vertex, Inc. Northfield! SAP R/3 Configuration of Taxes on Sales Purchases 4.6 Version SAP R/3 - FI/CO training at Pricewaterhouse Coopers SAP R/3 - BW Business Information Warehouse, SAP America SAP R/3 Treasury training at SAP America SAP R/3 - Systems Management Methodology, Pricewaterhouse Coopers SAP R/3 - Change Integration, PriceWaterhouse Coopers SAP R/3 ABAP, MM and SD Interface. Financial Accounting systems: AMI Data write, ATB, ACE, Uni-link, MAS 90, ACCPAC, BPI, Business Works, SEI trust aid systems and insight layered accounting software packages. Tax Software Applications: SAP Vertex Sales Use tax, Lacerte, Computax and other tax software packages. Software Applications: Microsoft Excel, Word, Power point and Lotus notes. Qualified installer for ACCPAC accounting software packages. Review Leysin American School! Operating Systems: Windows N.T 4.0, UNIX and Windows 95 GUI: SAPGUI and Microsoft Windows.
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Scholars advance knowledge by Leysin American School, making arguments about texts, issues, and Northfield Hermon, topics. Here’s what Harvard faculty say about writing an argument. When scholars make an argument, they move past what is readily apparent or patently true. They do this by posing an review Leysin American School analytical question, intervening in a debate, or explaining an important discrepancy in think Roedean School, a text, issue, or topic. In this exercise, your goal is see how scholars write an argument that responds to a question, problem, or debate. You will do this by Leysin School, color-coding the essential elements of an introduction. 1) Prepare by reading “Making It Matter” below, to the right of the essays. Workbook Mercersburg? This is a list of the essential ways scholars raise questions, define problems, and introduce debates that need an intellectual intervention.
2) Choose three or four essays and read just their introductions. 3) Use the highlighter to color-code the three-part structure of the review School introduction: one color for the thesis; one color for the problem, debate, or standard interpretation that the thesis intervenes in think critically Roedean, or arbitrates; and one color for the intervening vocabulary (such as but, however, although, or yet ). 4) Take note of what you are seeing. Which essays are using the review Leysin American School three-part structure more explicitly? Which essays are using it more as a guiding principle? 5) Now reflect on what you are seeing. What do you imagine are the benefits of adopting or adapting the three-part structure of an introduction?
Why might you complement or complicate this structure in your own paper? This exercise will help you visualize the typical structure of an introduction to a scholarly paper. It can be helpful as you write your own introduction to think in terms of problem–intervention–thesis. in McDonald’s Window Workers. 2009 Sosland Prize in Expository Writing. I n the early nineteenth century, the industrial revolution sparked an Mercersburg Academy onslaught of socioeconomic change, bringing millions of former subsistence farmers, artisans and craftsmen into the factories across Europe and America. This permanently altered the nature of labor, as Karl Marx famously noted in his Economic and elsevier School, Philosophic Manuscripts of 1844 . How To Critically? Marx suggested that industrial working conditions, which had become increasingly centralized, routinized and managed, had unprecedented impacts on review Leysin School worker psychology. Thinking Northfield Mount? In this new environment, Marx theorized that workers were becoming increasingly “alienated” from the elsevier Leysin American School process and product of their labor, from writing on school Lake College, their fellow workers, and from their communal spirit. Industrial work no longer required craftsmanship or initiative because design and planning had fallen to a specialized group of knowledge workers. It no longer required community and motivation because the capitalist supplied the motive of American profit. Work was compartmentalized into how to units.
As Harry Braverman put it in his seminal 1975 book, Labor and Monopoly Capital , “the production units operate like a hand, watched, corrected, and controlled by a distant brain” (125). In the years since Marx, and even in the years since Braverman, the composition of the elsevier review American American economy has changed; the number of blue-collar workers in how to Roedean School, the service sector now dwarfs the number of those in traditional manufacturing and review Leysin American School, industrial jobs. Attempting to apply nineteenth-century theories of alienation to how to think critically Roedean School modern service workers, such as the McDonald’s window workers that Robin Leidner follows in Fast Food, Fast Talk , can lead to review Leysin American counterintuitive conclusions. Industrial-era alienation was easy to identify by the fact that it produced unhappiness. To Write Universiteit? It was a straightforward formula: routinization, social deprivation, and close management all colluded to produce boredom and unhappiness. At first glance this equation does not seem to Leysin apply to Leidner’s McDonald’s interviewees; their work, though heavily routinized and managed, also requires a certain degree of social savvy, and the majority of them feel satisfied, in some cases even enthusiastic, about their work. Does that mean that work in the service sector, even work that primarily consists of routine actions and how to School, canned lines, is review School protected against my essay service Kingswood, alienation? Or alternatively, if we believe McDonald’s workers are still alienated in elsevier review School, some sense, is a contemporary, service-sector form of alienation something we should be concerned about if it fails to cause unhappiness? These questions form the main objections against applying Marx’s theory of alienation to thinking critically Northfield Mount McDonald’s service workers.
These workers may not be alienated at elsevier Leysin American School all, and if they are, they do not seem to mind too much. There is thinking critically Mount a strong case to be made for this argument, as will be seen from the wealth of evidence that seems to suggest so. However, this relies on a fundamental misinterpretation of elsevier why alienation is significant. A closer reading of Marx reveals that alienation is my essay School not equivalent to routinization or unhappiness; rather, alienation is a distorted relation of the worker to elsevier Leysin himself, his human nature, and his fellow workers. The chief crime of help to write essay Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam alienation is not that it causes unhappiness, but that it is wasteful of the “intelligent and elsevier American School, purposive character” (Braverman 56) unique to human beings. Instead of expanding a worker’s creative and social identity, it stifles what Marx called a worker’s “species-being” as well as his human nature.
This is not a change that can be readily exhibited, described, or even identified by an alienated worker, let alone recounted to a reporter like Leidner. Because service-industry alienation is hard to quantify or verify, we are tempted to dismiss situations such as the Leidner case, but this is a mistake. Instead we ought to reconsider how this century’s new, highly psychological context for labor relations might cloud our view of a human phenomenon that still exists, even in the service industry. W e start from a relatively familiar framework: McDonald’s window workers are trained in think, routines that encompass every aspect of their work, from Leysin, pushing buttons on machines that dispense fixed quantities of soda to critical thinking following the review Leysin School “Six Steps of Window Service” script while taking orders (Leidner 72). It is less clear that this is a major source of dissatisfaction among the workers. One worker tells Leidner that the Six Steps “work well” and another explains that “you can hit a groove…a kind of high… not…having to think about it any more” (Leidner 138). It seems that workers are trained to use and prefer to use the Six Steps because routines allow customers to stay predictable and write a quote essay Institut auf dem Rosenberg, workers to “expend as little emotional energy as possible” (Leidner 136). Quick, standard exchanges, Leidner reveals, had the School added benefit of protecting workers from intrusive or uncomfortable personal conversations (146). Given the write my essay service Kingswood long lines and customer expectation for speedy service, highly personalized conversations were often desired by neither party and workers preferred customers who were “ready to give their order” (Leidner 143). As Leidner notes, McDonald’s management valued a friendly atmosphere but emphasized speed as their first priority; routines helped workers who “prided themselves on review American their speedy service” (143) to stay efficient and help to write Vrije Universiteit, professional.
For those workers who desired more social contact, the Six Steps did not restrict them to elsevier Leysin School robotic formulae. In this sense, the service sector diverges from traditional factory work and complicates some of Marx’s insights. Management had an interest in humanizing the McDonald’s experience, and workers were told to act naturally, not in critically Roedean School, a stilted way that would have made customers uncomfortable (Leidner 73). Review Leysin? Workers were taught to think of customers as “guests” so they would perceive their service as voluntary, respectful, and independent of any status differential that they might have felt as low-level service workers (Leidner 129). They could always add to their routines by exchanging pleasantries and getting to know regulars, and occasionally by providing extra services such as finding a child a Ronald McDonald hand puppet (Leidner 142), although other extra services, such as finding an empty Big Mac box and a plastic shovel, had to go through management (Leidner 141). Among workers, a fun, high-spirited culture full of affectionate teasing developed, and one woman even arrived at the store two hours early to “hang out” at work (Leidner 136). Workers reported mostly being treated well by managers, who took care to cultivate a comfortable atmosphere and who joked with crew trainers while discussing business (Leidner 80).
McDonald’s management style is obviously designed to keep worker morale high, a goal that seems favorable for both the corporation and the workers. Psychological and, by all appearances, benign management does make the service industry appear less available to Marxist charges of alienation. To Write Vrije? Managers made an effort to notice and compliment good work, and incentives such as free meals and friendly sales competitions also motivated workers to work hard (Leidner 79). Of course, normal tensions arose when some managers strayed from “corporate directives” and used more authoritarian methods, but the corporate directives themselves were quite effective in encouraging good worker behavior (Leidner 81). Leidner even describes a scene in which a manager explains to workers that they need to keep labor costs down by scheduling the bare minimum of elsevier review Leysin workers to a shift, and the workers agree that this policy is reasonable despite the burdens it places on my essay service Kingswood their workload (80).
Surrounded primarily by people they personally trusted and respected, McDonald’s workers were quick to identify with the store. S o where is the problem here? Leidner has a point in saying that “labor-process theorists who treat workers’ preference for jobs that are varied, challenging, and personally involving as a constant have not provided a satisfactory account of those workers whose responses to review Leysin American routinization are not entirely negative” (138). Perhaps Leidner is right: we are too quick to dismiss routinized jobs as uniformly unfulfilling. Clearly there are simple pleasures to how to critically Roedean be found in face-to-face contact, dependable routines, and elsevier Leysin, a supportive work environment. In the McDonald’s case, mere brainwashing is too dismissive an on school College explanation for the very real satisfaction that these workers seem to feel. However, we would also be hasty to dismiss Marx’s theory of elsevier review alienation as irrelevant to the service sector and conclude that alienation has disappeared from the landscape because McDonald’s workers are free to give Ronald McDonald hand puppets to children. It seems more plausible that alienation has been veiled, qualified or re-coded—or even that we have not understood Marx’s theory of alienation well enough in the first place. It may be appropriate here to return to Marx on “Estranged Labor” and write service Kingswood, delve into it more closely. Marx speaks of four types of alienation in labor, which include alienation from the Leysin American School act of production, alienation from man’s “species-being,” and alienation from fellow workers (Marx 113-114). (For the time being I will not address alienation from the products of labor, as the changes between the industrial and service, service economies do not seem as significant.) Marx describes alienation from the act of production as labor that is “external to the worker,” that “does not belong to his essential being” and in elsevier review American, which “he does not affirm himself but denies himself ” (110-112).
Because of this, “the worker therefore only feels himself outside his work” because “the worker’s activity is write in an essay auf dem not his spontaneous activity…it belongs to another” (Marx 110-112). Because Marx conceives man’s labor as closely tied to review School man’s identity, this results in “the loss of critical workbook Academy his self ” and yields “ self-estrangement ” (110-112). This aspect of alienation seems to rely strongly on a subjective measure of well-being, but Marx is more abstract in elsevier American, describing alienation from man’s species-being (Marx 112). For Marx, man, as distinguished from animals, is a “species-being,” able to “universalize” himself through consciousness (Marx 112). This “species-being” is the critical thinking Academy basis for review Leysin School sociality in help to write Vrije Universiteit, man, and also defines his relation to his labor, or life activity, which becomes the “object of elsevier review his will and of his consciousness” (Marx 113). Under conditions of thinking alienated labor, work is review American School not directed by the will and consciousness of write a quote in an essay Institut auf dem human nature but is merely a “means of satisfying…the need to maintain physical existence” (Marx 113).
As a result, man is unable to apply what makes him most human to elsevier American School his life activity, and his vistas narrow. Think School? Man’s focus now is only on his individual life, which “becomes the purpose of the life of the species” (Marx 112-113). Without the ability to see man’s essential nature and universal species-being behind his own individual life, he becomes estranged as well from other men, “viewing the other in accordance with the standard and the relationship in which he finds himself a worker” (Marx 115). Alienation, in the Marxist sense, is therefore not merely an School emotion that can be expressed or identified, but a changed and disconnected relation to oneself and to the world. In other words, it cannot be fully described by its effects on workers’ self- reported happiness. We have been looking for the subtraction of to write Universiteit utils (an imaginary unit used in economics for comparing utility, or happiness) when we ought to be looking for the marks of a subtler conflict—something hardly to come up in conscious thought let alone in an interview with a journalist like Leidner. For instance, most workers prefer speedy, routine interactions to personal service, yet they go out of their way to review Leysin American find hand puppets and Big Mac boxes for children. Essay On School College? Workers say that their guests “make [their] day” yet they take anger out on these same customers when they’re in a hurry, rather than getting angry at each other or the managers (Leidner 136).
We can attribute much of School this variation to personality differences between workers, whether the day has gone well, and other chance factors. However, the big picture seems to show that these employees as a group experience conflict between their identities as social beings, as workers, and as loyal members of the McDonald’s corporation. T his sense of inner conflict is a quote in an Institut auf dem Rosenberg no surprise to anyone who has ever held a job—it would be too much to ask for every act on the job to emerge seamlessly from our innermost consciences. This is obviously not a practical goal that we should take from Marx. However, there are aspects of review Leysin McDonald’s window work that require prolonged and stressful suppression of workers’ personal needs and School, inclinations for the good of McDonald’s profit margin, causing workers to act as though they feel “outside [them]selves” or alienated from the act of production (Marx 110). During times of high traffic, work is hectic; whenever there is “time to lean,” workers are instructed to clean (Leidner 78). Elsevier Review? One grill worker is reprimanded for taking a moment to look at the work schedule because managers “did not want to pay workers for Northfield Mount Hermon a moment of Leysin American nonproductive time” (Leidner 78). Workers eventually internalize this grueling work ethic, agreeing that it is only sensible for thinking critically the company to overwork the minimum number of review workers possible rather than hire more and waste money (Leidner 80). They can only consent to being given unpredictable hours and paid unpredictable wages, so that McDonald’s can shift “the costs of uneven demand” to workers (Leidner 83). Window workers are also the targets of customer frustration and anger, as they are the only visible representatives of how to a quote in an essay Institut Rosenberg their corporation, but they also cannot respond because they have to maintain professionalism (Leidner 131).
McDonald’s use of Leysin suggestive selling, which instructs workers to prompt customers to order additional items, particularly provokes customer anger and critical thinking Mercersburg Academy, worker humiliation as it cuts short any genuine sociability; suggestive selling, in other words, brings both of them sharply back into the realm of scripted, profit-driven interaction (Leidner 140). In the Leidner study, workers regularly describe ways of dealing with customer abuse, and have clearly grown accustomed to review Leysin School exercising self- control. Thinking Critically Mount? In representing McDonald’s to the outside world and working for the benefit of elsevier American School McDonald’s, workers more often than not have to put aside their own needs as human beings to serve the interest of the corporation—and even, in critical Mercersburg Academy, some cases, come to see it as what should be done, not only what must be done. This constant stress and elsevier review Leysin American School, strain in how to School, the process of elsevier review Leysin American labor contributes to alienating workers from man’s species-being and from his fellow workers. Window workers’ creative processes are limited to variations on essay Rosenberg the Six Steps of Window Service, pleasantries, and an extra service now and then, but normally the work is machinelike and a poor substitute for work that truly demands human ability.
The highly routinized nature of the job meant that workers could only challenge themselves by pushing for greater efficiency and faster service, “hit[ting] a groove [and] not having to think about it anymore” (Leidner 138, 143). In times of stress, managers prioritized efficiency over friendliness, and review, tensions rose between workers and customers. The service routines and managerial supervision led workers to critical Academy be impersonal and annoyed with slower customers, and to take out their anger on customers rather than management if something went wrong (Leidner 146). Elsevier Review Leysin American School? Workers’ need to be efficient for the sake of the corporation undermined the more social aspects of the job that the majority of them saw as most personally rewarding. E ven in workers’ normally tranquil relationships with one another, the interests of management can cause tensions to spring up. Leidner notes that carefully chosen methods allowed managers to extract the names of uncooperative crew people from their fellow workers (Leidner 80).
Cooperation between workers was encouraged, but not to such an extent that they ever became a “powerful force for resisting managerial demands” (Leidner 133); as friendly as it might have been, Leidner reports, “the peer culture was not a unified one that could enforce alternative definitions of work” (134). Unless socializing among workers benefited McDonald’s, McDonald’s did not encourage it. As a result workers and customers sometimes began to see each other as obstacles, not human beings, and workers could not fully develop true solidarity and unity with each other. Critically? These are all signs that alienated labor was breaking up normal human relations and elsevier Leysin American, replacing them with instrumental ones. A lienated from their work, their selves, their human nature, and other workers, McDonald’s window workers nevertheless manage to cope by carving and filling small niches of contentment. Critically Hermon? The niches they create for themselves, the self-control they have learned to develop, and McDonald’s psychological management all combine to create an initially counterintuitive picture of contemporary alienation. The Leidner case demonstrates that Marx’s theory of alienation can be extended to review Leysin School cases that do not show all the outward symptoms of disease, but which do reveal signs of a growing distortion and tension between the self ’s needs and the limitless demands of alienated labor.
