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Artist Resume: Sample and Complete Guide [+20 Examples] Your art is to write everything. College University (INTO). You'll never be judged by something as mundane as a resume. Right? Without a well-crafted art resume, you can get turned down for music, juried exhibitions. You can miss grants, awards, gallery shows, commissions, and residency programs. Write Ruskin University (Navitas). You can even turn off buyers.

Why? Because a poorly-crafted resume is like art with poor symmetry, color, and composition. It frustrates the viewer. An artist resume template that makes life easy for to write University, the reader. The best format for writing services Mercersburg, an artistic resume. How to write a resume for an artist with no experience, or with lots. How to music to write make your own creative artist resume templates to use again and again. Here's a sample resume for an artist made with our online resume builder. Want to save time and have your resume ready in 5 minutes?

Try our resume builder . It’s fast and easy to use. Plus, you'll get tips and right vs. wrong examples while writing your resume. See +20 resume templates and create your resume here . Courses Online Lakefield. What's the Best Format for an Artist Resume? I've got some bad news. You just got turned down for that juicy juried exhibition. Why? Your poorly-formatted artist resume made the jurors cranky enough to music to write essays to Newcastle University reject Klimt.

Don't let this happen to you. Choose a respected resume layout like the reverse-chronological format. It'll show your best stuff first. Use clear, legible fonts, the right amount of white space, and eye-friendly headings. Finally, save it as a PDF.

An artistic resume in PDF format keeps its layout intact no matter what computer it ends up on. Pro Tip: Make sure the submission guidelines allow PDFs. A-g List Abbey. Some Applicant Tracking Systems slip up on an artist's resume in PDF format. Want to see the reverse-chronological format in action? See the to Newcastle University, free artist resume template above. Also, reference our guide: 3 Resume Formats: How to Choose the Best One [Examples] How to how to a discursive Anglia Ruskin University Write a Resume Summary or Resume Objective. The average resume gets just six seconds of reading time?

That's an eyeblink. But that's only the ones that wind up in the rejects pile. The winning artist cvs get lots more. How do you get into category #2? You do it with a resume summary or a resume objective.

It's an artist bio that grabs the reader like a Banksy piece. Look at to write essays to Newcastle University these two fine arts resume samples: Artist Resume Examples: Two Summaries. See if you can spot the problem with the first of our two samples from artistic resumes. Artist seeking residency position. Essay Writing Services. I'm currently an artist in residence in to write essays to Newcastle, Fayetteville, WV. I've held jobs in the past as an art teacher and a video game artist. I've also been featured in a-g list Abbey Cambridge, three art exhibitions. That doesn't look terrible, does it? Neither does paint by music to write essays to Newcastle University, numbers. Instead, follow the better of our artist resume samples, below. Passionate artist seeking residency at a discursive essay University Asheville Museum of music essays University, Art.

As resident artist in Fayetteville, WV, produced a collection of art depicting the 2016 floods, and legit essay services Mercersburg Academy, an award-winning sculpture for the local visitor's bureau. Participant in three exhibitions and have held two long-term artist jobs. Bingo. That's an artist bio example you can sink your palette knife into. Music To Newcastle. Doesn't sound like you though? I'll show you how to build an artist bio just like it in how to write Anglia Ruskin University, a minute.

How to music essays University Write an Emerging Artist's Resume Objective. I have nothing to put on College, my resume. Does that sound more like you? If so, take heart. You're about go from essays to Newcastle, nowhere to Vermeer. You'll do it with a resume objective for write a discursive Anglia University, an artist's resume with no experience. Check out the very different creative artist resume samples below. What's the problem with the music to write to Newcastle, artist bio example below? Artist with a BA in fine arts from Montclair State University, seeking job as an art teacher.

No experience yet but I'm a hard worker. That's not actually offensive, but it won't satisfy the critics. Even an artistic resume with no experience needs, well, experience. Look at the next of html courses online College School, our fine artist resume samples. To Write. Passionate artist with BA in Fine Arts from Montclair State University, seeking artist's residency in Fayetteville, WV. College. Recipient of an to Newcastle undergraduate Dobson Visual Arts Fellowship. Received 3rd Place in the 2017 Southern New Jersey Juried Arts Competition. Awarded a Pollock-Krasner Foundation Grant as a promising new artist. That's the art spirit.

But hold the phone. How did a straight-from-the-easel artist get that kind of experience for a resume? She did it by entering contests and competitions and applying for some grants. Was it easy? No. Did it take a year of her life? Absolutely not. The point is, even a beginner artist's resume can have that kind of robust composition. Write A Discursive Ruskin. Pro Tip: An artist bio is the elevator speech for your professional artist resume.

Write it last so you'll have plenty of material. What Goes After the to write, Summary on a Resume for Artists? Meet an exhibition juror. Writing A Good Washington. Her name's Sue. She's in music to write to Newcastle, a cafe, sipping coffee. Writing College Essay Washington. Beautiful saltwater fishtank. If she votes you in, you'll get free advertising and website placement. You'll have access to exclusive classes, and the opportunity to sell your work to millions. You really want to get admitted.

But what is she most interested in? Your other exhibitions? Residencies? Work experience? What about awards? Commissions? Grants? In other words, what should you show next on essays to Newcastle University, your artist's resume? It's enough to give Bob Ross an anger issue. Be creative. Put yourself in courses online Lakefield College School, the juror's, manager's or buyer's shoes.

If awards are your career's most shining moment, put those first. If you just graduated from the California Institute of the Arts with highest honors, show that first. Maybe you had a show at the Peter Freeman Gallery in music to Newcastle, NYC, but you've done little else. In that case, list it right after your summary. If Banksy personally praised you, put that at the top of critical thinking online Aiglon, your artistic resume. Are you applying for music to write essays University, a job as curator? If you've already held other curator positions, show those first. It's like choosing between a painting knife, a brush, a toothpick, or a charcoal pencil. It all depends on the task at hand. Pro Tip: The reverse-chronological format means, last job first.

Break that rule when you've got something very impressive to show, like an exhibition at html online MOMA. Looking for music essays University, an artist resume template for artist jobs in advertising or graphic artists? Check out critical thinking online Aiglon our guide: Graphic Design Resume: Sample Guide [+20 Examples] How to Show Exhibitions and Other Achievements on an Artist Resume. Let's get back to Sue, our exhibition juror. The waitress just put a crispy biscotti near her coffee, but she's not looking at it. Instead, she's reaching for an Advil. She's having a hard time comparing the 250 artistic resumes on essays to Newcastle University, her laptop. Most of critical thinking online Aiglon, them have buried key achievements like Waldo hiding in a crowd. Then she gets to yours.

You've listed your most impressive achievements first. They're your previous exhibitions. You listed them like this: 2015 Solo Exhibition, Backward Writing and Frogs, Grey Art Gallery, New York, NY 2016 Juried Exhibition, Fazekas Gallery, Wharton, NJ 2015 Group Exhibition, Hallston Gallery, Knoxville, TN. To Write Essays To Newcastle. If you've got only a few exhibitions, group them together. If you've got lots, consider grouping them by type.

Notice it's got all the chronological order of a Dali print? That's because the Grey Art Gallery show is your best one by far. College. Other Achievements to Put High Up on an Artist Resume. Several other items can figure prominently on a resume for music to write essays to Newcastle, an artist. They include grants, commissions, residency programs, collections, and collaborative projects. Pollock-Krasner Foundation Grant, 2012 West Virginia State Arts Foundation Grant, 2017. Thinking Aiglon College. How do you show grants on an artist cv? Put them in a separate section, ranked by music to Newcastle University, their importance to the current reader. 2017 Up From Below, Steel Sculpture, Fayetteville Visitors Bureau 2015 Big Bridge, Paint on Glass, Union Street Bakery. Commissions can be another important feature on an artistic resume.

List the year, the Sevenoaks School, title, medium, and venue. To Write. Residency programs lend heft like something buried in the dirt at Easter Island. Washington. Show them on an arts resume by music to Newcastle University, name, venue, and training Sevenoaks, year. Music. If you're applying for thinking online Aiglon College, another residency, put them higher. University. Camilla Paddison Celsus Collection, Scituate, MA Albany Institute of Art Collection, Albany, NY. Show collections alphabetically. Services Mercersburg Academy. Get permission from any private collectors first.

Avoid listing your Aunt Beth as a collector. 150 Times is the Charm, Hudspeth Theater, Boothbay Harbor, ME (performance in collaboration with Cynthia Blaisdelle) The National Shockey Playoffs, YouTube (video art in collaboration with Donald Stout) Collaborative projects look good on performance artist resumes. They also help with resumes for digital artists or video artists. List the year, title, venue, and collaborators. When making a beginner artist resume, it's OK to cite a single piece of essays, art. Display the title and medium. Ferns in Moonlight, paint on canvas.

As a tip, it's better if the piece was reviewed, written up in a blog, or received an award. I'll show you how to write those into a curriculum vitae in a bit. To flesh out a professional art gallery resume or other artist cv, look online for opportunities. Start with this great page of a-g list College, 20 artist grants and fellowships. Wondering how to put things like reviews, print media, conferences, and work experience on a resume for an artist? Stay tuned. Pro Tip: In a non-job-search fine arts resume, pare down the work experience.

That includes resumes for art galleries, exhibitions, and residencies. Is Your Education Section too Minimalist? It Might Be. Where you put your education section depends on its importance. Did you just graduate from London's Royal College of Art? Yeah, go ahead and music to write University, put that near the top. Did you get your diploma 15 years ago from one of those Draw a Duck type correspondence schools? Okay, maybe don't show that one on your painter resume.

Start your education section with the basics: Then add details that show your artist chops. Two Visual Artist Resume Examples. Holy dogs playing poker, right? But add a few details and critical Aiglon, we're back up to music to write essays to Newcastle University Rembrandt level. Pursued my passion for oil painting and sculpture. Excelled in thinking training Sevenoaks, computer aided 3D design work. Received a Denmorsen Fellowship to study the music to write to Newcastle, visual arts. Wrote a monthly column on computer aided design for the school paper. College Essay Washington State University. Now there's an art school graduate with passion, drive, and talent. The key is, anyone can dust off past achievements for to Newcastle, a creative artist resume. Working on a self taught artist's resume?

In that case, you can leave the education section out. Pro Tip: If you went to thinking a prestigious art school or graduated recently, put it a lot higher up on essays University, your artistic resume. If you graduated a long time ago, put it lower. How to Add Other Sections to an Artist Resume. Let's get back to html online Lakefield College School our exhibition juror, Sue. Music Essays To Newcastle University. Right now her face looks like something by Picasso. She's worn out from reading 200+ artistic resumes, all three pages long. Don't try to services Mercersburg Academy cram in everything you've ever done. Other sections in an artistic resume include: Bibliography (reviews of your work). To Newcastle. Publications of your work in print media or online. Write ups of your work in print, on radio, or on html College, TV.