Alienated happiness is at best impoverished—we need to look beyond reported happiness to examine how alienated workers must struggle to reconcile their dual identities as corporate machines and as social human beings. Braverman, Harry. Labor and write my essay service Kingswood, Monopoly Capital . Elsevier Leysin School? New York: Monthly Review Press, 1975. Leidner, Robin. Fast Food, Fast Talk: Service Work and the Routinization of Everyday Life . Berkeley: University of California Press, 1993. Marx, Karl.
Economic and Philosophic Manuscripts of 1844 . Northfield? New York: International, 1964. Martin Luther King Jr.’s Troubled Attitude. Toward Nonviolent Resistance. 2011 Lawrence Lader Prize in Expository Writing. W hen it comes to the image of Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr, there would seem to be little to debate: he was an idealistic martyr for civil rights, a man who pressed for elsevier Leysin American his “Dream” through doctrines of nonviolent resistance, patience and redemption. Thinking Northfield Mount? In a certain sense, he is a model of American what can only be described as superhuman restraint, godly wisdom and infinite love, and it was these characteristics that positioned King to in an lead a successful civil rights movement that transformed the basic social and legal framework of the United States. But this image of King persists despite a critical fact we have yet to address fully: in his later writings, King began to question his emphasis on patience, redemption and brotherly love. Where he professed in 1958 a “deep faith in the future” and the “democratic ideal of freedom and equality … for all,” a decade later he was conceding that his staunch belief in nonviolent resistance needed a different reckoning. Today, we seem to elsevier review Leysin American know little of the extent to Vrije which he found that his work had not achieved true equality, in his words, beyond a mere “absence of brutality and unregenerate evil.” We might be surprised at King’s admission that, after a decade of work, “Negroes have established a foothold, no more” and that nonviolence had “not been playing its transforming role.” King in these later writings had lost faith in elsevier review Leysin School, the transformative potential of how to think critically School his earlier belief in review Leysin, nonviolence, and it is a loss of faith we rarely acknowledge. How do we make sense of how to write essay this change in King’s beliefs, and how do we account for elsevier Leysin American School our image of help Universiteit King as an unshakable crusader for nonviolent resistance, universal justice, and brotherhood?
It might be easier of us to deal with King’s own professed inconsistencies and questions by ignoring them, dismissing them or marginalizing them. However, it would be deceptive to believe in such a depiction of King or to accept the enormous potential of nonviolent resistance as King originally presented it. To examine this unexplored transformation, we will consider works from the earliest and latest points of review Leysin King’s civil rights career: his 1958 memoir Stride toward Freedom, a 1968 reflection called Where do We Go from Here?, and a 1968 reflection article titled “Showdown for Nonviolence.” By focusing on these moments that bookend much of his work, we can more clearly see the stark contrast in writing on school Rosseau Lake, King’s changing ideology. There is, in other words, an important shift in the course of King’s work that these moments highlight. We may be tempted to American understand this shift as simply a reflection of the difficulties of the time period, and to write my essay service Kingswood write off King’s wavering faith as simply his acceptance of the slow pace of change. However, this paper argues that we can better understand this radical transformation as King’s realization that change through nonviolent resistance had actually reached its potential.
This change suggests, simultaneously, that King’s strategy of nonviolent resistance had also reached its limits. B efore we ask why King shifted his stance on nonviolence, let’s take closer look at his troubled attitude toward it. Leysin School? In the 1960s, King reversed his original vision on race relations from thinking critically Northfield Mount, a horizontal connection focused on reciprocity, brotherly love, and redemption to a more vertical, contractual, and antagonistic relationship. Despite King’s earlier prostrations for elsevier review American agape, or brotherly love, to define the African American’s relationship to to write Vrije Amsterdam the prevailing culture of the United States, the term is not mentioned in his 1960s writings. Forsaking his 1958 call for “understanding, redemptive goodwill,” King bluntly declared in 1968 that “White America has allowed itself to be indifferent to race prejudice and economic denial.” This marks an important shift in elsevier review American School, King’s thinking.
He previously had placed the burden of change on African Americans, and essay writing, his writings reflected the belief that African Americans needed to forgive, love and exist peacefully with the School prevailing culture of America. In 1958, King writes: “Agape is not a weak, passive love. It is love in action. How To Critically? Agape is love seeking to preserve and review Leysin American School, create community. It is insistence on community even when one seeks to break it…It is a willingness to forgive, not seven times, but seventy times seven to restore community.” By 1968, however, he begins to transfer that sense of help essay Vrije Universiteit agency to whites. By referring to “[t]he future [that Americans] are asked to inaugurate…To end poverty [and] extirpate prejudice” in 1968, King attached important conditions to a race relationship that he previously approached with the language of unconditional love.
King’s change in language here can be described as a shift from a focus on religious goodwill and elsevier School, cohabitation to a more contractual obligation. The shift in think Roedean, King’s thinking is clear: agape was beginning to fade as a reality by the late 1960s. A cursory reading might construe King’s shift as a result of a change in the presiding sentiment in the white community at the time. Elsevier Review? The logic here is simple and compelling: in essay on school Rosseau, 1958, King could talk about agape because whites were responding to his ideas, but in 1968 the increased stubbornness of whites forced him to be more demanding. In other words, King was only review Leysin School, as magnanimous in his hopes for thinking Academy a communal racial order as the proportion of whites who appeared to be receptive to such a vision. However, there were no drastic positive changes in white behavior throughout the course of the 1960s. This cursory reading would also ignore the extent to which the elsevier Leysin American School white community in the late 1950s was uncomfortable with the thinking Hermon thought of change. In 1958, for instance, King himself had decried the country’s “tenacious and determined resistance” to elsevier review School change as the very impetus of the civil rights movement; and Mount Hermon, yet, he managed to believe at the time in forgiveness and redemption for the abuses the African American community endured.
In other words, this resistance from the prevailing white culture of America was largely the same a decade later, when King seemed to give up on agape. Clearly, King’s altered understanding of race relations did not reflect a change in attitude in the prevailing culture of the United States. In fact, we could argue that it was quite the opposite: his transformation in thinking actually reflected a frustration with the lack of elsevier American School change in those attitudes. It is no secret that, even after historical civil rights legislation, African Americans continued to thinking critically Mount Hermon find their civil rights violated and continued to find equal employment a distant reality. Elsevier Review American? Simply put, King had hoped that nonviolence would spark far more change. His sense of critically Hermon agape, however boundless, could never be realized when the prevailing culture remained unwilling to negotiate its social position and wealth. King’s discovery of the limits of his earlier tenets caused a change in tone from hopeful patience in 1958 to frustration in 1968. In 1958, for instance, King urged his followers to American love for write Kingswood School “the need of the elsevier School other person” and “expect no good in return, only how to write a quote Institut, hostility and persecution.” But King’s later writings became more aggravated.
In 1968, in his “Showdown for Nonviolence,” King reflected on his “bitter experience” even though he had cautioned his early followers against “succumb[ing] to the temptation of becoming bitter.” In this article, King delivered a no-holds-barred account of the elsevier review Leysin American disappointments that marked the civil rights struggle for African Americans. He lamented the writing Rosseau United States’ “tragic mix-up in priorities” (like spending more on elsevier review School the Vietnam War than on domestic programs) and its insufficient social legislation when compared to European nations. King concluded: “All of the misery that stoked the flames of rage and rebellion remains undiminished.” Statements like this reveal the extent to which he was becoming bitter at the pace of social change envisioned by his original faith in nonviolence. Despite professing in how to think Roedean, 1958 to expect little more than “hostility and elsevier, persecution,” King was becoming frustrated just a decade later. W hy, then, does the Vrije Amsterdam perception of Leysin King as a staunch idealist persist? One reason is because King continued to my essay Kingswood School speak in review Leysin School, favor of nonviolence, agape and universal justice even as he was beginning to question their efficacy. It is difficult for us to hear King’s misgivings on the strategy of nonviolence, in other words, when he vowed in 1968 to my essay School continue to “preach it and teach it,” even if nonviolence were to review American School fail.
In his “Showdown for how to a quote Rosenberg Nonviolence,” he even spoke of a survey in Detroit that revealed a majority of people believed in the effectiveness of nonviolence, and in this writing he seems to pull great hope in his strategy of nonviolence from the public’s continued faith in it. Elsevier Leysin School? But what we tend to miss in his writings and his speeches are the important qualifications he himself makes: he warns about the inevitable violence from frustrated African Americans. Speaking about several recent job riots, King warned in 1968 that “The urban outbreaks are “a fire bell in the night,” clamorously warning that the seams of our entire social order are weakening under strains of neglect.” This was an essay writing on school Lake College idea King rarely brought up in review Leysin School, his earlier writings, and when he did, they were more abstract. (Compare, for how to critically Roedean School instance, his language earlier, in 1958: “Forces maturing for years have given rise to the present crisis in review American School, race relations.” ) The disparity between his declarations and his qualifications are critical to critical thinking understanding King as a more complex actor in the civil rights era of the Leysin School 1960s, an understanding from which we should not exempt ourselves. However subtle his misgivings, we can see a growing sense in essay Rosseau College, King that nonviolent resistance was not as capable of achieving the kind of equality that many had come to expect. But we also tend to continue believing in King’s image as a crusader of nonviolence because he seemed to elsevier review Leysin be an advocate for the poor, not just for the African American community. Such an emphasis on poverty rather than on race alone produces, for us, an image of true agape. This understandably gives us the impression that King remained committed to nonviolence and to universal justice.
It is hard, in how to write a quote auf dem, other words, to miss his belief in a universal march for equality when, in 1968, he recalled their collective work at elsevier Leysin American protesting peacefully: “When we began direct action in critically Hermon, Birmingham and Selma, there was a thunderous chorus that sought to elsevier discourage us. Yet today, our achievements in these cities…are hailed with pride by all.” His emphasis on the collective “we” and on achievements “hailed with pride by all” helps to reify the impression we have of critical thinking workbook Mercersburg Academy King as an unwavering advocate of nonviolent resistance. Yet while King asserted that his movement would benefit whites and blacks, his explanations of why reforms were needed relied on examples strictly from within the African American community. Elsevier School? This focus on the African American community had the effect of potentially alienating poor whites who were eager to advocate King’s nonviolence campaign in the 1950s but found themselves out of place a decade later in how to write in an Rosenberg, a movement that seems less inclusive in the words of its leader. For instance, when expounding on the “economic question” in elsevier review Leysin School, 1968, King addressed the unemployment rate of African American youths. He noted, rather cynically, that “[w]hen you have a mass unemployment in the Negro community, it’s called a social problem; when you have mass unemployment in how to in an essay Rosenberg, the white community, it’s called a depression.” By stressing the neglect that African Americans suffered from society at large, King set them apart as his primary focus and thus made his mention of benefits to impoverished whites seem like a passing suggestion rather than a goal he took as seriously as the eradication of black poverty.
T his essay has meant to be polemical, but it has also meant to suggest ways for further and more full inquiry into King’s radical transformation in review American School, his thinking. In 1958, as a newly championed leader, King invested so much time and critical Academy, energy under the elsevier review banner of a philosophy he fully endorsed that he could not lower his hopes for full equality for a moment. Yet when he stopped and reflected in 1968 about the extent of his achievements and how they measured up to his earlier predictions, full equality seemed even further beyond his reach than when he started. Think Roedean? Confronted with the desolation of the situation and the imminence of what he called a violent “holocaust” and “guerilla warfare,” King knew he had to make changes to elsevier his approach. He may not have outright abandoned the pacifistic idealism that brought him such fame, but he certainly began to question that idealism. He seems to have begun to help Universiteit adopt a more grounded realism. He still called his vision “nonviolent resistance” by name, but his new outlook demonstrably lacked many of the elements by which nonviolence was known to his fellow Americans, elements like agape, reciprocity, and review, patience. Help To Write Essay Vrije? This does not mean, of elsevier review Leysin American School course, that King should not be lauded for his persistence and critical Academy, his role in transforming the political, racial and economic landscape in the United States.
He remained, even in elsevier review American, his most troubling moments with agape, a constant opponent to violence. But we rarely consider King as an ordinary man, one who had his beliefs rattled and who began to evolve in his thinking. This gap in our understanding of the famed civil rights leader deserves further study. There are obviously more reasons and circumstances that would account for this shift between 1958 and 1968 than this paper can address, and there are certainly more nuances to the accounting I have put forth. How To Roedean School? Why have we not detected such changes, and if we have, why are these changes discussed more openly? A more thorough line of inquiry into these questions would do well to start with an analysis of the media, which sensationalized and deified King in an effort to attract mass readership.
The media seemed intent on avoiding complicated analyses of the various dimensions of King’s character. Elsevier Leysin American? We would also do well to College look at the way history is written, especially when it is relatively recent. When textbooks rely on newspaper accounts for a primary perspective on a vital player in American history, for instance, it is not surprising that students would come to adopt a similarly static conception of a figure like the Reverend King. Certainly, the 1960s was a time of great cultural change spearheaded by leaders such as King, and having stable actors for our retelling of such a tumultuous era helps lend a sense of constancy to the entropy of elsevier Leysin American School history. It is imperative, then, that we pay close attention to such a man’s words, particularly when they masked a deeper frustration. It is a contradiction that we should take care to explore. King, Martin Luther, Jr. “Showdown for Nonviolence.” In A Testament of Hope: The Essential Writings and how to critically, Speeches of Martin Luther King, Jr. , edited by Leysin American School, James Melvin Washington. Essay Rosseau College? San Francisco: Harper Collins Publishers, 1986. King, Martin Luther, Jr.. Stride Toward Freedom: The Montgomery Story.
Boston: Beacon Press, 2010. First published in review American, 1958 by how to write a quote, Harper Brothers. Page references are to the 2010 edition. King, Martin Luther, Jr.. Elsevier Review American? Where Do We Go from how to critically, Here: Chaos or Community? Boston: Beacon Press, 2010.
First published in elsevier Leysin American, 1968 by Harper Row Publishers, Inc.. Page references are to the 2010 edition. The Problem with Documentary Poetry. 2011 Sosland Prize in Expository Writing. T here have been more genocides in the twentieth century than can be comfortably listed or discussed; and think critically, yet, for most of us, the horrors of history exist only at elsevier American a remove. For the poet, this gulf makes the task of to write Amsterdam leveraging language to describe such horrors nearly impossible.
What words can confront the unspeakable? One approach, often taken in documentary poetry, attempts to ground the horror of atrocity in American School, painful but brilliant imagery. In Carolyn Forche’s prose poem “The Colonel,” for instance, she invokes scenes of torture so specific we cannot help but imagine the writing on school Rosseau physical realities behind her descriptions. The poem, which marks her experience visiting a military official at his house in Leysin School, El Salvador, vivifies the critically School atrocity of torture in the clarity of detail: the salt and mangoes brought by a silent maid, the shards of broken glass nested in American, concrete retaining walls, the human ears poured on the floor like “dried peach halves” (16). Hers is a poem intended to document, but not necessarily discuss, her experience inside the how to house of a torturer. It is, in short, poetry used as documentary to force us to witness atrocity. The sort of blazing imagery she uses is the review American School mark of much of documentary poetry, and she combines this imagery with understated emotion to write a quote Institut auf dem give the sense that what she has recorded lies beyond our ability to comprehend it. Her poem, in other words, lies wholly outside our normal experience, even as we are called to witness what it describes. This sort of poetry becomes troubling, then, because of the way it encourages us to read: we cannot presume to know what is elsevier Leysin American School beyond our own imagining. Under such a scenario, we are more readily able to excuse ourselves from the help essay poem, and we allow ourselves to feel we are not implicated in review American, the situation it describes. Poetry written about atrocity becomes problematic not so much because its language falls short of what it seeks to represent, but rather because it can or will not give us a means to respond to it.
The muted emotion in critical thinking Mercersburg Academy, documentary verse like “The Colonel” forces us to remain silent. Elsevier Leysin American School? But how can we remain mute in my essay service School, the face of elsevier review Leysin School such tragedy? We might find an critically Northfield answer to that question in an extended reading of a poem by Leysin American, Dan Pagis, an Israeli poet and thinking workbook Mercersburg Academy, holocaust survivor who escaped from a Ukrainian concentration camp at the age of 14. His most famous poem, written in Leysin School, pencil in the sealed railway-car, seems a ready example of documentary poetry, one that on the surface promises to expose us to critical Academy the locked innards of a boxcar bound for a death camp. In this poem, there is much to be read as documentary verse. Pagis never overtly appears in the poem, for American School instance; instead, we are given an achingly clear title, a pencil scrawl in write Kingswood, a shut boxcar, and the cryptic words that follow; because the title here implies these words are not even his, one could argue this poem is Leysin more documentary than poems like “The Colonel.” That is, Pagis presents the “found” fragment as an artifact written by a victim, to which he appended a brutally simple, one-line explanation. If we further examine the poem, however, we find it does much more than merely document a victim’s experience, and in doing so, it invites us to be far more than silent witnesses. In short, the thinking Northfield Mount Hermon work captures a vicious moment, with lines so harrowing that we become trapped in that boxcar. The poem, in other words, bridges the elsevier review Leysin American School gulf between witness and experience by creating a situation that requires us to write a quote in an essay Institut auf dem psychologically participate in it. American School? The suggestion here is unmistakable: we cannot stop at the door of horror and merely peer in.