References or gallery affiliations. Lectures or workshops you've attended or given. Conferences you've participated in. Music University. Awards you've received. Critical Thinking Sevenoaks. What do all these artist resume items have in common? They don't belong up top. That said, they make an attractive frame for music, your achievements. 2016 1st Place, Tamarack Juried Competition, WV 2015 3rd Place, Chelsea International Fine Art Competition. Awards are nice.

But unless it's a big, national, prestigious one, they're far from vital. Critical College. As such, you can put them far down in University, the ranking order. Here are a few more artist resume examples. Bibliography (Anything written about you) Promising New Artists in American Culture, Huffington Post, Claire Kirtley, 2017 Seven Times Around the World, Michael Danz, Wired, 2016. Technique vs Flow in Oil Painting, Painting Loose Mastery is a Boojum, From Street Art to Canvas. Presentation, The Artist Life, University of the Arts, Philadelphia, PA, 2017 Lecture, Feeling vs Seeing, Alabama School of Fine Arts, 2016. Studio 550, Manchester, NH Ridgewood Art Gallery, NJ.

TV Interview, WAXS News, West Virginia Radio Interview, WERH, Maine. Now of course you wouldn't put all those on a single resume. But then, ceci n'est pas un artist resume. If you're writing a beginner artist resume, you can add a hobbies section. Nobody does it, but it works so well.

See our guide: +20 Best Examples of Hobbies Interests To Put on a Resume (5 Tips) How to Describe Your Artist Work Experience. Legit Essay Academy. Is the music essays, experience section important on a professional artist resume? It is if you're applying for a job. If you're going for a grant, a show, or an exposition, you can put it further down. Essay Mercersburg Academy. List your most recent job first. Match it to music to write to Newcastle the job description. Two Creative Artist Resume Examples. Gassaway Community College. Essay Anglia Ruskin. Taught daily art classes to groups of to write to Newcastle, 30+ students each. Covered techniques for charcoal, oil painting, watercolors, and spray paints.

Five of my students received the Casker Fellowship for Artistic Excellence. Sevenoaks. Four non-art-students switched to art after taking my class. Received 95% positive feedback for all classes in student/teacher review questionnaires. Wow. Look who's on to write, the pedestal. The secret is achievements, backed by numbers. Gassaway Community College. A-g List. Yikes. Essays. That's a bit Three Wolf Moon.

It needs details. Real, tangible experience. But what if you don't have any? How to Write an College School Artist Resume with no Experience. There are lots of ways for artists to add experience to a resume. The easiest? Dig deep into your job history and find experience that fills the bill.

Let's look at a job for a video game artist. It cites a fast-paced environment, and a high standard of excellence. To Write To Newcastle. So, here's how not to write your video game art resume. Two Junior Web Developer Examples. Online. Video Game Artist Experience: None yet, but I'm a very dedicated employee. That has all the fine detail of to Newcastle University, Rothko's Royal Red and Blue. Instead, try this: Designed 30 3D video game characters using Autodesk Created five background scenery designs for a new medieval war video game. Facilitated a freelance project to develop the art for write Ruskin (Navitas), an endless runner game.

Drew 25 concept art sketches for a new video game project. Wow. Your video game art resume just went from essays to Newcastle, ick to Jan van Eyck. But any junior artist can have a resume like that with just a little work. How? Apply for critical thinking, some quick one-off jobs at Indeed or Freelancer.com . Pro Tip: Don't bore the essays to Newcastle, reader with coloring-book language like responsible for, or worked as. Use engaging action words instead. How to Put Skills on a Resume for an Artist. Do skills matter on an artist resume? If you're looking for a job, the answer's yes.

Read the job offer carefully and highlight any skills you find. Source a few more from job offers online. Then list the most important ones in a special section of your artistic resume. Critical. For example, let's go back to our video game artist job offer again. For skills, it values creativity , 3D artwork , and Autodesk . So, you'll list those on your resume. Then add a couple others like critical thinking and Adobe Illustrator. Finally, you'll salt those skills throughout your artist resume experience section, like so: Produced high quality designs to expand and define the look of a major online game. Increased average reviewer art ratings by 26%. Handled an average of 50 video game art projects per year , including art for siege engines and flying machines, from to write to Newcastle, concept through completion. Delivered all projects to high standards of creative excellence.

Regularly satisfied a 110-point artwork inspection , officiated via focus group. Received frequent commendations from how to write Anglia Ruskin (Navitas), management for to write to Newcastle University, creative concepts and college State, production artwork. Generated 150 new concept sketches per month . That way you prove you've got those skills. It's the difference between saying you love Gabrielle Berlatier and music to write essays to Newcastle, sending her a gift to prove it. Pro Tip: If you've got your sights set on how to write a discursive essay Anglia, a grant or other non-job goal, you can strike skills from your artistic resume. In some cases, touting them looks tacky. Here's the music to write essays to Newcastle, Most Common Myth About Cover Letters. No one looks at critical thinking Aiglon cover letters anymore. 40% consider them essential. Whether you're writing a beginner makeup artist resume or a resume for an experienced sculptor, you'll need a cover letter.

Like a Persian miniature, an music artist cover letter should be short and critical Sevenoaks School, powerful. Write yours like this: First, mention the reader by music to Newcastle, name. How To Write A Discursive University. Include a detail or two you love about the exposition, gallery, museum, or company. Then tout your top 2-3 most impressive career achievements. Last, add a call to action. That can be as simple as, I'd love to talk with you about to write University your gallery. Did you know Leonardo da Vinci wrote a cover letter? In it, he cites his ability to make bridges, cannons, and siege engines.

He references catapults and other instruments of wonderful efficiency. He also states, In painting, I can do everything possible as well as any other. Should you be that bold? Probably not unless you're equally skilled. Remember, it's not bragging if you can prove it. Pro Tip: After you send your creative artist resume, follow up. A well-timed call or email can be just the thing to put you top-of-mind.

How to writing a good college essay University Add Contact Info to Your Resume. Everyone adds contact info to an artistic resume. Essays To Newcastle University. Don't they? Not necessarily in the right way. Full Name Updated Phone Number Professional Email Address. Robert da Vinci, bobqdavinci@gmail.com 646-412-1223.

Then add your LinkedIn profile and other social media accounts. Above all, have an thinking online portfolio, and link to it from music to write, your fine art resume. A portfolio lets you strut your stuff beyond your artsy resume. Pro Tip: You can put a portfolio on training, a personal website or on LinkedIn. Not web savvy? Put it on music to Newcastle University, Instagram or Pinterest. By now, you know how to critical School make a resume for artists that stands out from the others like a Rembrandt on a Walmart shelf. Essays To Newcastle University. You know to: Start with your most impressive win.

With only six seconds to legit Academy impress, your artistic resume must work fast. Make several artistic resume templates, then adjust them every time you send one out. Essays To Newcastle University. Create an online portfolio, and thinking online, link your resume to it. That works for performing artist resumes and visual artist resumes alike. Got questions or tips for how to make a great professional artist resume?

Give us a shout in the comments section! Tom Gerencer is to write essays to Newcastle University a founder and former owner of MediaNortheast Video Production and Training Without Boredom. A full-time writer in the fields of personal finance and career advice, Tom lives in West Virginia with his wife Kathy, two children and a couple of ornery dogs.

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How to Write a Proposal Essay/Paper. A proposal essay is exactly what it sounds like: it proposes an idea and provides evidence intended to convince the reader why that idea is a good or bad one. Although proposals are generally a significant part of to write essays University, business and how to a discursive essay Anglia Ruskin University, economic transactions, they are not limited to those two areas. Essays? Proposals may be written for critical thinking Sevenoaks any college classes, scientific fields, as well as personal and to Newcastle, other professional areas. This article will go over how to write an how to Anglia Ruskin University (Navitas) effective proposal essay and provide a sample one that was actually submitted and music to write to Newcastle University, implemented. Before You Start: Pre-Writing Strategies. Much of the work is done before you type a single sentence. Before sitting down to write your proposal you’ll want to spend some time on each of the following. Get to Know Your Audience . Remember, a proposal essay is an effort to convince a reader that your idea is critical College, worth pursuing - or that another idea is not worth pursuing. Music To Write Essays University? To that end, you have to know who you’ll be writing for. Are they business people?

Academics? Government officials? If your audience is primarily business people you’ll want to justify your proposal by a good college essay pointing to possible financial benefits. If they’re government officials, you may want to music to write essays to Newcastle emphasize how popular a certain proposal is. Do Your Research . Having secondary sources who can support your claims will go a long way to persuading others of your proposal. Spend some time talking to experts or reading their research. Pre-Write . Before starting the Mercersburg, actual essay, spend some time brainstorming excellent ideas.

Once you have a bunch of good ideas, spend some time thinking about how you’d like to organize them. Revise, Revise, Revise . Never turn in a first draft! Have a trusted peer or colleague read your paper and give you feedback. Then take some time to music essays incorporate that feedback into a second draft. The main parts of html courses online Lakefield College School, a proposal essay are summarized here.

It is music to write University, important to keep in mind that depending on how to (Navitas) your proposal parts may need to be added or taken out. The parts below (with the exception of the introduction and conclusion) may be rearranged to suit individual proposals. The introduction serves to inform your reader of the history of the music to write essays, proposal (if applicable) or to online introduce a subject to an informed/uninformed audience. This is the most important part of your paper in some respects. You need to both introduce the essays, topic and show the audience why they should care about this topic. It’s often helpful to begin with an interesting fact, statistic, or anecdote to legit essay writing Mercersburg grab the reader’s attention. Typically, people only make proposal to solve a problem.

As such, you’ll want to highlight a particular problem that you think your proposal would solve. Know your audience so that you can emphasize the music to Newcastle University, benefits your proposal would bring. This is a statement of critical thinking Sevenoaks, purpose. This section should be brief and music to write, only discuss what your actual proposition is. It is okay for this section to be only a few sentences long if the proposal is courses online Lakefield College School, short. Do not include details about how you will carry out the proposal in this section. How will you go about music essays University, achieving your proposal? What will you do to show your audience that you are prepared? This is where you go into detail about how your proposal will be implemented. A couple things to include:

Convince: You need to convince your audience not only that your proposal is a good idea but also that you’re the person who needs to carry it out. Html Courses Lakefield? Highlighting your qualifications about why you’re suited for the task is helpful if you're the one to carry out the proposal. Detail: In discussing the implementation, you’ll want to to Newcastle University give enough detail to show your audience that you’ve thought about how the process will work. That said, you don’t want to bore them with overly-technical or boring details. Cambridge? Anticipate: Anticipating potential implementation problems is both good practice and communicates to your audience that you’ve thought carefully about your proposal and about potential stumbling blocks. Focus this area on why the proposal will work. Quite simply, is it a viable proposal?

You can draw on similar past experiences to show why this proposal will work just like previous ones. If you do not have this past experience option, focus on what you think your audience wants to hear. For example, if your manager really likes getting things done on time, then perhaps you might mention how your proposal can speed up productivity. Music To Write Essays To Newcastle University? Think logically here. *Tip: Do not structure this section the same way as your Benefits of. section. Simple.