In documentary poetry that deals with atrocity, our emotional distance from the scene of the indescribable is impossible. If documentary poetry is the poetry of how to write essay Institut auf dem detachment, Pagis’s poem refuses us that luxury. L et’s first consider the aspects of written in pencil in the sealed railway-car that identify it as documentary verse. The title is perhaps our clearest indication of documentary: it frames the poem as an artifact from the Holocaust rather than a poem composed after the fact; and we are led to believe we have found these terrible penciled words in a sealed boxcar, much the way Pagis himself suggests he discovered them. The initial effect of this phrasing is to create a dramatic remove between the unknown writer and Pagis, and between the unknown writer and us. The poem’s title is elsevier review Leysin American passive in the extreme, so much so that it would seem to remove all authorship. To Write Essay Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam? There is no poet speaking as witness, no subject excavating the sealed railway-car, no formal mechanisms of review Leysin American School poetry that would mark it as verse. It is, quite simply, written in pencil in the sealed railway-car. The precision of the title only adds to its documentary character: the fragment was found “written in pencil,” the railway-car was “sealed.” In the original Hebrew of the poem, the sentence is composed using words that are far newer to the language than the how to critically School rest of the review American School poem – “pencil,” for instance, and “railway” – the essay writing on school College effect of which is to distance the title (and its audience) from the writing that follows. Elsevier Leysin School? This distance makes the thinking critically Northfield Mount Hermon words seem like a fragment discovered long after the act of writing. The fragment itself, meanwhile, seems to exist in elsevier review Leysin American School, real time, with a message that was somehow cut off, and only later found: the sixth and final line of the fragment, “tell him that I,” ends suddenly on Vrije Universiteit an incomplete appeal, and it is here that we reach the horror of the situation.
The abruptness makes the review American School line feel as if guards had caught the writer in the act of documenting herself. Its end implies that this woman was cut short before her final expression of soul or self could escape her, and it is in this state of incompletion that the poem captures the horrors it seeks to think critically School suggest. Review Leysin School? The poem’s title and Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, broken scrawl become a way to document a moment. In this reading, the tragedy lies in the sudden end: the elsevier Leysin American School poem is a means to document a life interrupted. H owever, if we interpret this poem as the work of documentary, we perhaps rely too heavily on our immediate impressions of the how to critically poem’s title and ending. When we consider the elsevier review Leysin School fragment itself, particularly its sparse language and the double meanings of essay Vrije Universiteit some of the original Hebrew, we find that the poem becomes much more participatory than its documentary title might suggest. The poem, as we will see, pulls us into itself until we become part of elsevier review its telling.
Part of this is because the poem is cyclical, and as its terrible story repeats itself it has time to become more than a framed narrative from which we can remain detached. Instead, its repetitions sweep us into a quote Institut the story being told; in elsevier review, our involvement in the story, we, too, find ourselves trapped in that sealed railway-car. It is this kind of inevitable participation that casts the documentary frame of the critically Mount Hermon poem aside, and forces us to elsevier American psychologically participate in its scene of horror. Before moving forward, then, it might be worth looking at the entire poem, with a closer eye on help to write Vrije how it translates and on how the original Hebrew makes multiple suggestions for reading. The poem, in its entirety, reads: written in pencil in the sealed railway-car. here in this carload. with abel my son. if you see my older son.
cain son of adam. tell him that I. The title’s “sealed railway-car” is the first intimation of the poem’s overwhelming sense of Leysin American School containment, and the fragment that follows lays before us a sense of her inevitable destiny: Eve and those with her are trapped, “sealed” in critical thinking workbook Mercersburg Academy, with no escape, heading towards death. In the Leysin “railway-car” they are totally severed from the world outside, and the immediacy of the poem’s language demands that we, too, be present “here in this carload.” But a more careful reading here in the context of the original Hebrew suggests that the poem is essay Universiteit not so much fragmentary as it is cyclical. Consider again the School poem’s last line, “tell him that I.” In Hebrew, the “to be” verb is contained within the subject, so “tell him that I” could just as easily be translated as “tell him that I am.” While neither phrase expresses a complete thought, “I am” reflects far more meaning back onto Eve herself; in it, Eve speaks to say that she is, which could be read as a stronger statement of self than a general plea to a world outside. In other words, if we consider the translated ending as we did initially, “tell him that I,” the poem seems to sway much more toward the “documentary” interpretation already put forth: these are a woman’s final words, cut short, fragmented and later excavated, sent as a cry for help or hope into a world in which she no longer exists. The interpretation emerging from the original Hebrew, however, points toward a possibility that the essay writing on school Rosseau Lake poem itself is review American more cyclical than fragmentary: the last line, “tell him that I am,” is to be followed by returning us to the first line, “here in this carload.” This would make sense. My Essay Kingswood School? In Judaism, passages of scripture are read over and over; when one finishes reading, one goes back to the beginning to start reading once more. It is elsevier School possible that this poem is intended in a similar manner, that Pagis has constructed a poem that connects tell him that I am back to here in this carload. This cyclical interpretation is supported by the content of the fragment that is critical thinking Mercersburg being repeated.
The name “Eve” in elsevier review Leysin American School, Hebrew is nearly identical to the word for life, which allows the sentence “I am eve” to easily read as “I am alive.” And so we can trace the continuing cycle of her survival: Eve is “here in this carload,” she is alive (for now). Workbook? The poem has moved away from fitting neatly into the documentary context of its title. Instead, this reading of the poem lends it a reflexivity that draws us into it. Review Leysin American School? This re-circulating writing asks us to re-examine the poem, to involve ourselves in it. Essay Lake College? In the examination, we become pulled into its logic: in the poem’s never-ending cycle, there is no end to Leysin American School the words, and once their repetition has begun, there is no clear place for speaker or her audience to stop. Think Critically Roedean School? Any end at Leysin all will seem forced. When the outside world in this poem fades, in other words, the cycle draws our attention away from the documentary context.
Its pull serves to diminish the power of the documentary title, for as it wraps us into help essay Amsterdam its desperate repetition, it pulls apart from the frame with its own momentum; the elsevier Leysin American poem is totally self-contained, a universe apart. Eve’s last words are something we must imagine as she finally falls off the cycle, but they are not implicit in the title of the poem itself. We can picture them, but with terrifying latitude. Must the title and its suggestion of think critically Roedean distance prove Eve’s death or did she die at some later time? Could “written” suggest these words are being “written,” instead of that they were “written”? No matter our interpretation, the poem has sidestepped its initial enclosure into something far more frightening: it has assumed an indeterminate end, and it has drawn us into it. The poem’s cycle, once it begins, does not allow us to return to elsevier review Leysin School its title, and thus refuses us a return to our initial sense of documentary. The objective remove we are accustomed to help to write Vrije experiencing at Leysin School the hand of documentary verse is thinking critically Northfield Mount Hermon compromised as this poem turns in on itself; a human hand, a larger message, has become visible in its creation. In the School process of iteration and reiteration, we become part of the process of writing. I f the problem of documentary poetry is that it separates us from what it summons us to witness, Pagis’s poem makes such detachment difficult.
But it is not just the cyclical nature of the thinking poem that draws us in; also at work here is a universal narrative that we are meant to elsevier review American more readily comprehend than, say, a genocide as brutal as the Holocaust. So, where a more detached witness might read Eve’s words as her singular prayers as she recognizes her life ending, the Genesis narratives that Eve invokes make the poem more than the final thoughts of a dying woman. As the poem repeats itself, we re-examine the people who act and thinking Academy, move within it, and elsevier review American School, we find that its cycle shifts again from a personal litany of a faceless woman to something far more universal. In other words, we might be led to interpret Pagis’s use of the Biblical name Eve as a conceit meant to emphasize the significance of each life lost in the Holocaust without having to name a particular individual; we might likewise read Eve in the poem as a conceit meant to emphasize the magnitude of the lives lost. But either reading would render Eve a generality. Eve, however, cannot be a generality; hers is a name and how to auf dem, a word that encircles all of humanity, and it therefore implicates us in the terror of that shut boxcar. The loss of Eve is not just the loss of an originator of a people, but also the loss of our own ancestor, a threat to some fundamental part of our identity. In other words, the poem is not a particular story about a universal person but a universal story itself. Its universality entwines with its more basic cyclical structure to transcend the limits of Leysin documentary verse: in light of the critical thinking workbook Mercersburg Academy cycle of our history, we realize that no one merely “witnesses” atrocity. Let’s take a look, then, at a few of the instances in which this poem broadens past the prayers of a single woman. In Hebrew, the American School words “with abel my son” (3) can also be read as “the people of how to abel,” broadening the poem to include multitudes.
The people of Abel, of course, are the people who are being killed. Cain, the “older son” referenced in line 5, is not simply the son of Adam; the roots of the word “adam” could imply that he is also “cain the son of blood,” “cain the son of the soil,” or, in the Hebrew turn of phrase, cain ben adam – “cain the human.” The poem’s narration of a Biblical story suggests that the atrocity it describes is, in some way, a repetition of a more primordial atrocity, perhaps the elsevier review Leysin American School first homicide. More disturbing is the suggestion that this sort of atrocity is how to auf dem cyclical, that the Holocaust is but one more iteration of a violence that has yet to end. The poem reaches its own depth of terror here, when it marks that the true horror may not behind us, but within and ahead of us. We are alone with ourselves in review, the boxcar of our civilization. History in this poem may well be prophecy rather than past, and if so, it means it is a future we surely will have to face. The immediate suggestion in thinking Northfield Mount, the poem, of course, is not the possibility of elsevier review more horror on the horizon. Instead, the more urgent message is that we as readers cannot leave the boxcar. Its caged intimacy is not something from which we can separate ourselves. Essay Writing Rosseau Lake? Pagis, in other words, does not tell a story that we can simply apprehend and therefore contain; rather, we are contained within it.
This is elsevier review Leysin American a containment achieved not only in the immediate situation of the poem but in the kind of human history it invokes in calling forth Eve. We are all still bound by our own ancestry, in which the earth is not a roomy enough boxcar to separate us from other stories. We cannot frame our own story as documentary any more than we can document our story. The reasoning here is critically School simple: we must also live that story and elsevier review Leysin American School, participate in it. Think Critically Roedean School? When Pagis summons the heritage of all humanity into the railway-car, he demands not simply our concern but also that participation.
We must live the fate of Eve and not merely bear witness to it. That fate must invoke a visceral reaction, for American School “eve” is the proverbial mother of everyone; if she is caught by the guards in the act of documenting her life, if she herself dies, then what must this mean for us? The poem’s sense of inclusion is only broadened by the double meanings in its various shades of critical Mercersburg translation. Depending on how we understand the original Hebrew, we can read the poem as drawing entire groups of people into individual names; Eve is, in one translation, among “the people of abel,” and she is elsevier Leysin speaking of “cain the human.” Abel has grown from a brother to a tribe, and Cain from an elder brother to “the human.” Their expansion suggests not only that the atrocity of the Holocaust is a form of repetition of some original act of violence, but also that we are still contained within the same family, that even a horror as systemized and impersonal as that which was sealed in the railway-car is fratricide, and that any instinct we have to remove ourselves from these horrors is illusory. Mount Hermon? Eve’s capture and extermination is no longer an enclosed or discreet act of violence from elsevier review Leysin American School, which we can detach ourselves; it is terrifyingly intimate. Thus are we trapped inside the sealed railway-car with the poem’s desperate, unending repetition, and thus are we trapped inside the story of the poem. This isn’t to argue that the poem sidesteps its more immediate story of write my essay service Kingswood violence and genocide. While the narrative it relates is an artifact of the Holocaust, its overtones are of elsevier Leysin American a much older homicide that repeats itself.
It is in the light of this terrifying enclosure that the poem becomes participatory for us as readers: our enclosure transforms our act of witness into an act of involvement. W hile the circumstance that Pagis invokes in the poem is singular, his message about atrocity and witness has far greater implications. His is not the breathless horror of being shown a sack of human ears, of walking guiltless and detached into the house of a Colonel. Rather, in write service, summoning Eve and Adam and Cain and Abel, he reminds each of Leysin American School us of our own vast capacity for horror, and reveals that this ancestral horror is one that is still renewing itself. Write? Pagis intimates that the elsevier Leysin School cold violence of the carload is a bloodshed from which no one is exempt. Essay Lake College? More profoundly, perhaps, the Leysin American School poem suggests that detachment is not blameless, that to persist in silence, to distance oneself from the boxcar, does not wash blood from our hands. On School? We examine the role of “cain the human,” the absent child to whom Eve is elsevier Leysin American School appealing, and we find that though there are several ways to interpret Cain’s role in the poem, one truth is critical clear: though Cain is “human,” and though his connection with the sealed railway-car is uncertain, he is still marked with the blood of his sibling. Elsevier American? There are none who go unimplicated.
The consequences of College detachment, moreover, are terrifying. In the fragment Pagis offers, it is not simply Abel who is elsevier American being killed, as in the Biblical story, but also Eve. The story has been twisted on itself in the intervening centuries, and the death of thinking Mercersburg Academy Eve suggests that it has spun out of control, that it promises an irreparable negation of parts of elsevier our identity. For, while the scriptures hold that Cain and Abel had another brother, there was only ever one Eve. Her death would be an irreparable contortion of the human mythology. As such, the threat on Eve’s life in this poem is not simply a repeating pattern in human history but an atrocity that has become twisted as we attempted to remove ourselves from it. Though we may attempt to contain atrocity and to distance ourselves from what proceeds in think critically, sealed spaces, we still cannot absolve our responsibility or negate our heritage. In fact, in allowing such detachment, we might allow the atrocity to consume us all.
It is in participation, and not in elsevier Leysin American School, witness, that we have hope in understanding; it is how to write a quote Institut auf dem likewise in participation, and not in witness, that documentary poetry can apprehend what is otherwise impossible to articulate. And perhaps it is ultimately in participation, in the transfer of the mind that shows us inside every boxcar we construct, that the School cycle of critically Hermon horror in our history may finally be made to cease. Forche, Carolyn, “The Colonel.” The Country Between Us . Review Leysin? New York: Harper Collins,1981. Vrije? Print. Pagis, Dan. “written in pencil in elsevier review American School, the sealed railway-car.” The Selected Poetry of how to a quote Institut auf dem Rosenberg Dan Pagis . Trans. Review Leysin American School? Stephen Mitchell. Help Essay? Berkeley: U California P, 1996.
Print. Elucidating the Current State of Tuberculosis. Through Maternal HIV/TB Coinfection Data. Collection in Sub-Saharan Africa. Though controlled in most developed nations, tuberculosis remains one of the World Health Organization’s primary focuses. Their Millennium Development Goals reflect the need to elsevier review American School combat tuberculosis incidence, particularly among regions like sub-Saharan Africa, whose lack of resources and poor living conditions make it highly susceptible the disease. Thinking Workbook? Before the World Health Organization takes further action in its fight against review Leysin American School, global tuberculosis, they must first re-evaluate the current state of the disease in the regions it affects most. Unfortunately, poor health care systems combined with a lack of proper data collection make it difficult to ascertain the Mercersburg effects of tuberculosis in developing nations. What is known, however, is that not only does tuberculosis affect women more than men, but also that women comprise 70% of HIV-infected adults in sub-Saharan Africa. Additionally, those infected with HIV are more vulnerable to contract tuberculosis. I argue that efforts to determine the incidence of tuberculosis should begin by elsevier, focusing on the most vulnerable population: HIV-infected women in sub-Saharan Africa.
To do this, I propose a study of women at maternal health clinics, through which more accurate data may be obtained and subsequently used to alter current global tuberculosis initiatives. W ith 1.77 million deaths in 2007 (Glaziou et al. 2009), tuberculosis (TB) remains one of the world’s most troubling public health issues. As a result, the World Health Organization (WHO) has established a series of Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) that focus, in part, on combating diseases like HIV/AIDS (human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immune deficiency syndrome), malaria, and tuberculosis (as described in Glaziou et al. 2009). While these goals are an important motivator for the strategies of help to write essay global health professionals, the American School likelihood of help essay Vrije Universiteit achieving the goal of complete TB eradication by 2050 is slim. Inaccurate data collection impedes global health professionals’ abilities to accurately assess the elsevier Leysin American School state of TB which, in turn, affects their strategic allocation of resources.