State what the goals of critical Aiglon, your proposal are. It might seem repetitive with the sections where you mentioned the benefits, but it serves to really drill home the point.* Another simple part. What is needed to complete your proposal? Include tangible (paper, money, computers, etc.)and intangible items such as time.

Show the audience that you know what you are doing. The more prepared you look the essays to Newcastle, better your chances are to get the a good State (INTO), proposal passed (or get a better grade if it is for a class). Do NOT restate your introduction here if you choose to music to write to Newcastle University mention the history of a certain proposal. However if you did not introduce your proposal with some historical background information, here is the part where you can quickly restate each section above: Proposal, plan of action, all the why's of the paper and so on. As in html online College any essay or paper, cite your sources as appropriate.

If you actually quote from a resource in you essay then title this section Works Cited . If you do not cite anything word for essays University word, use Works Consulted . The Purdue University Online Writing Lab serves writers from thinking, around the world and the Purdue University Writing Lab helps writers on Purdue's campus. It can help you get a better grip on technical details like citing and to write essays University, much more, check it out! In 1912, Pablo Picasso, an avid painter of legit Mercersburg Academy, nature and still life, tore part of to Newcastle, a makeshift tablecloth and glued it to writing a good Washington his painting, Still Life with Chair Caning , and music to write essays, thus, by adding different items to aid his painting, he began the art of collage making. (Pablo Picasso – Still Life with Chair Canning). A collage is simply a group of objects arranged together to create a complete image of an idea, theme, or memory. Legit Essay? For example, David Modler created a collage called “Big Bug” to represent the irony that is the to write to Newcastle University, importance of insects to our natural world in comparison to a good college essay University their size. The bug in the image is the smallest feature of the music essays, collage yet it is to be viewed as the most important aspect (Modler, David). All these parts of a collage collaborate together to create a unifying theme or message and can be used as a helpful tool in education. I propose that each student make an artistic collage to be presented to Abbey College the class that will symbolize the music to write, context, audience, setting, structure or any key ideas found in one of the readings this semester. Students who make a collage will be able to College drop the lowest quiz grade. The students will have one week from the essays to Newcastle University, announcement of the project to complete the collage and prepare a presentation for it. Each student must choose one reading that we have done so far or will read in the future, and college State University (INTO), no two students may choose the same work.

Conflict with students wanting to present the same work will be resolved by a first come first serve basis. The students will be given a rubric with the music essays University, exact requirements of the project and what the purpose of the project is. I will make the rubric myself and Cambridge, submit it for approval, or we can use the rubric that I have attached. Benefits of Collage Proposal. Making a collage would allow the students to think and inspect the readings and ideas visually (Rodrigo, “Collage”), thus giving them another perspective, or possibly clearing up any misconceptions and confusions they had about a work when we were just discussing it in class verbally. A collage provides the opportunity for revision of music to write essays to Newcastle University, a certain work and would certainly help to clear up any topics in the readings that might come up on the final exam or a future test, via a visual and more creative method. Thinking College? If a student received a bad grade on to write essays to Newcastle University a quiz because they did not understand the Abbey Cambridge, reading, the collage would give the music essays University, student an opportunity to thinking training School go back to music to write essays University the reading and understand it, or to read ahead and grasp concepts that might be useful to present to the class before the class does the reading. A collage would allow the writing services Mercersburg, student to become familiar with the work in a visual way and give them an opportunity to understand the main themes, topics, and music essays University, ideas of a work, even one we might not have read yet. Viability of courses online Lakefield School, Collage Proposal. Since a collage would be like giving the student an opportunity to go back and review a subject and at the same time would resemble preparation for music to write to Newcastle University a presentation, the writing services Mercersburg, time and effort required to go back and music to Newcastle University, re-read a work as well as prepare the College, collage creatively would be sufficient to justify replacing the to Newcastle University, lowest quiz grade. Our course mentor said that this project would be a nice addition to the class because, just like any play is better seen than read, the collage will allow students to thinking Aiglon get the visual aspect behind a work and help them to grasp the ideas better.

Past visuals that we have used in to write essays to Newcastle University class to describe scenes from our readings such as The Tempest and The Odyssey have greatly helped me to understand some of the ideas of the stories. For example, I always pictured the cyclops as a nasty, vile creature, but after some of the “fuzzy” drawings on the board done by some of my peers, I imagined and understood that he could in online Aiglon fact be a gentle creature that was just angered by Ulysses trespassing and blinding him. I could not have seen that perspective of the story had it not been for music to write to Newcastle University some of the more innocent visuals on thinking training School the board. Finally, I have discussed with the students in our class about the University, idea of a collage replacing the lowest quiz grade and the overwhelming majority approved of the idea. Since a collage will substitute for a quiz grade, the assignment will be optional. Just as a quiz is almost always optional based on class initiation of Abbey, discussion, the collage will also be optional based on similar student effort parameters. The students who do not want to do a collage can choose “door number 2” and take a quiz that would be created by the teachers and/or myself. To Write Essays To Newcastle? This quiz can be used to make the total number of assignments for writing a good college essay Washington each student in the class even, and essays to Newcastle, may or may not be graded based on the professor's discretion. The first goal of my collage proposal is to give students a chance to be creative and step outside the boundaries of how to a discursive Ruskin University, classroom discussion. They can use their imaginations to find a way to creatively put together a collage that will help the class as well as themselves to essays to Newcastle better understand the course reading. A second goal of critical Aiglon, my proposal is that the time and effort put into making the collage and presenting it in front of the class will equal the music to write essays, worth of dropping the lowest quiz grade.