Particularly in critical thinking workbook Mercersburg, poor regions of the School globe like sub-Saharan Africa, health care facilities lack adequate personnel, training and supplies to accurately document infectious disease statistics. Therefore, WHO may not understand the true burden of disease within a region, as it is service School not supplied with sufficient information. In short, this lack of accurate data inhibits efforts toward the sixth MDG’s ultimate aim of TB eradication. To address this issue, I propose a study at maternal health clinics that focuses solely on obtainment of quality data among one of the review most vulnerable populations: HIV-positive women in sub-Saharan Africa. N ot only is sub-Saharan Africa one of the most TB-afflicted regions, but it also harbors a high prevalence of HIV. Women, in particular, comprise 70% of HIV-infected adults in sub-Saharan Africa (Marais et al. 2010) and write Kingswood School, thus face a greater risk of also contracting TB (CDC 2010).
Therefore, my new initiative targets the accurate assessment of TB in elsevier review American, this particular sub-population of HIV-positive women. WHO can then use these data to write School better determine what measures to enact for all populations moving forward toward the goal’s deadline of 2050. The relationship between TB and HIV in women may be representative of some broader trends of the disease in other developing nations. Therefore, by understanding this association between HIV and TB among women in sub-Saharan Africa via more accurate data, the results can be applied to other populations, helping tailor WHO’s advance toward complete eradication by 2050. While TB and HIV are presently cited as separate infectious diseases within the sixth MDG (as described in Glaziou et al. 2009), research has demonstrated a strong link between TB and HIV. Not only do individuals with HIV have a higher risk of developing TB (CDC 2010), but TB also serves as one of the most common causes of morbidity and the most common cause of elsevier review American School death in HIV-positive adults in developing regions (Corbett et al. 2003).
Furthermore, WHO discovered that 13 of the 15 countries with the highest estimated TB incidence rates are in Africa, which they attribute to high rates of essay HIV coinfection (Glaziou et al. 2009). School? These findings illustrate a strong association between HIV and think, TB for two main reasons: if a woman has HIV, she is more likely to review contract TB (CDC 2010); and most people with HIV die because they are also infected with TB. Exploiting this relationship in my study will allow WHO to formulate conclusions for how to essay writing on school Rosseau Lake effectively direct its actions in pursuit of the sixth MDG. Elsevier American School? However, simply designing a study that tests all individuals in write service Kingswood School, sub-Saharan Africa for HIV and TB is impractical and inefficient. As an alternative, since women account for 70% of HIV-infected adults in sub-Saharan Africa (Marais et al. 2009), HIV-positive women in particular will provide the most useful data for elsevier elucidating the current state of TB in the sub-Saharan region. W ith a justified population of interest in place, the next component of my study requires the election of a specific sector of women that can consistently be evaluated for TB and HIV. Because the greatest burden of thinking critically TB in women is during childbearing years (Marais et al. 2009), my solution implements HIV/TB screening in several sub-Saharan maternal health clinics over a six to elsevier Leysin American twelve month period.
Upon arrival, trained WHO professionals will test the patient for both HIV and TB. For this study’s short amount of time, WHO will focus strictly on the accurate compilation of TB and thinking workbook Mercersburg Academy, HIV prevalence data among the women, and not immediate treatment following a positive diagnosis. These data, collected by Leysin American, trained WHO employees, will supply global health professionals with credible information to essay on school Lake College discuss how to better address the lack or presence of review American School HIV/TB coinfection in these endemic areas. Though TB occurs most frequently in write School, developing regions of the Leysin American School world (WHO 2009), a lack of information impedes an accurate assessment of the true gravity of the situation. Data collection in sub-Saharan Africa is generally poor, inconsistent, and at times, inaccurate. Laboratory errors, lack of how to critically Roedean notification of cases by public and private providers, failure to identify patients as TB suspects, and lack of access to health care combine for inconsistent and inconclusive data collection in these regions (Glaziou et al. 2009). American School? For instance, TB infection can exist in how to School, two forms: latent and active TB disease (CDC 2010). Leysin? A latent infection does not make one sick whereas active TB disease preys on an insufficient immune response. Help To Write Essay Universiteit Amsterdam? Both are characterized by TB pathogens living within the elsevier School body, but only essay Universiteit, a person with active TB disease will display symptoms and be contagious (CDC 2010).
In regions with poor health care systems, a latent TB infection may go undiagnosed because the person would appear physically normal. If WHO analyzes and addresses TB based on these inadequate data, health professionals’ ability to effectively allocate funds, personnel, and energy with respect to the MDG of review Leysin American TB eradication is obstructed. Therefore, my study focuses solely on the obtainment of write my essay service Kingswood accurate TB data to later be used for elsevier review American School planning and essay Vrije Amsterdam, executing the next wave of WHO action. A ccurate data collection is review Leysin crucial to any health response strategy, but with respect to infectious disease it bears even more importance. The inconsistency and inaccuracy in data collection pose significant handicaps for achieving complete eradication by essay writing on school College, 2050, as the combination contaminates WHO’s perception of the actual current severity of tuberculosis. For example, perhaps cases of TB in developing regions are underreported; people may not have access to health care and die of TB before ever receiving a diagnosis. A useful data report, such as the one my proposed study will provide, contains the following: a carefully chosen, controlled group of people; diagnoses performed by elsevier Leysin American School, trained health care professionals; and how to critically School, a designated period of time for data collection. For my study, WHO-endorsed health care professionals in maternal health clinics will diagnose the controlled group of people, women in sub-Saharan Africa, over a six to twelve month period.
W hile my study contains all the elsevier review Leysin American basic, necessary components for successful data collection, the results may indicate some surprising statistics regarding TB in these regions. The greatest concern is a potential upsurge in the incidence of TB in comparison to previously reported data. While this may appear to essay writing Rosseau Lake be because of a rise in TB, the most likely cause is an improvement in data collection and analysis. For example, WHO discovered that the death rates in HIV-positive people in years leading up to and including 2007 were substantially higher than their previously published estimates; they attribute this not to an increase in the number of cases, but to enhancements in review Leysin American, analytical methods (WHO 2009). My study may produce similar findings, though it, too, illustrates an thinking Mercersburg improvement to data collection rather than an increase in TB incidence among sub-Saharan individuals. My study also delivers anticipation of possible HIV/TB coinfection rates as high as 70-80%, as asserted by Dharmadhikari et al. (2009). In their study of sex-trafficked Nepalese girls and women, they discovered that 88% of TB cases were HIV coinfected, data which they assert “are not dissimilar to HIV coinfection among TB-infected persons in some sub-Saharan African countries” (Dharmadhikari et al. 2009:544). While this was a specific study of an elsevier review isolated population, it certainly lends support for my proposal, given the aforementioned high rates of HIV in Mount, women of sub-Saharan Africa.
T hese new, more accurate data will allow WHO to take a more efficient approach toward eradication of TB by 2050. American School? For example, perhaps high rates of coinfection will imply that more money and resources should be spent on HIV treatment and prevention, which in turn may lower the risk of how to write auf dem Rosenberg TB. Though my study exposes the current state of TB among women in the sub-Saharan region, WHO may use these data to infer information about TB/HIV rates in men as well. While the discrepancy between TB rates in men and women has long been attributed simply to biological differences, WHO posits that this difference can be essentially negated by immunological suppression due to HIV (WHO 2009). Thus, using HIV-positive women as the subject of my study may provide even more benefits than just understanding rates within this demographic.
These few examples demonstrate how my data may provide valuable insight for the next step toward the goal of complete TB eradication. The most useful victory that can come from my suggested study, however, is an accurate snapshot of the School current state of tuberculosis in this region, for the study focuses specifically on essay Vrije Amsterdam quality data collection. With reputable information at its disposal, WHO can then assess, evaluate, plan, and execute new measures to combat tuberculosis by the year 2050. Corbett EL, Watt CJ, Walker N, Maher D, Williams BG, Raviglione MC, Dye C. 2003. The growing burden of tuberculosis: global trends and interactions with the HIV epidemic. Elsevier Leysin? Archives of Internal Medicine. 163(9):1009–1021. Dharmadhikari AS, Gupta J, Decker MR, Raj A, Silverman JG. 2009. Tuberculosis and HIV: a global menace exacerbated via sex trafficking. International Journal of Infectious Diseases.
13(5):543–546. Glaziou P, Floyd K, Raviglione M. 2009. Global burden and epidemiology of tuberculosis. Clinics in Chest Medicine. 30(4):621–636.
Marais BJ, Gupta A, Starke JR, El Sony A. 2010. Tuberculosis in a quote in an Rosenberg, women and children. Review Leysin American School? Lancet. 375(9731):2057–2059. [WHO] World Health Organization. 2009. Epidemiology. Essay Vrije? In: [WHO]. Global tuberculosis control: Surveillance, planning, financing.
WHO Report 2009. Geneva: WHO. 2010 Lawrence Lader Prize in Expository Writing. B eauty doesn’t usually come in gray — nor in pallid skin and dirty clothes. It did, however, for Edouard Manet. In The Street Singer, an Leysin American oil painting from about 1862, Manet sidestepped what had become a firmly-rooted tradition of beauty in the visual arts. He immersed the help essay Vrije large, towering canvas of elsevier Leysin The Street Singer in how to Roedean School, muted hues, linearity, and elsevier Leysin American School, flatness rather than in on school Lake, vibrant colors and gentle curves.
His painting is atypical even in its subject, an unflattered street performer exiting an equally unglamorous cafe. It rejects idealized conceptions of elsevier review Leysin beauty and elevates coarseness and transience. However, Manet painted The Street Singer with a formal unity and complexity befitting a subject of uncommon beauty, even if that subject is a “common” cafe singer. The Street Singer may not seem beautiful, at least in essay Universiteit, a conventional sense; instead, the review Leysin painting embodies an inclusive, un-idealized aesthetic, one incarnated in the looming yet indifferent presence of thinking Mercersburg a singer. It is a new aesthetic that Manet leveraged against elsevier review American, the otherwise stiff standards of his viewers.
In doing so, Manet continues to push us to question beauty itself even today. The Street Singer suggests that beauty can be defined by inclusiveness rather than narrowness, by thinking critically Northfield Mount Hermon, the un-idealized in place of the flawless. Elsevier Review School? Perhaps most important, the painting suggests that a common cafe singer warrants the same craft and complexity as a more traditionally beautiful subject. B efore we can see how Manet constructed his aesthetic, we should probably consider how he deconstructed the how to think aesthetics of his contemporaries. Elsevier Review Leysin American? In order to depart from essay writing College, conventions of beauty, Manet omitted several conventions of technique, including common artistic tendencies like chiaroscuro, careful finishes, vibrancy, and curvature. Notice, for instance, how Manet depicted the figure’s dress: it is relatively drab, flat, unornamented. He used angularity across the painting rather than the luscious, curved lines that might suggest a more normalized (if sensualized) depiction of beauty. To put it bluntly, Manet’s depiction of the figure is neither delicate nor particularly alluring. Her face appears flattened by uniform values and by the darkness surrounding her; shadows line the insides of her eyes; and the cloth of elsevier her dress is not the clinging, translucent drapery of classical sculpture or Romantic painting, but rather a relatively shapeless, de-feminized mass. The singer’s shoulders sag, her left hand hangs loosely and slightly contorted, and her eyes look empty rather than inviting.
Formally, the painted surface remains unpolished, with brushstrokes easily visible in write Kingswood, several areas of the review Leysin painting: at the base of the dress, in the guitar, on the edges of the doorway. In these choices Manet set himself at odds with some of the critical thinking workbook Mercersburg Academy values of School his contemporaries. He painted his singer with certain attributes clearly omitted. These attributes and techniques make up artistic traditions that might seem, both to us and to Manet’s contemporaries, necessary conditions for beauty. Yet to write service Kingswood call The Street Singer unconventional is not to call it unskilled. In this sense, Manet’s painting has the potential to split two traditionally linked elements: the conventional, ideal beauty of the elsevier review Leysin School subject’s portrayal and the effectiveness of the artist’s formal execution. Compositionally, The Street Singer is actually unified and help essay, even elegant. (Click here to elsevier review School launch an interactive viewer of The Street Singer from Boston’s Museum of Fine Arts.) Almost every line is echoed in another place: the angles of the singer’s shoulders reappear in how to a quote Institut, the tops of the doors; the guitar creates clear parallel lines with the Leysin dress trimming; the dress’ folds match its edge; and vertical lines repeat on both the sides and in the center of the painting. To Write Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam? Further unity comes from a consistent color palette and a uniformly geometric (and vertically symmetric) construction, as is clear in the centered triangle of the woman. Design and technique, then, are in fact strong in The Street Singer, even if they are not in the service of an elsevier review ideal beauty. Write My Essay Service School? They instead elevate the relatively unglamorous subject of a cafe performer. T o reconcile the coarseness of the woman depicted with the quality of the depiction itself, we must sever formal skill from traditional beauty.
This decoupling starts to legitimize new subjects like street performers: it implies that they do, in fact, deserve to be painted with care and skill. Elsevier Review American School? If Manet was legitimizing new subjects, then the validation of his subject matter and style seems a central concern of The Street Singer. Mount? Here Manet found ways to assert the validity of his painting’s depiction by giving the singer visual emphasis and a commanding presence. Her body is Leysin School emphatically centered in the frame, and pulls out from the background because of help to write essay Vrije contrasts in detail and color around her. Light tones highlight her right side, while the guitar’s yellow sheen emphasizes the left; both underscore her form as the elsevier review Leysin painting’s dominant compositional element. She becomes firmly concrete, and essay writing on school Rosseau College, nearly architectural, by the stark opacity and pyramidal construction of her dress. The singer fits into the space as would a statue, gently surrounded by an arch-like curve formed by elsevier review, the doors behind her. Linearity makes the painting seem all the more architectural, forcing a focal point where the most defined lines (the sides of her body) converge like a vanishing point. Writing On School Lake? And the same angularity and elsevier Leysin School, flatness that de-romanticize her also communicate the inherent solidity of a triangular, rigid geometry. What depth we do find – the shadow on think critically School the ground, the lighting in the doorway, the seeming recession of the cafe – serve to visually force her forward. These compositional details help emphasize and elsevier review School, thus legitimize an otherwise atypical approach.
And yet, Manet painted an emotional distance between his subject and his viewers. Critically School? For Manet’s contemporaries, a “proper” figure likely would have been more alluring or actively engaged with its audience. Artists might have drawn on mythology and depicted tempting, voluptuous women, presenting beauty as mythic rather than realistic. (For an example of a more typical depiction of such figures, see Alexandre Cabanel’s Birth of Venus). But Manet’s aesthetic here remains singular even when compared to artwork that depicts musicians. Review Leysin American School? Jules-Joseph Lefebvre’s Autumn (also known as Girl with a Mandolin) and William-Adoplphe Bourguereau’s Gypsy Girl with Basque Drum, for example, comprise sentimental depictions of a more idealized subject. In The Street Singer, on the other hand, we are drawn to the singer’s face. Almost all of the lines on the dress converge on her visage, where the paint is already the brightest and help to write Vrije Amsterdam, has the most contrast. Elsevier American? However, we do not necessarily find her face enticing, and it is certainly not mythic. A Quote Essay Auf Dem Rosenberg? A dark halo of hair accents her face, and she looks toward us to make it the indisputable focal point.
But the cues that direct our gaze to her face only underscore the idleness we found there. Elsevier Leysin School? She is unfocused on her actions, and her stare is blank. The left and right sides of critical workbook Mercersburg Academy her face seem, on closer inspection, to differ in expression: one side of her mouth appears open, the other looks closed; one eye reflects light, the other seems opaque. She is too absorbed to notice the cherry she eats, the guitar she so absently carries, or the slow steps she takes. Elsevier Review Leysin American School? And she holds her body loosely, with sloping shoulders and relaxed limbs. Her lack of attention creates a lack of direction, too, so while we note her immediate motion, we have no sense of where she is going. If anything, it seems as if she is wandering languidly, with neither a destination nor a connection with the viewer. Thus Manet painted a woman whose physical nearness is write in an Institut Rosenberg offset by an emotional gulf. Just as he managed to demonstrate formal skill without ideal beauty, he painted the School figure to appear close, even as she distractedly ignores the viewer. So Manet’s painting seems near to us, yet remains psychologically far away. From that state The Street Singer can render the viewer feeling inconsequential.
The sheer size of the canvas and figure only magnify the Mercersburg singer’s detachment. Her architectural presence places her high in the frame; her feet, obscured by shadow, are hidden enough that she seems to float over us. Even if the painting were displayed at review School ground level, the figure would seem above the ground and therefore above us. Essay Vrije Amsterdam? By making The Street Singer large (almost six feet tall), Manet in turn makes us small. It is as if she stands upon a stage and we sit in the audience, our location irrelevant except in relation to her form in the spotlight. And like a lead actress, she commands our attention while withholding hers. Whatever knowledge she might be privy to remains singularly hers. But we remain ignorant of her identity, her emotions, and her destination, and this redounds to making us inconsequential in front of the painting.
The world we perceive essentially ignores us, as she walks by Leysin American, with an empty glance and as the faint figures in the cafe continue to eat and drink. Yet that world draws us in. We became implicated in it, as well as subservient to it: we are by association made part of what we witness, thrust into the life of the write my essay School street. Looking at The Street Singer, we can begin to feel its indifference as a kind of elsevier Leysin American School domination. Vis-a-vis the painting, we feel a towering presence. Of course, The Street Singer is complex enough to remain open to other readings. Essay Writing College? On first glance a viewer might find it simply unappealing, either meritless or rebellious without much reason.
However, the painting’s unity, deliberateness, and shrewd characterization of the figure should render such an School objection groundless. Thinking Northfield Mount? Even if we find the painting distasteful, it would be hard to deny that it is compositionally skillful. On the other hand, one could argue that The Street Singer simply depicts the sad ramifications of poverty, making it a genre scene in the fashion of artists like Pieter Breughel the Elder or Caravaggio. But if this were a sentimental genre scene, seeking pity or understanding, a more emotional appeal would have served Manet better than the idle, empty look he employed. Smallness would have drawn greater pity, and placing her lower in the frame would have encouraged greater empathy. Manet did not depict the street singer as “downtrodden,” as she is neither small nor defeated.
In this scene, we are the small; we are the defeated. She does not offer the feeling of a common humanity among us. Instead, she holds power over us. W hat better way to reject the conventional than by defying the expectations of a more conventional audience? The preoccupied gaze that meets our interested stares speaks to us as viewers, but more specifically to our values. If our lives are hardly worth a glance, then what of review Leysin our taste in art? Thus Manet bestowed upon The Street Singer a power greater than either visual supremacy or psychological influence: he challenged the very notion of beauty. The painting begins to help Vrije Amsterdam hold sway over review Leysin School, an audience, and thinking critically Northfield Mount Hermon, starts to scuff our conceptions of elsevier review Leysin School a “perfect” beauty. If this is true, perhaps we can finally understand the new aesthetic Manet has to offer.
Even common subjects, and thinking Northfield, common people, deserved Manet’s particular craft and artistic attention. It is important to note, at end, that Manet seemed to avoid claims about Leysin American what is beautiful, or even explicitly how to portray beauty; it is likewise possible that he presented no clear agenda here, no concrete rules for a “correct” method or an Northfield Mount Hermon “appropriate” subject. In other words, it might be more accurate to say that he expands the review American School realm of aesthetics to allow for a multiplicity of thinking Northfield Mount Hermon subjects and modes of representation, rather than prescribing any particular one. He did, after all, leave us a complex and multifarious body of work. We can therefore define his aesthetic by the possibilities it leaves open: if he resisted strict rules, he remained open to various subjects and elsevier review American, various modes of representation. In offering us another angle in The Street Singer on this new aesthetic, in other words, he did not lay claim to an absolute standard. To do so, after all, would mimic the oppressiveness Manet seemed to be disputing in this painting. The implications of that dispute extend past the thinking Mount Hermon elevation of Leysin American School a single subject, or the disruption of a single artistic trend. The Street Singer remains as forceful and impossible to ignore as what Manet seemed to assert here. An aesthetic of new subjects, new techniques, and new values – an essay writing Lake College aesthetic that belittles neither beauty nor reality by idealization – was beginning to emerge.
Bouguereau, William-Adolphe. Gypsy Girl with Basque Drum, 1867. Private collection. Cabanel, Alexandre. The Birth of Venus, 1875. Elsevier Leysin? The Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York. Gift of John Wolfe, 1893. 94.24.1.
Lefebvre, Jules-Joseph. Autumn (Girl with a Mandolin). Private collection. Manet, Edouard. The Street Singer, about 1862. Museum of Fine Arts, Boston. Gift of Sarah C. Help To Write Vrije Universiteit? Sears, 1966. 66.304.
Constructing the review Perfect Female Figure. 2008 Sosland Prize in Expository Writing. “The corset will live as long as the innate desire to please lives in woman’s heart…One can destroy a religion, overthrow a government; against the corset one can do nothing!…Hail, O corset! You are blessed by workbook Mercersburg Academy, all women, and elsevier review Leysin, even those whom nature has overwhelmed with gifts cannot pass your competitive exam…May your power grow still greater, if this is thinking critically Northfield Mount possible, and may your name be glorified all over American, the earth…Amen.” —Advertisement for Leoty corsets, La Vie Parisienne , 1886:127. O f all kinds of human striving, the pursuit of beauty is the most romanticized, the most visceral, and the most elusive. We do not pen sonnets to write Rosenberg exalt brilliance or commend late-night studying; we do not compose symphonies to honor terrific strength or recognize arduous weight training. No: we celebrate wit, daring, bravado, honesty, and faithfulness—qualities of character, not of arbitrary genetic advantage. Yet, we also revere physical perfection, which, unlike character, is entirely out of our own control. Or is it?
As long as there has been henna, rouge, chalk, flax, oil, or even water, women have scrubbed, stained, stretched, and review Leysin American School, sculpted their bodies to fit the beauty conventions of their time. Thinking Critically Northfield Mount Hermon? The acceleration of beauty technology in the 19th and 20th centuries, whether in makeup, surgery, chemical treatments, or restrictive clothing, has left very little beyond control. Today, it seems that beauty can be earned, not simply inherited, and, suddenly, that “there are no ugly women, only lazy ones” (Helena Rubinstein, qtd. in Riordan, 2004:vii). Technology has truly freed women from the shackles of their genetic heritage. Review American? But it has also made them slaves to constant striving.
The democratization of beauty did not make attaining it easy. Critically Northfield Mount Hermon? If science has made each woman more beautiful, it has also raised the stakes for all women. The Victorian-era corset perfectly exemplifies how a once-sensible preference for health and vitality was exaggerated by technological progress into an irrational obsession. Indeed, no other single physical characteristic can compete in importance to the stylized “hourglass” figure of the human female. Nose length, hair luster, neck arch, nail sheen—these are minor considerations next to the endless quest for elsevier review Leysin School the perfect figure. And though fickle fashions have, at my essay different times, prized emaciated bones, wiry muscles, voluptuous bulges and slender curves, the preference for comparatively small waists and wider hips has remained constant. This 0.7 to 1 waist-to-hip ratio is itself a kind of “Golden Number,” albeit one that few women actually possess (Etcoff, 1999:194).
The whalebone and review American School, steel corsets of the 20th century are perhaps the most infamous technologies dedicated to this pursuit. And they have generated a veritable cottage industry of debate. Everyone from thinking Mount Hermon, evolutionary biologists to elsevier review Leysin contemporary feminists has sounded off on the origins of the comically tiny waists of the Victorian era. But the answer to this phenomenon lies somewhere in between their theories: corsets were the inevitable consequence of a mismatch between the aggressive pace of technological development and evolutionarily stagnant human preferences. Though my analysis it is essay on school College unabashedly hetero-normative, partly to reflect the cultural dominance of elsevier review Leysin American strict gender roles in the corset’s time, and partly to writing on school Lake simplify my own task, it speaks to questions of self-image that all women face no matter what their sexual orientation. And though it is focused narrowly upon the female sex, ignoring men altogether, it speaks to the endless struggle for self-improvement and rejection of natural boundaries that all humans face no matter what goals they set for themselves. What is the cost of the elsevier review American School endless pursuit of my essay service Kingswood perfect beauty, aided by all the imperfect arts that human progress has afforded us?
And if our imperfect intuitions lead us to elsevier reach beyond the natural into the realm of Rosseau Lake College fetish, can we accept the alternative of ceasing to strive altogether? I t began innocently enough. According to the Oxford English Dictionary, the review American School first recorded men- tion of the on school word “corset” is a 1299 account of the fashions at the court of King Edward I (qtd. in Etcoff, 1999:194). For many centuries, corsets were an accessory of noble ladies; little more than a thick cloth bodice, they constricted the waist lightly and emphasized the breasts (Steele, 2001:6). But with the first true corsets, made of “whalebone bodices” in the early sixteenth century, came the first cases of review School tight-lacing, the Roedean process by which “young Virgins…thinking a Slender-Waist a great beauty, strive all that they possibly can by elsevier American, streight-lacing themselves, to attain unto a wand-like smallnesse of Waste [sic]” (Bulwer, 1653:338-339).
Tightlacing in writing on school College, this era was not yet extreme, primarily because the technology was too crude for it to School be. As a supporting material, whalebone was weaker than its successors, and essay, susceptible to breakage; therefore, stays were not quite form-fitting and left more space for the expansion of the Leysin American School diaphragm. Essay On School College? But industrialization in the 19th century altered this balance, and corsets became both less comfortable and more effective. Metal eyelets, patented in 1825, made it possible to lace them more tightly. Cording and elsevier Leysin, light boning in the 1830s made them stiffer and easier to critically Northfield shape (Riordan, 2004:177). Steam-molding after 1869 allowed corset-makers to generate standardized, ideal figures (189). At the same time, the onward march of mass-production empowered middle-class women to take part in review Leysin American, corseting as never before (180). Suddenly, corsets and their complements—farthingales, panniers, crinolines, and bustles—were everywhere, cinching the how to a quote in an Institut waist, flattening the stomach, plumping the breasts, augmenting the hips, exaggerating the rear, or otherwise molding the typically soft, sedentary body of the review American School middle- or upper-class young woman into an impossibly curvaceous living doll. From childhood, these girls were quite literally shaped by help to write Vrije, the demands of beauty, trained like young saplings in the steel cages of cultural expectations. Review School? And by the turn of the 20th century, corsets had become so common that “physicians began to believe women came that way” (Hatfield and Sprecher, 1986:231).
Of course, when it became possible for ordinary women to purchase corsets that only the wealthiest could once afford, what used to pass for extraordinary would no longer do. Essay? Standards would have to rise, and they did: at the height of the corseting craze, the most fashionable women reportedly had their lower five ribs removed (231). Review? (It is important to how to think School note that scholars continue to disagree on whether or not women removed their ribs. Steele most recently questioned the bases for this information; however, it remains part of review American conventional wisdom about the era.) While even the women of the essay Lake time acknowledged that the “healthy average waist” was not less than 26 inches ( The Family Herald , 1848), most women restricted themselves to 23 or 25 inches, and elsevier Leysin, the social queens of the time boasted of 18-inch waists or even smaller (Steele, 2001:88). Technology made the impossible ordinary, and, unchecked, the human tendency for thinking Academy excess took over. Corsets had the power to harness the wildest fantasies of the imagination, and were taken up by tightlacing fetishists seeking waists of seven- teen, sixteen, or even fifteen inches. Even ordinary women often reduced their waists far beyond the American School 0.7-to-1 ideal (92). It is not that the health dangers of corsets were not known at the time—far from it. A vibrant literature of criticism—primarily authored, much to help essay latter-day feminists’ chagrin, by men—flourished alongside the thriving corset industry. Leysin School? Under the penname Luke Limner, illustrator and essayist John Leighton wrote the most famous of these critiques.
Madre Natura versus the essay writing on school Rosseau College Moloch of fashion blamed the corset for a litany of problems from reduced fertility to fainting fits, and portrayed the elsevier review Leysin School women who wore it as victims who had “escaped from death [and] to this day bear evidence … in the form of critically School scars where the flesh has been seared, and contracted joints where the bones have been broken” (Leighton,1874:12). Understandably, these images horrify the modern reader. Corseting appears monstrous, perverse, inhuman. And yet it was a cherished and common practice until only a century ago. How could it have happened? T he emerging field of evolutionary psychology provides some answers.
If female physical beauty did evolve from male mating preferences, it can be understood as a set of signals for traits that correspond with reproductive success. Those traits include: fertility, or whether a woman is hormonally balanced and a fully developed female; health, or whether she is likely to Leysin carry her child to term and survive birth; nulliparity, or whether she has previously undergone pregnancy; and think critically Roedean School, youth, or how long she has been ovulating past earliest child- bearing age. Elsevier Review? For a male interested in spreading his genetic seed, the first two considerations seem intuitive. The last two are trickier. Not only would nulliparity and youth favor a woman’s direct reproductive success, measured in the likelihood that her fetus would survive (Fretts et al., 1995), they would have even greater importance to the prospective father: without previous offspring, his own would face less competition for its mother’s attention; like- wise, a younger mate could offer a monopoly on all childbearing years and therefore both security and abundance in how to essay Institut auf dem, reproductive opportunities. A vibrant psychological literature is predicated on exactly that assumption (Kenrick and Keefe 1992). Recent evidence shows that the elsevier review signal theory of beauty holds especially well with respect to perceptions of the female figure.
Indeed, while there is significant historic and cultural variation in perceptions of ideal body weight , the ideal body shape is consistent across cultures and time periods (Etcoff,1999:192). This shape is defined by the ratio of the workbook Mercersburg waist to the hip: in men, it is about 0.9-to-1; in elsevier American, women, it is 0.7-to-1 (191). Help Essay Vrije Amsterdam? This is the “Golden ratio” that defines the great beauties of pop culture today: we see it in Audrey Hepburn and Marilyn Monroe; in supermodels, Playboy bunnies, and review Leysin, Miss Americas. Despite substantial variation in height, weight, style, and audience, their waist-to-hip ratios all fall between 0.68 and Northfield Mount, 0.72 (193). And psychologist Devendra Singh has found that this ratio—not body weight—best predicted which figures people of all ages, genders, and races find attractive (Singh 1993:293-307). Crucially, the 0.7 waist-to-hip ratio manages to Leysin predict each of the four traits essential to reproductive success. With respect to thinking workbook Academy fertility and health, a 1993 British Medical Journal study found that fat distribution was more important than age or weight to a woman’s likelihood of conceiving by in vitro fertilization (Zaadstra, 1993:484-487). And with respect to youth and nulliparity, it is obvious from the elsevier School phrase “girlish figure” that the wasp waist is to write essay Amsterdam a badge of adolescence: “ephemeral…disappear[ing] early in pregnancy and hard to regain” (Etcoff, 1999:191). At first glance, then, the logic of the waist-to-hip ratio seems to validate corseting entirely.
To an average woman of ratio 0.8 or 0.9, investing in a corset would be no different than, say, losing weight, or covering blemishes. Elsevier Review Leysin American? The golden ratio would be a perfectly natural goal to strive for—a standard of health and fertility as obvious as a target BMI or clear skin. B ut how natural are our ideals? Some seem convincingly so. For example, it makes perfect sense that men are attracted to large eyes and small chins, and that women are attracted to large brow ridges and chiseled bone structures (75). The former indicates low and the latter high levels of testosterone. Likewise, the nearly universal attraction in both sexes for healthy muscle tone, clear skin, and symmetrical features has a clear basis in health and vitality. But the exaggerations embraced by breast enlargement surgery and a quote in an essay Institut Rosenberg, competitive bodybuilding, as well as the caricatures we portray in manga and airbrushed photos, reflect an elsevier review Leysin American uneasy scientific fact: human sensors of think critically School beauty are not perfectly tuned to anatomical realities (26). Some ‘natural’ preferences may not be so natural after all. Indeed, this is precisely what thinkers of the third-wave feminist movement of the 1990s insisted.
They argued that beauty was not a biological fact at all. With Naomi Wolf’s blistering critique of “the beauty myth” as its manifesto, that school declared that female beauty was solely a social construction perpetrated by men: a “myth…claim[ing] to be a celebration of elsevier Leysin women…[but] actually composed of emotional distance, politics, finance, and sexual repression. The beauty myth is not about women at all. It is about men’s institutions and institutional power” (Wolf, 1991:12-13). Wolf’s logic is compelling in writing Rosseau Lake, light of the Leysin American School corset’s symbolic meaning for the women who relied on it.
Historians agree that part of the corset’s appeal was its connection to traditionally feminine qualities. Stays represented virtue, chastity, and on school Rosseau Lake, good breeding (Hatfield and Sprecher, 1986:232), while “an unlaced waist was regarded as a vessel of elsevier review American sin” (Rudofsky, 1972:111): coarse, unrefined, and writing on school Rosseau Lake, promiscuous. It is impossible to imagine this symbolism with- out a patriarchal context in which female sexuality is suppressed and controlled at the whims of men. And it takes little imagination to under- stand a sexual entrapment device, used almost entirely by School, women with social aspirations, as a manifestation of Mount Hermon broader chauvinist control. Wolf saw this control as a fundamental pattern in Victorian society. Elsevier Leysin? She blamed physicians in particular for teaching women that they had to think critically Roedean School be saved from their own vitality, sexuality, and physical freedom. “The purpose of the Victorian cult of female invalidation was social control,” she writes (Wolf, 1991:224). And to some extent, texts from the time show that the School “cult” was real:
It is true, the corset impairs the [naked] personal attractiveness of the wearer, but the loss suffered on that score is off- set by the gain in reputability which comes of her visibly increased expensiveness and infirmity (Veblen, 1911: 172). Apparently, by Thornstein Veblen’s time, the write my essay service Kingswood beauty of the corseted waist was not wholly or even predominantly physical—quite the opposite. Elsevier Review School? If women had once worn corsets to appear more beautiful, by the early 20th century they were doing so to thinking Northfield Mount be more beautiful—that is, the corset itself became a signal of reproductive success, symbolizing the things that beauty itself is supposed to represent. Corsets implied fertility (femininity), health (posture), youth (girlish fashions), and nulliparity (restraint). Moreover, since stays were expensive, small waists were also marks of status that suggested class, wealth, and good breeding—and evidence suggests that symbols of status are also seen as beautiful (Etcoff, 1999:46-48). Eventually, women may have corseted for the corset’s own sake; an undergarment once used to cheat age and elsevier Leysin, genetic misfortune had become an inescapable social norm. A s accurate as Wolf is that corseting was at least in part a cultural construction, it would be a mistake to blame the phenomenon wholly upon men, as she does.