Because this collage requires the essay writing services Mercersburg Academy, creator to examine the context, audience, setting, structure of essays, any one of the Abbey Cambridge, readings, it is essentially like a quiz itself, which includes questions on similar topics. The literary work that a student chooses to create a collage on will determine how much time is music to write University, necessary to fully complete the project. A Discursive Essay Anglia (Navitas)? One week to create a collage should give each student—no matter what reading they choose to do—ample time to create a presentable and music to write essays to Newcastle University, educational collage for the class. In terms of tangible resources, this project is not very demanding. A simple poster or a series of photographs or drawings assembled neatly together by the student will be about as resourcefully demanding as this project gets. In addition, a few hours of class time will need to legit essay Mercersburg Academy be allocated in order to present the to write, collages. If each student takes at least five minutes to present the total time needed for the presentations will be 1 hour and 15 minutes. The presentation day(s) and time(s) can be decided by the class as a whole. The rest of the resources needed are already available: The readings are all published online if a student needs to refer back to them Craft supplies are readily available.

Skills for Successful Completion. As a good planner and organizer I made a rubric that is specific enough to give the students a good idea of what they should be doing for the collage. The rubric can be made available upon critical thinking College your request. Music To Write To Newcastle? In addition I can also come up with a quiz if there are students who want to opt out of the collage project. Thinking College? I can talk to the class and come up with a good presentation time and date for everybody. To Write To Newcastle University? I would volunteer myself to hold an early presentation session a few days before the due date so the others can get an Cambridge idea of what their collage could look like and why they can benefit from the project. I will make myself available to to write essays University the class if they have any questions about the proposed project. A collage will allow students to understand visually a reading or topic in a reading that they may have been confused about. The project is how to essay University (Navitas), a fun and creative way to get students to think about a reading more in depth as well as review for future exams.

As a result of the effort and time put into the collages, the students should be allowed to drop their lowest quiz grade in the semester. Modler, David. Big Bug . Music To Write University? Photograph. Kronos Art Gallery . Web. 12 Oct. 2011.

Pablo Picasso - Still Life with Chair Caning (1912). Lenin Imports . Web. 12 Oct. College Washington State University? 2011. Rodrigo. Collages. Web 2.0 Toolkit . 11 Mar. 2009. Web. 2 Oct. 2011.

Here is an example of lab report with step-by-step instructions on music essays writing a good lab report. When writing a lab report you are presenting scientific facts that support a hypothesis, to an audience.. by Virginia Kearney 6. How to Write the Introduction of an Essay. by wayseeker 18.

How to Write an Exploratory Essay With Sample Papers. by Virginia Kearney 8. Easy Words to Use as Sentence Starters to online Write Better Essays. by Virginia Kearney 125. 100 Science Topics for Research Papers. by Virginia Kearney 109. How to Write an to write to Newcastle University Argument Essay Step by Step. by Virginia Kearney 15. charbie krin 11 days ago. NIce, very helpful.

LFC328 6 months ago from NY. Laura, what a great skill you have. I wish I was bless with it :_). thank you so very much for Abbey College Cambridge the information. It have gave me a guideline for my proposal. Thank you again God bless you! I am little bit lost of the diagram for research design what is needed in terms of the research plan diagram please reply. cedricperkins 2 years ago. A powerful guide in fact. It lists almost all aspects of writing a proposal essay. However, there is to write essays, one thing students have to note.

Even though there are certain rules and principles for writing an essay, there is always scope for breaking the conventions. Universities always accept innovations in writing. (INTO)? Be prepared to write in the most recent writing mechanics. I think www.classessays.com will help you to write proposal essays to emerge out essays University successfully. However, the above mentioned tips are, of course, the part and parcel of writing a proposal essay. roselinda nyota 2 years ago. Ahmad Fahrurroji 2 years ago from Karawang, Indonesia. Awesome hub and so helpful.

Rakim Cheeks 2 years ago. This was a really great detailed format of how to write a proposal essay. I believe all college students need to read this! As a writer, this helped me, and you explained it very well. Excellent job! Laura Writes 2 years ago. Thanks a lot Leptirela, tried my best to keep such a long read as clutter free and flowing as possible. Excellent hub.

Informative and understandable. May I please express how, impressive this hub and the lay out is :) Great post. Interesting infographic how to write an argumentative essay http://www.essay-profy.com/blog/how-to-write-an-es. ?. The challenge in writing a proposal resides in its structure. For the writer it is a-g list Abbey College, important that it be clear, to the point and as concise as possible. It is important to music remember that the reader is the one who will accept or reject your proposal either way due to a wide array of factors. Leaving no door open other than the legit essay services Academy, one of acceptance key factors are presentation, clarity and a summarisation that leaves but he avenue of an acceptance. Once finalized have a friend or someone else in whose judgment you trust to be honest and willing to give objective comments as well as towhy they propose changes. One practice I enforce when writing anything that is consequential is to music to write set the document aside forgetting about it for a couple of days and the review it again. A fresh read is always good.

One last tough. Your proposal is important as you are writing it for a specific reason therefore as yourself the question objectively as you can will the intended reader accept it? If you have a slight hesitation review it again and try to find the weak point and rewrite it to give it strength. Do not forget to Google to essay find supporting data for your proposal or even proposals in the same line. Best of luck to all. This was extremely helpful! I wasn't quite sure how to lay my proposal essay out.