Valerie Steele notes in my essay Kingswood, Corset: A Cultural History that it was “older women, not men, [who] were primarily responsible for enforcing sartorial norms…the cultural weight placed on propriety and respectability made it difficult for elsevier review Leysin School women to abandon the to write essay Amsterdam corset, even if they wanted to” (Steele, 2001:51). Wolf would likely reply that it was men who maintained control by the very fact that it was men who these women strove to impress, whose perpetration of the beauty myth created such norms in the first place (Wolf, 1991:59). American? But that answer is problematic for two reasons. First, it ignores a crucial complication: even feminists and female physicians at the time were conflicted about corseting, with many arguing that reasonable lacing was consistent with feminist ideals (Steele, 2001:59). Second, it tells us only the obvious—that women sought to impress men—and tells us nothing about why they employed corsetry in particular to reach that goal. For an answer to that question, we must return to to write essay Vrije Universiteit the work done by evolutionary psychologists, whose work indicated that the 0.7-to-1 waist-to-hip ratio was a valid measurement of both beauty and elsevier Leysin School, reproductive success. A Quote Institut Auf Dem Rosenberg? It is also through their work that we may reconcile the popularity of corseting with our modern intuition that it was dangerous, destructive, and fundamentally irrational.
They reveal that what seems obvious now—the ridiculous heights that corseting assumed—might have been less apparent after centuries of habituation to ever-shrinking standards of elsevier review Leysin waist size. Psychological evidence suggests that humans are susceptible to hyperstimuli: we react more strongly to exaggerations of things that have proven through natural selection to critically Mount be useful, because our perception of excess is not finely tuned. The power of hyperstimuli is most obvious when it comes to food. We love salty, sweet, fatty foods much more than a healthy diet requires; an understanding of hyperstimuli suggests that we do so because our bodies evolved in a time when things rich in salt, sugar, and review Leysin School, fat were rare. For a hunter-gatherer facing starvation on a daily basis, the how to think critically very idea of modern diseases like obesity and heart disease would have been patently absurd (Pinker, 1997:195). What is review School true about critically our tastes in food is also true of our tastes in each other: in experiments on facial attractiveness, researchers have discovered that both hyperfemininity in women (Perrett et al., 1998) and hypermasculinity in men (Thornhill and Gangestad, 2008) are preferred over average, healthy proportions; women invest in review Leysin American, lip injections, and men in shoulder pads for that very reason. (Facial attractiveness is a complicated subject, as researchers have found that women might prefer less-masculine faces when in search of stable, long-term mates, but still prefer masculine features when ovulating. Randy Thornhill and Steven Gangestad argue that this strategy enables women to Universiteit Amsterdam maximize their reproductive success in terms of elsevier Leysin School both resources, through a faithful partner, and genotype, through a desirable but unfaithful mate.) Preferences for waist-hip ratios could have evolved in School, the same way: since wasp waists are naturally uncommon in women, the smallest waists were the most reproductively effective, and there would be no reason to evolve a precise sense of what was too narrow. Leysin School? Equipped with only a general attraction to help Vrije small waists, then, people would be vulnerable to respond to hyperstimuli, which would only become more extreme as previously extraordinary waists became every- day. Elsevier American? Hence the impossible .54 waist-hip ratios of Barbie dolls (Etcoff, 1999:194), and the conviction of Victorian women that only the tiniest waists were beautiful.
That is not to say that we have no awareness of the absurd—merely that is not so finely tuned. Few of us will eat spoonfuls of sugar, and even fewer will swallow pure lard; likewise, women eventually jolted to their senses at the sight of Neanderthal-like faces, and Victorian men often complained that extreme tight- lacers’ waists were grotesquely small (Steele, 2001:106). But we do willingly eat brownies and crme brulee—and our love of Big Macs and sodas is largely to blame for the modern obesity epidemic. Likewise, to the people of the corseted age, waists that were merely quite small —say, 22 inches in diameter instead of 18—were unquestionably “elegant and graceful”(107). Between their strong innate preference for the golden ratio and their weaker alarm system for the absurd, there could be no contest: in all but the most ridiculous cases, a smaller waist appeared more attractive.
Their psychological flaw—ours, too—left them vulnerable to the allure of the corset. And that flaw functions as the missing link in traditional feminist arguments dismissing the corset as a tool of female repression and patriarchal control. Beginning from the assumption that naturally small, uncorseted waists are already beautiful—an assumption the thinking Academy Victorians themselves shared (92-93)—it becomes possible to understand how corseting could have gone to extremes without appealing to elsevier review Leysin American radical pronouncements on male dominance or female irresponsibility. Women would not have under- stood—could not have understood—the logic of the waist-hip ratio, but they knew that small waists were beautiful, and it seemed that there was no limit to how tiny desirable waists could be. Why not strive for ever-smaller ratios? Like large biceps among men, small waists would have gained cultural importance to Victorian women as symbols of social status because of think critically Roedean their natural significance. Natural preferences provided an impetus; cultural symbolism followed. And eventually corsets gained enough normative power to Leysin at least give the illusion of critically Northfield Mount having entirely replaced the natural symbolism of the School Golden ratio. B y the thinking critically Northfield Mount Hermon turn of the elsevier review American 20th century, corseting had become a social institution. Within twenty years, however, the practice had all but disappeared.
Its precipitous fall can be traced in the medical literature to the turbulent first decades of 1900s, when criticism of corseting grew ever more strident and mainstream. The British Medical Journal was typical of the medical community when it argued in a 1903 book review that “corsets should be abandoned, and women should not even be measured for rational clothing until some days after discarding them, so that the a quote in an essay Rosenberg figure should have had time to reapproached the review Leysin School normal” (BMJ, 1903:1003). But medical criticism had existed alongside the essay Institut auf dem corset for its entire history, and its surge is better understood as a symptom of the corset’s decline than as its cause. After all, it was self- styled medical experts who, declaring existing corsets unhealthy, created the “straight front, S-curve “health corsets” in American School, the late 19th century that constricted women’s bodies far more painfully than “unhealthy” corsets ever had (Riordan, 2004:194). Simply put, previous corset abolitionists often had sexist and to write Amsterdam, med- ically-inaccurate agendas of their own. And as Steele points out, many of the accusations levied against corsets—that they caused respiratory illness, tuberculosis, miscarriage, and deformity—were simply untrue (Steele, 2001). The corset did not fade away because it was unhealthy: we recognize that it was unhealthy because it has, by now, faded away.
Instead, the corset declined because its cultural-normative implications became untenable to women claiming social and political liberation—and because technological innovation gave them substitutes that served just as well. Its disappearance mirrored the rise—and fall—of bloomers, the advent of female suffrage, and the spread of now-incontrovertible ideas of female athleticism. Yet, none of these reasons would have been enough without a technological substitute for elsevier Leysin the corset. Feminists abandoned their stays, but they simply took up other means of maintaining enviable figures. Dieting, exercise, self-conscious posture (143)—these are certainly superior approaches for their reliance on healthy effort, not self-mutilation. Yet, many a 20th-century woman shrugged off her corset only to pull on a Lycra girdle (Riordan, 2004:201) or slide onto an operating table for liposuction. Indeed, the naturally overweight or otherwise imperfect woman has not seen her body image improve, but rather the opposite (Steele, 2001:65). How To Think Critically? With the shortcut of elsevier review American School exterior stays stripped away, she finds herself facing an internal corset of eating disorders and plastic surgery. But what happens if or when even these shortcuts become socially unacceptable? Granted, the corset’s unnatural stranglehold upon women’s figures and men’s imaginations is hard to swallow. It was then what plastic surgery is help to write essay Vrije Universiteit now and what genetic treatments may one day become: proof, in Leighton’s words, of American School “the abject littleness and pitiful fatuity with which, even in thinking critically Northfield, an assumed condition of high culture, the elsevier School Human Mind will bow to the tyranny of an ideal, worshipped Despot of its own creation, even to how to the subjection of body and soul” (Leighton, 1874:25).
But it was also liberating. For women with flawed bodies, a corset was a shield; for elsevier review American School the overweight, it was the how to a quote essay Institut auf dem Rosenberg great equalizer that gave them an advantage over smaller women without fat to mold (Steele, 2001:64). The corset trapped women into a spiral of ever-smaller waists and ever-rising standards. But the corset also had this promise: “Those who were not born to beauty could now purchase it” (Riordan, 2004:180). Without these technologies, another equalizer, another means of striving, will have been eliminated; the hierarchy of the Leysin American beautiful will have been restored. T he corset serves as testament to a truth that still holds today.
Women have always faced a devil’s bargain between two kinds of oppression: they may either be slaves to natural endowments, resigning themselves to their luck in the genetic lottery, or they may be slaves to choice, resigning themselves to the ceaseless pursuit of impossible objectives and constant competition with each other. Yet, “invention … changes what is possible” (Riordan 178), and the march of technological progress has made the second option both more tempting and more dangerous. After all, “we are products of write my essay service Kingswood evolution and cannot change instincts…It may be difficult to change human nature, and easier to start by fooling her” (Etcoff, 1999:74). Today, some women do refuse to fool nature. Elsevier Leysin American School? A significant minority proudly reject makeup, and even more scorn surgery.
But commercials like Dove’s “Campaign for Real Beauty” celebrate the same natural beauty that so many women are ashamed to admit that they lack. They are left with a choice that is hardly a choice at all: to revere the how to write auf dem arbitrary or chase the nonexistent. As with too many important problems, there is no right answer. As far as we—as a sex, as a society, as a species—are willing to elsevier review tolerate ambition, obsession, and self- destruction, technology holds great promise as a way to free us from the vagaries of write in an Rosenberg chance and our natural limitations. As far as we are not willing to accept that price, we must accept the arbitrary inequalities of the American genetic lottery. Corseting represents a single example of writing on school Rosseau Lake human ingenuity gone awry, but the same theme plays out in review American, other technologies, other situations, and other goals. Beauty, intelligence, strength, humor, optimism, sociability: every quality worth having comes more easily to some than to write essay auf dem Rosenberg others. Whether we choose to fight that tragic fact about our species will determine the narrow path future technologies navigate between the palpable and the unearthly, the ordinary and the extraordinary, the appallingly callous and the heartbreakingly human. Bulwer, John. 1653.
The Artificial Changeling. London: William Hunt. Etcoff, Nancy. 1999. Survival of the Prettiest: The Science of Beauty . New York: Anchor Books. Fretts, R. C., J. Schmittdiel, F. Elsevier Review Leysin American? H. McLean, R.H. Usher, and M. B. Goldman. 1995. “Increased Maternal Age and the Risk of Fetal Death.” The New England Journal of Medicine . Write? Volume 333, Issue 15. 15 Oct 1995.
Boston: Massachusetts Medical Society. Elsevier School? 953-957. The Family Herald . 1996. March 4, 1848:700. Qtd. in thinking critically Northfield Hermon, Farrar, Peter. Tight Lacing: A Bibliography of Articles and Letters Concerning Stays and Corsets for Men and Women.
Liverpool: Karn Publications Garston. Review Leysin American? 6. Hatfield, Elaine, and critical thinking workbook, Susan Sprecher. 1986. Mirror, Mirror: The Importance of Looks in Everyday Life . Albany: State University of New York Press. Kenrick, Douglas, and Leysin American School, R. C. Keefe. 1992. “Age preferences in mates reflect sex differences in reproductive strategies.” Behavioral and Brain Sciences . Volume 15, Issue 1. March 1992.
New York: Cambridge University Press. Leighton, John. 1874. Madre natura versus the workbook Academy Moloch of fashion, a social essay, by Luke Limner . Fourth Edition. London: Chatto and Windus, Piccadilly. Montaigne, Michel de. 1575. Essays . Book 1, Chpt. 14. From The Complete Works of Montaigne . Palo Alto: Stanford University Press, 1948. “One hundred years ago: The hygienic reform of female clothing.” British Medial Journal . Elsevier Review American? 1903.
Issue ii: 1003. Reprinted in British Medical Journal, Volume 327, Nov. 2003. Perrett, D. I., K. J. Lee, I. Penton-Voak, D. Kingswood? Rowland, S. Yoshikawa, D. M. Leysin American School? Burt, S. P. Henzi, D. L. Castles, and S. Akamatsu. 1998. “Effects of sexual dimorphism on facial attractiveness.” Nature . Volume 394, Issue 6696. 27 August 1998. Help Universiteit? London: MacMillan Magazines Ltd. Elsevier American School? 884-887. Pinker, Stephen. 1997.
How the Mind Works . New York: W. W. Norton Co. Riordan, Teresa. 2004. Inventing beauty: A history of the innovations that have made us beautiful . New York: Broadway Books. Rudofsy, B. 1972. The unfashionable human body. Workbook Mercersburg? London: Ruper Hart-Davis. Singh, Devendra. 1993. “Adaptive significant of female physical attractiveness: Role of waist-to-hip ratio.” Journal of Personality and Social Psychology . Volume 65. 293-307.
Steele, Valerie. 2001. Corset: A Cultural History . New Haven: Yale University Press. Thornhill, Randy, and Steven W. Gangestad. 2008 (in press). The Evolutionary Biology of Human Female Sexuality . Oxford University Press: New York, NY. Veblen, T. Elsevier Review Leysin American? 1911. The theory of the leisure class.
An economic study of institutions . New York: MacMillan. 172. Wolf, Naomi. 1991. The beauty myth: how images of beauty are used against women . Thinking Mount Hermon? 1st Edition. New York: William Morrow and Company, Inc.
Zaadstra, Boukje M., Jacob Seidell, Paul van Noord, Egbert te Velde, Dik Habbema, Baukje Vrieswijk, and Jan Karbaat. 1993. “Fat and female fecundity: Prospective study of elsevier effect of body fat distribution on conception rates.” British Medical Journal . How To Think Critically School? Vol. Elsevier Review American? 306, Issue 6876. Feb 1993: 484-48. Color-code the critically Hermon three-part structure of an introduction to a scholarly argument. Common Ways to elsevier review School Establish What’s at Stake. Hover over service Kingswood, each for an explanation.
HarvardWrites is a joint venture of the Harvard College Writing Program, the Derek Bok Center for elsevier Leysin School Teaching and critically Northfield Hermon, Learning, and the departments and elsevier review Leysin, schools represented on writing Lake our site. The project was made possible through a generous grant from the Leysin School Harvard Initiative for service Kingswood School Learning and Teaching.
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Conducting a review - Elsevier
About the FQXI essay contest on the math/physics connection. by Sylvain Poirier. I looked at most essays, and the best essays I found are: Seriously. I cared to make the best essay, altogether scientifically accurate, clear and very insightful and innovative, including (but not restricted to) An original exposition of the most coherent interpretation of elsevier Leysin quantum physics, An explanation of how to think critically Roedean why the laws of review Leysin physics are quantum; that is a problem expressed by many articles in the FQXI, especially in the attractive title of the article (The Quest to Explain Why the “Quantum” Exists) announcing a research grant of Amsterdam $50,000, though if we look at the technical details, the topic of their research is different (they seem to try to elsevier review American, analyze the mathematical properties of the consequences of quantum physics, not explain its origin). Not only this, but I also cared to make the help to write Universiteit Amsterdam, most serious, accurate and review Leysin American School developed comments to many essays - I did not find anyone else writing such serious and elaborate comments as I did. Despite of this, and essay writing on school Rosseau that I rated 10 the other 2 above, we still have very bad ratings : on March 16th, rating was 5.3 (13 ratings) for Woit ; 3.9 (9 ratings) for myself. Without my rating, you can figure out how absurdly low their rating would have been. (in no particular order) On the elsevier School, other hand, those who appeared best by community rating (on March 16th) were : 2nd : How Mathematics Meets the World by Tim Maudlin, an out-of-topic essay, which even has some flaws, as I pointed out showing that I have myself deeper insights on the very topic he dedicates his essay to, which he claims to in an Institut Rosenberg, pioneer. Positions 3 and 5 : essays by Lee Smolin and Edwin Eugene Klingman which are actually pure bullshit, as I explained there; they are there despite my down rating of 1; so without my rating, they could have reached the top. What does it mean ? What it truly means, is only one thing : in the way it is currently implemented, this community rating is an utterly senseless, ridiculous system.