So thank you, thank you! (: This information was very helpful. You gave me something to go on. To Write Essays To Newcastle? Thank you. This was a great go-by. Short and sweet, yet in-depth and detailed enough to get the a-g list Abbey, points across intelligently. Thanks for your help! Jo_Goldsmith11 3 years ago.

Just what I was looking for. Great job with presentation and music to write to Newcastle University, easy reading on the eyes. shared, tweet and Up. Thinking Training Sevenoaks? thank you for writing this. Music To Write To Newcastle? :-) Laura Writes 3 years ago. If you are writing a thesis proposal, you could use this format if it works for the theme of your thesis. However for research, you should look into a format that is like writing a research grant. It could look something like this, but check with a scientific journal or the company that you are requesting a research fund from to see if they have specific formatting requirements. Is this the online, same Thesis Proposal or research Proposal? Thank you so much. Very good and helpful. Really clear and straight forward.

Friskila Damaris Aquila Silitonga 4 years ago. Nice info and it's a practical round up with good resources. Friskila Damaris Aquila Silitonga. I have been a grant writer for music to write essays to Newcastle sixteen years and it's always nice to see someone include the college Washington University (INTO), actual practice with the theory of proposal/grant writing. Many can just list the parts of a proposal, but it's more beneficial for the reader to to write essays University see actual work. Great job! Laura Writes 4 years ago. No problem, good luck on your papers! Thx London 4 ur contribution.

in building ma proposal. codjoe conduah 4 years ago. am glad i could find something like this its been very tough for me on a proposal i was working on but now this has really eased ma fears. thanks a lot. Laura Writes 4 years ago. I'm glad this is proving useful to everybody. Good luck on your papers! samuel sikei 4 years ago. Thank you, this is Sevenoaks School, so direct and very professional.

Anil 4 years ago from Kerala. Hai nice essay. I suggest it to music to Newcastle University the school and college students. Thanks for sharing . thank you sosososososososososososo much. thx for College Cambridge the awesome outline.

This has been excellent explained. This is great, extremely helpful. I am in music to Newcastle the process of developing a proposal and this will be a useful guideline for a-g list me. jessica ramirez 5 years ago. excellent very helpful(: Laura Writes 5 years ago.

Thank you, I'm glad you found this useful. Joseph Asumadu 5 years ago from Ghana-aWest Africa. This is very good thump up. Copyright 2017 HubPages Inc. and respective owners. Music To Write University? Other product and company names shown may be trademarks of their respective owners.

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1984 research paper 1984 :Research Paper Assignment. To Write University! You will read the novel 1984 and write a multi- source researched argument on one of the four topics suggested, unless otherwise approved in writing by the instructor, according to the criteria below: What you will submit: 1. Stapled and essay University (Navitas) appropriately labeled final draft of your research paper. 2. Stapled and appropriately labeled rough draft of your research paper. (Please note: There should be substantial difference between your rough draft and your final draft.) 3. Essays! A formal business letter of self-evaluation, the instructions to which you can find on my website. 5. Legit Essay Writing Services Academy! My written approval if you deviate from the four suggested topics. * Do not include a cover page and to write essays do not turn in your work in a folder. 1. Your essay must refer to one primary source (the novel) and to a minimum of legit essay services Mercersburg Academy four secondary sources. Each secondary source must be cited in the paper at least once.

2. Your essay must prove the thesis you select, through an appropriate use of summaries, quotes, and paraphrases from the primary and secondary sources. Papers not including textual evidence from each source will receive a failing grade. Music To Write To Newcastle University! 3. All quotes and paraphrases are to adhere to MLA parenthetical citation requirements. 4. Your essay must begin with a fully developed introduction that includes a thesis sentence. 5. Your essay must end with a fully developed conclusion. 6. Your essay must be accompanied by a works cited page ( MLA style, on a separate page). 1. Your paper is to be 3-5 pages long (double spaced 12 pt. Arial or Times New Roman script; not including works cited page and heading) 2. Your paper is to be meticulously prepared using MLA format throughout.

1. Thinking! You may be required to submit your final copy to Turnitin.com. Please watch for an e-mail about this. 2. I am not requiring your attendance at a conference for a rough draft of this paper; however, if I can help you, please come see me. Check my office hours on my homepage . These are topics on which you can write a substantial analytical paper. They are designed to test your understanding of major themes and details from this novel as a whole. Following the topics are outlines you can use as a starting point for writing an analytical paper. The theme of betrayal is a dominant thread running throughout this novel.

Give examples of characters and events that contribute to Winston’s final self#8722;betrayal. Make it clear that these examples intensify the novel’s overall mood of loneliness and alienation. I. Thesis statement: Orwell explores various kinds of music essays University betrayal, including self#8722;betrayal, to heighten the mood of loneliness and alienation in 1984 . Writing A Good College Washington (INTO)! II. Party intolerance of betrayal to its ideology. A. Indoctrination of children to Party policy. C. Role of the Thought Police. III.

Individual characters’ betrayal of one another. A. Charrington’s betrayal of Winston and Julia. B. Parsons’ betrayal by music his children. C. Ampleforth’s betrayal by his work. D. Html Courses! O’Brien’s betrayal of Winston. IV. The hope symbolized by Winston and Julia’s love affair.

A. The sanctuary of Charrington’s room. B. The lovers’ definition of music to write essays to Newcastle betrayal. C. Winston’s betrayal of Julia. D. Julia’s admittance to betraying Winston. A. Winston’s capitulation to the Party. B. Implications of Winston’s defeat. VI.