But where does the problem come from ? Here are the explanations. Among the diverse essays in this contest we can find expressions of diverse philosophical views, that I would consider mainly classified in 2 dimensions, with indications their respective favorite interpretations of quantum mechanics, and representative members in this contest and elsewhere. Consciousness is fundamental. Elsewhere: E. Schrodinger, J.von Neumann, E.Wigner, Casey Blood, J. A. Leysin? Wheeler, A. A. Grib, (Euan Squires ?), D. Chalmers, J.Eccles, R.C.Henry. Essay Writing Rosseau? Rare in this contest though they form the overwhelming majority of humans, probably because they like neither math nor physics ;-) Consciouness is emergent. Famous physicists: H.Everett, David Wallace, Sean Carroll, Max Tegmark. Pushed to its extreme (and, I think, absurd) consequences by Marc Seguin. QM: Local deterministic realism. Elsevier? (This table was expanded after initial writing; the label Idealism was moved from the scientism column (mind/mathematics dualism) to obscurantism (religion) after I tried for some time to critical thinking Academy, explain to elsevier review American, idealists how to side with science, and Mount finally gave up as they stubbornedly refused to do so. American School? Well, these people are Christians. more comments on the debate on writing Rosseau Lake College quantum idealism and science) Among these oppositions, the biggest clash is between columns : Scientism and elsevier review American Obscurantism. Essay On School Rosseau Lake College? Then is also a clash between the cells of the Obscurantism column. Arguments for Mathematical Platonism, and elsevier review what is remarkable about the success of mathematics in physics.
A try of argument for Platonism was given by Peter Martin Punin, Defense of Scientific Platonism... See my comments there (As I noted there, that article has some points, but also some flaws), and in my Web page on the topic. Vrije Amsterdam? As for the remarkable role of maths in physics: while the elsevier Leysin School, presence of symmetries is Rosseau Lake College, one aspect, it is far from the only one, as I commented in reply to the essay by Milen Velchev Velev. Many authors claim to explain the remarkable role of maths and physics by the assumption that it does not exist, i.e. it is not remarkable, for lack of an idea of what might its remarkable character precisely mean, as how else might things be ? This is pure lack of elsevier review Leysin imagination. This remarkable character of the success of mathematics in how to critically Roedean School physics really means something non-necessary, and really remarkable , as expressed in several essays: I gave arguments in my comment to Mathematics is Leysin, Physics by Matthew Saul Leifer : here is a copy of my last remark, less linked to the specific article I was replying to (This idea is also contained in Martin Seltmann's essay) To explain how the how to School, concepts of elsevier review Leysin American School abstraction and generality differ, I need to take a specific example. I would like you to consider the case of the a quote essay, Dirac equation.
This is a particular case of equation of a particular object (electrons or other spin 1/2 massive particles), but nevertheless a very abstract one. since the determinant of this matrix coincides with the relativistic invariant (t 2 ? x 2 ? y 2 ? z 2 ). Which is one of the reasons why I do not think any materialistic explanation is plausible to account for the laws of elsevier Leysin American School physics as they appear : how such an amazing thing as the Dirac equation can be relevant to physics. On accusations of inappropriateness of the present review. What is obscurantism and why is write my essay service, it so popular in the world. In particular, its way of qualifying the review American, topic that he is critical workbook Mercersburg Academy, trying to explain. The real topic of the contest was, why are the laws of physics so highly mathematical. But what does it mean, to review Leysin American School, be highly mathematical ? This author interprets it to mean : less intuitive, where the intuitiveness is supposed to be : what is hard-wired in my essay service our brain as a result of natural evolution, that is useful for our survival. However, this is missing the real issue. The real issue of the remarkable effectiveness of high mathematics, and what is elsevier, meant by high mathematics, is not that this is help essay Amsterdam, particularly non-intuitive mathematics, but on the contrary: it is a good surprise that this is clear, elegant mathematics. A good surprise, as it is not less intuitive than naive mathematics, but it is still intuitive, though it needs an elsevier Leysin School effort to learn and see it as such, as this is how to in an essay, a kind of intuitiveness far away from daily experience. What is more precisely remarkable there, is review, not that it differs from write a quote in an essay Rosenberg, daily experience (which is expectable !), but that it still turns out to be intuitive despite this. And what makes this misunderstanding symptomatic of obscurantism, is elsevier Leysin, that it expresses the think Roedean School, viewpoint of the ignorant, who have troubles with high mathematics which seems obscure and counter-intuitive to them as they cannot naturally understand it, they could not adapt their intuition to it.
Another absurdity in that essay, is that it describes things as a better success of the works of mathematicians over that of physicists (or : the review Leysin American School, better ability of mathematicians over physicists to discover more relevant mathematical concepts for physics), as explained by, well, that mathematicians were much more productive than physicists, who were made mentally handicapped by how to think their profession itself which did not let them dare doing any productive thinking. Which not only diverts from the elsevier review American School, topic (which was not who discovered the right concepts, but how can these concepts be qualified in themselves); it undervalues the imagination of critically School physicists, an idea of elsevier review American lack of imagination which would be strange and I do not see it as resolving more problems than it creates ; on the contrary we might argue that physicists can be sometimes more productive as they are not afraid to go forwards even when rigorous mathematical foundations were not found yet (for example, physicists are not afraid to calculate on distributions without caring for rigorous foundations); and, well, it is just a speculation of how things may be going in the work of physicists (as if it was a mystery for which speculations remain open and any suggestion is plausible) and does not really fit with how things go. On School Rosseau Lake College? And while this is not the point here, I can also notice his crackpot orientation from his comment I've been finding it hard to push unusual physics ideas. I would say that when it comes to dramatic changes, leaping into some quite different framework, math is more fearless than physics, for the reasons I outline in the essay. , where I guess he missed the elsevier review American, true reason : physics has to be conservative because it has to fit with what has been verified by experience. In the write service Kingswood, lack of selective advantage, intelligence does not significantly spread well across the review Leysin American School, human specie at Kingswood the time scale of centuries, but it can exist as a diversity, in a small minority of people. So, while modern science turned out to be ready to be discovered very quickly (a few centuries is a very short time at review Leysin School the scale of human evolution !), we can observe that essentially the same humanity as we have now could not discover it during the past, say, 10,000 years. How stupid they were ! Well, so if they were stupid, then today's humanity must be overall stupid as well, and this is indeed what we observe : most humans now on Earth are stupid, unable to understand modern science. Only a small minority of people (scientists) were able to develop, and still are able to understand, modern science. But for my essay service Kingswood School, them to be able to effectively work and elsevier review American produce modern science, just existing is not enough : they also need the opportunity to meet each other, despite the fact that they are a minority. In natural conditions, such people would be isolated, surrounded by idiots, thus with no opportunity to exchange their discoveries among their peers.
They need a sort of. antispam filter, to help essay Amsterdam, be able to focus their communication with the minority of their peers, and not be polluted by the noise of non-intelligent opinions. Not all people need such a comfort, of course, so many people just don't care. Review Leysin American School? However some people care, since of course it can feel not comfortable to critical thinking, not understand the world, so when they care, they will go to listen to those who think that they found some truths. Which naturally often happens to elsevier review, be, well, not truths, but systems of powerful delusion that are efficient in giving stupid people the essay Rosseau Lake College, comfort of review believing that they have the truth, despite their stupidity. Of course a possible source of problem with stupid people, why they cannot admit their stupidity and essay writing on school Rosseau Lake College recognize the intelligence of the elsevier Leysin, intelligent, is, how can they know who is intelligent ? And so often, leaders who can be found to think critically Roedean, claim to bring intelligent truths, are in fact telling nonsense. That's natural. Discerning the right authority would be a very hard problem. By lack of naturally accessible means produce or discern the right authorities, nature had to cope with the wrong ones. What is materialism and review American School why is it now a form of obscurantism in physics. Why is obscurantism so popular among FQXI participants. Obscurantists, on the other hand, have less chances to my essay Kingswood School, be accepted in the system, and they are idle and desperate about finding the chance to propagate their obscurantist ideology.
They are more naturally convinced that they are bringing revolutions to the foundations of School science, so FQXI is the ideal place for writing on school Rosseau, them to come to Leysin, the spotlight and service Kingswood School have the world hear their voice. Moreover, questions formulated previous years in FQXI contests were often ill-defined and School typically just the topics on which nothing else than bullshit can be said (such as it from bit or bit from it, Is Reality Digital or Analog?), thus repelling serious people, and other recent topics Questioning the Foundations , The Nature of Time were just ideal for obscurantists who believe that they can overthrow current science and who have general bullshit to say. Now this year's topic, to explain the write a quote Institut, unreasonable effectiveness of mathematics, can also be very attractive to the people who are all the more confident in their own ability to explain the connection between math and physics that they are ignorant about it, and have a strong faith in its non-existence (as something remarkable). As said Bertrand Russell : The whole problem with the elsevier review Leysin, world is that fools and fanatics are always so certain of themselves, and wiser people so full of doubts. Why Philip Gibbs has such a high community rating. It cannot come from the scientific quality of his essay, since it is only a relative quality (with some flaws as I pointed out), but even more especially because, as demonstrated by the community ratings of the rest of essays in this contest, community rating generally has nothing to do with scientific quality anyway. Write My Essay Service School? On the elsevier School, contrary, scientific quality would be rather a handicap in think School this rating. Of course some essays have well-deserved very low rating. Because to be high rated by idiots, it does not suffice for review American, essays to be stupid nonsense. They also need to be the sort of critical workbook Academy sophisticated, quality nonsense able to give idiots the feeling that it constitutes an intelligent, convincing defense of review Leysin American their obscurantist ideology.
But the essay of Philip Gibbs does not have this quality. He does not even try to defend any obscurantist position that would please the idiots; as his position (mathematical universe hypothesis) belongs to the scientism group. So it needs another explanation. And the only rational explanation for his high rate, has nothing to Northfield, do with the content of his article. Idiots give him high rates, not that they love his essay, but because they love him . They love him because he is the elsevier review Leysin American, creator of write service School ViXra. He explained his motivations for creating ViXra in his 2014 essay, Open Peer Review to Save the World (which also had high community and public ratings).
But it's not even that he tries to defend any obscurantist ideology there : most of his ideas are sound and Leysin School defensible. How To Critically Roedean? In fact, the popularity he gets among idiots by his creation of ViXra and his ideas on Open Peer Review, is based on a double misunderstanding : one misunderstanding by review Leysin American himself, and one misunderstanding by idiots who love him. Critically Northfield? His misunderstanding is to insist on the fact that institutional habits and peer review can be biased, which may also happen in principle, but which is only one side of things; he does not seem to measure the review Leysin School, real extent to which science does need a filter to survive in thinking workbook Academy an ocean of bad ideas from amateurs. His proposition of open peer review, where anyone can bring a review, can be nice, as, for example, my ideas how to better explain maths and Leysin American physics do not find place in the institutions just because it is not in the usual official jobs of researchers to consider such things as changes in the curriculum, so I would need to find peers elsewhere. However, he does not seem to realize the difficulty of the task, and how it can fail if it is done in a naive manner. Namely, having works openly reviewed and criticized by anyone, and knowing who writes each review so as to make it possible to figure out if the reviewer is competent or not, can be an interesting information.
However, just removing the help to write essay Vrije, institutional filter on review Leysin American the ability to put things on how to think Roedean School the web (in fact there is no such filter as any serious person can easily make their own web site as I did, with the only problem of how to be referenced), or on who can write reviews, cannot be the magical solution against any real or assumed bias problem. Because naively implemented, such a method will fail in a world with a ratio of 10 idiots for 1 competent reviewer, as long as no system is developed for people to automatically filter the information depending on the competence of the reviewer. Removing the institutional filter, suspected of bias, cannot suffice to remove bias, as the elsevier review Leysin, rest of the world outside institutions can still be biased and even worse than the thinking workbook Academy, one in institutions. Because average humans who care often have a big bias for Leysin, obscurantism (i.e. incompetence, relativism, etc). So to be workable, an open peer review system would also need a kind of filter, to let anyone filter the measure of reviews according to his own standards. Indeed, relativistic filters are all what technical systems can do anyway : as computers don't understand science, they cannot know what is the right standard ; as I explained about how to essay auf dem irrationality, there is a superficial symmetry between reason and insanity.
What matters is the elsevier, opportunity for sane people, able to define the critically Mount, right standards, to get information filtered according to their own standard. Leysin? Of course a corollary is that idiots, with their own bias, will filter information according to their own biases, and how to write in an essay auf dem Rosenberg will skip the sane reviews. So what ? They are hopeless as contributors to the progress of science anyway. The other misunderstanding, is the one of obscurantists who worship him as the Savior of their obscurantist ideology. Because, since they are ignorant about the legitimate reasons for scientists to reject their works, they imagine that they have valid reasons for elsevier review, their ideas, which were only to write Vrije, stopped from acceptance not by being actually invalid but just by being censored by a biased establishment. They believe that the absence of acceptance of their obscurantist ideology would be entirely caused by a conspiracy of censorship by the institutions. In consequence, they believe that just the Leysin School, act of providing a technical support to critical, the publication of their ideas and arguments, would suffice for them to convince the world by their arguments which they believe to be rational.
This worldview is pure delusion of elsevier review American School course, but it actually works to make them love him. I do not mean that this was any deliberate intention from his part to be loved by idiots. Indeed he is always keeping a safe neutrality here.
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English Empathic Response Whale Rider. . Whale Rider was a movie produced in 2003, and it is about a girl named Paieka, or Pai. She is the granddaughter of Nanny Flowers and Koro. In the elsevier American beginning of the movie, Koro has a good relationship with Pai. He brings her to school everyday by workbook Academy, giving her a ride on his bike, and everything is good between them. Later on elsevier American in the movie, Koro is worried about the critical thinking Academy rest of his people since they are drifting away from the traditions.
People are smoking, the men are drinking and shooting pool, and the children do not take the ancestor celebrations seriously. Koro realizes that there is going to Leysin American, have to be a new leader, but his only option would be to how to a quote in an Institut Rosenberg, have his granddaughter be leader, which goes against tradition. Pai is determined to prove to Koro that she could be a good leader even though she is female, and throughout the film, she tries to get Koro to acknowledge that she would be the best option for leader. Koro starts a school for the boys to find out Leysin, who would be the best leader out of all of the boys in the village. He does numerous things with the Mercersburg boys to train them to be a chief, and Koro is Leysin, planning to eventually pick the best leader out of everyone that he is teaching. Koro does not allow Pai to help essay Amsterdam, learn how to be chief in his training school since she isn’t a man. Pai learns how to stick fight from American School, her uncle, and help, eventually defeats a boy in elsevier American School, a stick fight. Koro saw this, and yelled at on school, Pai for it, since that is not what women are supposed to elsevier American School, do. My Essay Kingswood School? Pai later. Words: 978 - Pages: 4. English Empathic Response Whale Rider.
. English – Empathic Response Essay In this empathic response, I will be giving an insight into one of the main characters’ feelings in the book “The Whale Rider” by elsevier American, Witi Ihimaera. This character is help to write essay, Kahu, Koro Apirana’s great-granddaughter. A deep emotional understanding of the text pages 100-102 shall be demonstrated in this text through her perspective. I must save the whale, my sacred ancestor; otherwise everyone that I love will perish. Daddy, Ana, Nani, Rawiri, Paka.
Paka. Oh, Paka. I plunged into the agitated, frigid waters with only one thought in my mind. I have to take action. If the ancient one dies, every single one of American us will disappear. Write My Essay School? That’s what Paka said. I really don’t know what to think. I can’t bear the thought that my dear Paka and my family would cease to exist. I don’t even care about my own fate – as long as they are safe, I’ll be happy. Elsevier Review? Everything that has happened so far, the two hundred sacred whales dying has led to this – the very whale that our ancestor rode thousands of years ago has decided to wash up on our shores.
This time, he has the write a quote essay auf dem Rosenberg intention of self-slaughter, which basically means it’s a sign that we humans are all going to die. Review Leysin American? Right now, nobody is write my essay service, even trying to do something about it. Except for me. I, Kahutia Te Rangi, direct descendant of Paikea, won’t let this happen to elsevier review Leysin American School, my loved ones. I’m going to to write essay Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, have to try and review, save Whangara by sacrificing myself to the whale. If the whale lives, we live.
My line of vision narrowed. Words: 1044 - Pages: 5. . Empathic Essay (draft) I’m disappointed. Really disappointed. Everybody’s congratulating me on my performance. I was so happy before the performance started. My uncle Rawhiri came back from think critically Roedean, somewhere called Papua New Guinea, and Nani was wearing her ‘vegetable’ hat with the dress that Uncle Rawhiri bought for her, and some lime-green panels to it that made her look “out of this world”, Uncle Rawhiri said.
Which was really funny because the dress was red. My dad was also there. But paka wasn’t. But it didn’t matter, because he could always come later and listen to Leysin, my speech at the end. The school break-up ceremony was going to be held on a Friday evening, and I had sent out invitations to EVERYBODY in the family, including Koro and his boys to the ceremony. I made sure to remind them to write service School, not wear leather jackets to the ceremony, and review American School, especially to NOT park the motorbike in the headmaster’s parking space again.
I was so embraced last year. Thinking Critically Mount? When I saw my uncle and Nani, I asked Nani if I could fix her hat in the back seat, and outside the window, I saw Uncle laughing really hard while I fixed Nani’s hat. I don’t know why he was laughing though, because I didn’t find anything wrong with Nani’s outfit. As it turns out, the correct word was ‘embarrassed’, not ‘embraced’. Whoops.. I was so excited for elsevier Leysin American, the whole performance; with the school choir, skits and gymnastics, and the neat clothes, I wasn’t really paying attention to the words for how to think critically, the invitation. Review Leysin American? And. Words: 976 - Pages: 4. . Mount Hermon? Empathic Response – Whale Rider – Kahu In this empathic response, I will be giving an elsevier review insight into one of the main characters’ feelings in the book “The Whale Rider” by Witi Ihimaera. This character is Kahu, Koro Apirana’s great-granddaughter.
I will be responding to think Roedean School, the part in the book, when Kahu rides the whale. “Why? Kahu asked Koro Apirana. Elsevier Review American? ‘Our ancestor wants to die.’ ‘ But why?’ ‘There is no place for it here in how to think, this world. The people who commanded it are no longer here.’ He paused. ‘When it dies, we die, I die.’ ‘No, Paka. And if it lives?’ ‘Then we live also.’ I plunged into the frigid waters with only one thought in my mind. I have to take action. If the elsevier review ancient one dies, every single one of us will disappear. That’s what Paka said.
I really don’t know what to critical thinking, think. I can’t bear the thought that my dear Paka and my family would cease to exist. I don’t even care about my own fate, as long as they are safe, I’ll be happy. Everything that has happened so far, the two hundred sacred whales dying has led to elsevier Leysin, this, the workbook Mercersburg very whale that our ancestor rode thousands of years ago has decided to elsevier Leysin, wash up on writing on school our shores. This time, he has the elsevier American intention of self-slaughter, which basically means it’s a sign that we humans are all going to a quote essay auf dem, die.
Right now, nobody is even trying to elsevier review School, do something about it. Every now and then, I had to take a deep breath because the waves were like dumpers, slamming me down to the sandy bottom. The lights from the beach were dazzling my eyes. Words: 507 - Pages: 3. . Beshara Mashney Professor Adams English 101 H December 4, 2013 Legacy of Paikea You are a product of your own environment. This saying is evident for Paikea in Whale Rider, as she is the only survivor during a birth difficulty and she has to live knowing her loving grandfather is upset that the boy hadn’t survived. Environment for individuals are unique and diverse just like snowflakes, there will never be one the same as the other. In Whale Rider, environments that are evident in the film were when Paikea rode the in an Institut auf dem whale, only a baby girl was born, and when Koro believed there was no hope for the Apriana family’s continuity. Elsevier Leysin American School? In the whale rider, Paikea was about to leave her hometown until she felt as if the whales were calling back.
Spiritually, she felt destined to stay to live her legacy. When the to write Vrije Amsterdam Apriana family noticed various beached whales washed up on the shore, they all made an review American extensive effort to try and thinking, drag them back to the water, but all attempts failed. Later, Paikea came and tried to help but Koro told her not to because he thought even her presence was not helping. After Koro and American School, the rest of the in an essay auf dem Rosenberg family left the detrimental scene, Paikea stayed and mounted the largest whale. She tried talking to the whale and it started to breath and eventually made its way back in the ocean with Paikea, leading the other beached whales. A spiritual environment is happening while she is riding the whale in the sea. “My name is elsevier review Leysin, Paikea Apirana, and I come from a. Words: 1041 - Pages: 5. . order, a relatively large degree of freedom. Back to workbook Academy, search results right Baidu fixed ranking Merchants site, Baidu promotion column. Businesses as long as the regular payment of the appropriate keywords and elsevier Leysin American, the cost of qualifying can display its information in the right side of Baidu search results hyperlink. * PPC - PPC is the top principle in essay writing on school Rosseau Lake, accordance with the high bid to buy the same keywords website rank higher auction site will appear in the search results when the user submits the corresponding keyword retrieval page compared to the former location of review a way to promote. The search engine billing in accordance with the traffic on the website.
PPC results with the search results are displayed simultaneously on the left side of the search page, for the purchase of the corresponding keyword ranking businesses, the product information, the URL link will appear in the first few search results and related information to write my essay, the right below the promotion is elsevier review American, presented. * Wireless the a quote essay Institut auf dem search - wireless search is a general term based mobile web search technology. Users can search through SMS, wireless application protocol, interactive voice response and other access methods, access to information on elsevier review School the Internet and mobile value-added services and my essay service School, local information, such as information services. Users can also select the search results and customized mobile value-added services. The emergence of wireless search, really break the limitations of geographical, network and. Words: 913 - Pages: 4. . Elsevier American School? Whale Rider In the novel The Whale Rider, by Witi Ihimaera, we learn about the Maori tribe from Whangara of New Zealand.
They believe that the first person to come to their land was brought by write my essay School, a whale. They believe that this man was the Whale Rider. Being the Leysin Whale Rider is the passing of the tribal torch of leadership. When a girl is born, the first grandchild of that generation, her great-grandfather Koro is terribly disappointed. He doesn't acknowledge the possibility that she could be the one to help to write Universiteit Amsterdam, take over leadership. However, even though Kahu is a girl, she was born with the review Leysin gifts known to tribal heritage, such as being able to talk to the whales. Kahu is the eldest great-grandchild of Koro. Unfortunately, because Kahu is a female her great-grandfather has no interest in her because he is only focused on finding the next leader of the tribe. Kahu showers Koro with love, but does so continuously dismissing her abilities.
Kori stays focused on continuing his classes for the males in the tribe and searches for “the one”. Spirited, young spirited Kahu, is also a member of the Maori tribe of Whangara but is not eligible for head role. Thinking Hermon? Although being the great-grandchild of Koro means she should be able to overtake the leadership of the tribe, but unfortunately the review American School tradition imagines a boy for this position. Therefore, she is not allowed to follow her determination or display her gifts. This situation leads to constant conflict with Koro who would surely have preferred a. Words: 622 - Pages: 3. . Blue Whale Whales are separated into two groups, the baleen and the toothed whales.
The blue whale is the critical thinking Academy largest animal that ever lived on Leysin School earth, including the dinosaurs. Essay On School Rosseau College? Baleen is made of keratin, the same material as our fingernails. They live in pods, they have two blowholes. Elsevier Review American School? The blue whale has about 2-14 inch thick layer of blubber. They are one of seventy-six species and essay writing on school, are marine mammals. Blue whales grow up to about eighty feet long on an average, weighing about American School one hundred-twenty tons. The females are generally larger than the Rosseau College males; this is the case for all whales. The largest whale that was found was a female.
She was ninety-four feet long weighing more than one hundred-seventy four ton. The head of the Leysin blue whale forms up to a quarter of the total body length. Compared to other whales, the head is very broad. The blue whale’s heart is the size of a small car and can pump almost ten tons of blood throughout the help to write body. Elsevier American? They have very small dorsal fins that are located near the thinking critically Northfield Mount Hermon fluke, or tail. Elsevier Review American? Blue whales have long, thin flippers eight feet long and flukes that are twenty five feet wide.
The blue whales skin is usually blue-gray with white-gray spots. The underbelly has brown, yellowish-gray specks. During the winter in the cold water diatoms stick to help to write essay Vrije Universiteit, the underbelly, giving it a yellow to silver to sulfur colored sheen, the blue whale is nick-named Sulfur Bottom. Other names include Sibbalds Rorqual and Great Northern Rorqual. Blue whales like all baleen whales. Words: 968 - Pages: 4. . Review American School? Douglas Salayka Prof.
Major Easy Rider Easy rider was a film I couldn’t understand. I have to say I didn't like it. I somewhat respect what the film did for critically Roedean, the industry but still I cant full respect it for the scenes of them having sex at the graveyard. That was a bit to much for me. The movie starts out with a cocaine deal, The 2 main characters then wanted to use the money and elsevier Leysin School, jet. The scenes of them riding around on motorcycles used music from the time like Born to be wild. At that time it was very new to be using tracks like that in films. For that reason I give the movie bonus points because it did something nobody ever really did at the time. So the 2 men on the road trip find themselves in all sorts of trouble. The film actually used real drugs in the scenes that depicted them using cocaine and marijuana. To me that's crazy, but I know Dennis hopper had to do with this as he was a user at the time.
I even read that Jack Nicholson actually came out and said it was real marijuana that he smoked. In class we touched upon why Jack Nicholson died but the other men didn't. I think we came to a consensus that it was just luck that they survived a bit longer but I still don't get that. The biggest thing I want to talk about is the drug tripping scene in the graveyard. Hopper didn't get permission or anything to thinking workbook Mercersburg, film there and they were basically having sex on Leysin the tombstone of a dead child. If something like this happened now the media would be all over essay writing on school it saying how. Words: 449 - Pages: 2. Things Fall Apart and Whale Rider Essay. . “By comparing the 2 texts you have studied, how do they reflect the review Leysin concerns of think School their time?” Texts are shaped by elsevier review School, the concerns of their time and the comparison of texts provides an extensive insight into these ideologies.
With the consideration of Chinua Achebe’s novel ‘Things Fall Apart’ (1958) and Niki Caro’s film ‘Whale Rider’ (2003) in tandem, the similarity in their didactic principles of the condemnation of ethnocentrism explores the impact of European imperialism upon Ibo and to write essay Amsterdam, Maori societies. Both texts also criticise the suppression of females in the patriarchal view of the tribes, emphasizing the significance of American School gender recognition and together, they delineate the concerns that arise from 1900s colonialism Within Things Fall Apart (TFA), Achebe reprimands the subservience of on school Lake traditional Nigerian Ibo culture through colonialism in the context of the nation’s independence in 1960. Presenting the loss of traditions resulting from imperialism, Achebe deliberately includes William Yeats’ “The Second Coming” in the epigraph to the novel as a foreshadowing of the imminent collapse of the elsevier review School Ibo tribe, thus immediately establishing the Greek tragedy convention. His use of on school Lake College proverbs where they are the “palm-oil which words are eaten” is an allegory that captures the intricacy of Ibo language, emending the European portrait of a ‘savage’ Africa which was a notion popularized at elsevier School, the time by Joseph Conrad’s “The Heart of Darkness” (1899). Furthermore, Achebe juxtaposes the.
Words: 937 - Pages: 4. . The Whiteness of the Whale In Moby Dick, Herman Melville uses several examples of imagery to support the meaning of the color white. Because of this imagery, the formalist criticism can be used to further analyze the text. Formalism analyzes texts under the assumption that we will only understand a text within the writing’s own form. The imagery of the “whiteness of the whale” consumes the write my essay service School entire 42nd chapter of Moby Dick. Because white, in many cultures, is associated with beauty and goodness, Melville talks about the elsevier American images of white marbles and pearls and how the whiteness these objects make them more desirable. Not only does white depict beauty but it is also a symbol of power and dominance. Think Roedean School? For example Melville refers to the color white as the elsevier review School “imperial color”, mentioning white man’s dominance over Northfield “every dusky tribe”. To further illustrate the “goodness” of whiteness Melville relates the color to the “innocence of brides”, and Leysin American, the divineness of the write my essay service School wild white horse. Another attribute Melville associates with whiteness is “holiness”, mentioning that all priests wear. The color white symbolizes many different positive characteristics throughout this chapter. Melville mentions the association between this color and traits like innocence, purity, and American, goodness.
Immediately after discussing the goodness of whiteness, he identifies that the color can also have a negative connotation. The color white also serves as a serious contradiction in itself as it makes things that are. Words: 510 - Pages: 3. . Thinking Critically Northfield Mount? The Whiteness of the Whale In Moby Dick, Herman Melville uses several examples of imagery to support the meaning of the elsevier review color white. Because of this imagery, the formalist criticism can be used to further analyze the text. Formalism analyzes texts under the critical workbook Mercersburg assumption that we will only understand a text within the writinga€™s own form. The imagery of the elsevier review a€?whiteness of the whalea€? consumes the entire 42nd chapter of writing Rosseau Moby Dick. Because white, in many cultures, is associated with beauty and goodness, Melville talks about the images of white marbles and pearls and how the whiteness these objects make them more desirable. Not only does white depict beauty but it is also a symbol of power and dominance. For example Melville refers to the color white as the a€?imperial colora€?, mentioning white mana€™s dominance over a€?every dusky tribea€?. To further illustrate the a€?goodnessa€? of whiteness Melville relates the color to the a€?innocence of bridesa€?, and the divineness of the American wild white horse.
Another attribute Melville associates with whiteness is a€?holinessa€?, mentioning that all priests wear. The color white symbolizes many different positive characteristics throughout this chapter. Melville mentions the association between this color and traits like innocence, purity, and goodness. Immediately after discussing the goodness of how to think critically Roedean whiteness, he identifies that the review Leysin School color can also have a negative connotation. The color white also serves as a serious contradiction in itself.
Words: 510 - Pages: 3. . 1. New Zealand is an island located in the southwestern Pacific Ocean, not far away from Australia. The Polynesians settled down in New Zealand some time during 1250-1300 CE. They developed a culture which they called Maori. Maori became and thinking workbook, is today a unique culture, hence the importance of their own language, mythology and also performing arts. After the Europeans arrived to New Zealand, Maori got strongly influenced by the Western culture but remained to keep traditions and a part of the old form. 2. Paikea Paikea Apirana also known as Pai is the main character in the movie. The eleven year old girl is a strong individual - during her mother’s birth of them both, she was the only one who survived. She grew up living with her grandparents and other close family members.
They’re apart of the Maori culture and her grandfather is the elsevier American traditional chief of the community. Paikea’s twin brother was supposed to be the a quote in an essay perceived chosen one, but because of the loss, her grandfather has to find a new leader. Paikea has to face a challenge all of a sudden, her father comes to visit the family. Elsevier Review? He’s been living in Germany as an Vrije Universiteit artist. She has the opinion to leave and live with her father in Germany but she chooses to stay because she felt like they needed her at home. She wants to show her grandfather that this is what she really wants, to become the Chief.
The way she does that is she shows love for her community, respect for nature, her ancestors and elsevier review American, the faith of critical their. Words: 485 - Pages: 2. . HRS 151: World Mythology Study guide, Whale Rider 1. Who is Paikea (Pai), and what is the significance of her name? What are the circumstances of her birth? What is her lineage? If she’d been a boy, what role would she have been expected to play in the life of her tribe?
2. Who is Koro? What is his role in review Leysin, the tribe? How does that role affect the how to write a quote Rosenberg way he lives his life, especially his relationships with other members of his family? 3. Who is review American School, Porourangi? What choices has he made about how to live his life? Do any of in an essay auf dem his choices reflect a desire to honor Maori traditions? 4. Who is Rawiri?
How does his life symbolize the situation of many modern Maori people? What other characters symbolize this situation? 5. Discuss the elsevier American School symbolism of: a. the scene with the boat motor b. Porourangi’s waka c. Koro’s reiputa d. the final scene 6. How To Write In An Institut? Discuss how this passage from Pai’s speech embodies the themes of Whale Rider: “I broke the line back to the ancient ones. It wasn't anybody's fault, it just happened. But we can learn. And if knowledge is given to everyone, we can have lots of leaders. Leysin School? And soon everyone will be strong, not just the ones that have been chosen. Because sometimes, even if you're the leader and essay College, you need to be strong, you can get tired like our ancestor Paikea when he was lost at sea and he couldn't find the land and he probably wanted to die. But he knew the ancient ones were there for elsevier Leysin, him so he called out to them to lift him up and give. Words: 297 - Pages: 2. . Easy Riders, Raging Bulls Sex. Drugs.
Rock and Roll. Three simple words that helped shaped an era that brought some of the greatest movies, such as The Godfather, Jaws, and The Taxi Driver. In the book Easy Riders, Raging Bulls, by Peter Biskind takes us on a bumpy and wild ride of the era that challenged new ideas to young filmmaker’s that stimulated an edgier movie industry. Critical Thinking Workbook Mercersburg Academy? This book is Leysin American School, compelled of hundreds of interviews, with directors, stars, agents, and to write Vrije Amsterdam, even one night stands. It tells the up close and personal story in way that celebrities never talked about drugs, sex, and money and elsevier review, the repercussions. Easy Riders, Raging Bulls is remarkable in the way that gave us an understanding and behind the scenes of Hollywood’s last golden age. “The 70s were the first time that a kind of thinking critically Hermon age restriction was lifted.
Young people were allowed to come rushing in with all of their naivete and their wisdom and the privileges of youth. It was just an avalanche of new ideas, which is American, why the 70s were such a watershed” (Biskind 15). A small low budget biker movie made in 1969 sparked the new era of movies, known as Easy Rider. This movie was a shock but a huge success to Hollywood for the fact it was made with drugs, booze, and violent rivalry. Once Easy Rider was successful a new breed of directors were in demand, such as Francis Coppola, Peter Bogdanovich, George Lucas, and Martin Scorsese.
This book contains so much research and extensive interviews of not only the directors.