Overall pessimism of the conclusion. Orwell uses the recurrent motif of the dream to reveal background, develop character, and foreshadow key events. Courses Online Lakefield College School! Analyze these dreams for to write essays to Newcastle University, their implications. I. Writing A Good Essay Washington! Thesis statement: Orwell uses the dream, a recurrent motif, as a mechanism to reveal background, develop character, and to Newcastle foreshadow events. II. The Golden Country. A. Part I, Chapter 2. B. Cambridge! Part II, Chapter 2. C. Common symbols and significance. III. The sinking ship. A. Part I, Chapter 2. B. To Write University! Part II, Chapter 7. C. Interpretation as a key to Winston’s mother’s disappearance. IV. “The place where there is training School, no darkness”

A. Introduction of the dream with O’Brien as its speaker. B. The nightmarish wall of darkness. C. Literal interpretation of the dream. D. Significance of the rats. That 1984 is a satire on totalitarian states such as Hitler’s Germany and Stalin’s Russia and a warning to the West is one of the commonly accepted interpretations of the novel. Prove that this is so by showing that Orwell did create a complete, repressive totalitarian state in Oceania.

I. Thesis statement: Orwell’s 1984 attacks the totalitarianism of the East while warning the music to write essays to Newcastle University West of its consequences. II. Critical Thinking Training School! Party ideology. To Write Essays To Newcastle University! A. One#8722;party system. B. Courses Online! Hierarchical structure—Big Brother as leader. C. Total control of society. D. Party’s motive as explained by O’Brien. III.

Monitoring as an effort to eliminate insurrection. A. Thought Police. C. Hidden microphones. D. Passport checks. IV. Control of mass communication. A. Function of the Ministry of Truth. To Write Essays To Newcastle! B. Winston’s job at the Ministry of Truth. C. Ampleforth’s function as poet.

D. Syme’s work on Newspeak. E. Constant announcements on telescreen. F. Html Courses Online Lakefield School! Party motto—control of the past. To Write To Newcastle University! V. Examples from History. A. Stalin’s Russia. B. How To Write Ruskin University (Navitas)! Hitler’s Germany. The paperweight Winston purchases at Charrington’s shop takes on several meanings before its final destruction during Winston’s arrest. Explain Winston’s motive for buying the paperweight as well as its symbolic interpretation as it changes throughout the novel. I. Thesis statement: The coral paperweight purchased at Charrington’s shop becomes a dominant symbol in Orwell’s 1984 . II. Purchase of the paperweight.

A. Significance of Charrington’s shop as the setting.

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columbia essay 2008 Doing Film History. Nearly everybody loves movies. We aren’t surprised that people rush to music University, see the latest hit or rent a cult favorite from the video store. But there are some people who seek out old movies.

And among those fans there’s a still smaller group studying them. Let’s call “old movies” anything older than twenty years. This of course creates a moving target. Baby boomers like us don’t really consider The Godfather or M*A*S*H to thinking, be old movies, but many twentysomethings today will probably consider Pulp Fiction (1994) to be old maybe because they saw it when they were in their teens. Our twenty-year cutoff is to write to Newcastle University arbitrary, but in many cases that won’t matter. Everybody agrees that La Grande Illusion from 1935 is an old movie, though it still seems fresh and writing a good essay Washington State vital. Now for the real question. Why would anyone be interested in watching and to write to Newcastle University studying old movies? Ask a film historian, professional or amateur, and you’ll get a variety of answers. For one thing, old films provide the a discursive Anglia Ruskin University (Navitas) same sorts of insights that we get from watching contemporary movies.

Some offer intense artistic experiences or penetrating visions of human life in other times and places. Some are documents of everyday existence or of extraordinary historical events that continue to reverberate in music essays to Newcastle University, our times. Still other old movies are resolutely strange. They resist assimilation to our current habits of thinking training Sevenoaks thought. They force us to acknowledge that films can be radically different from to write to Newcastle University what we are used to. They ask us to adjust our field of view to writing college essay Washington, accommodate what was, astonishingly, taken for granted by people in essays University, earlier eras. Another reason to study old movies is that film history encompasses more than just films.

By studying how films were made and received, we discover how creators and audiences responded to critical training Sevenoaks School, their moment in history. By searching for social and music to write to Newcastle cultural influences on essay writing Academy, films, we understand better the ways in which films bear the traces of the music to write essays societies that made and consumed them. Film history opens up a range of important issues in politics, culture, and the artsboth “high” and “popular.” Yet another answer to our question is this: Studying old movies and the times in which they were made is critical thinking intrinsically fun. As a relatively new field of academic research (no more than sixty years old), film history has the excitement of a young discipline. Over the past few decades, many lost films have been recovered, little-known genres explored, and neglected filmmakers reevaluated.

Ambitious retrospectives have revealed entire national cinemas that had been largely ignored. Even television, with some cable stations devoted wholly to the cinema of the past, brings into our living rooms movies that were previously rare and little-known. And much more remains to be discovered. To Newcastle! There are more old movies than new ones and, hence, many more chances for College Cambridge fascinating viewing experiences. We think that studying film history is so interesting and to write to Newcastle important that during the late 1980s we began to write a book surveying the field. The first edition of Film History: An Introduction appeared in 1994, the a-g list College Cambridge second in 2003, and the third will be published in spring of 2009. In this book we have tried to introduce the history of cinema as it is conceived, written, and taught by its most accomplished scholars. But the book isn’t a distillation of all film history. We have had to rule out to write to Newcastle University certain types of cinema that are important, most notably educational, industrial, scientific, and College pornographic films.

We limit our scope to theatrical fiction films, documentary films, experimental or avant-garde filmmaking, and music to Newcastle animationrealms of filmmaking that are most frequently studied in college courses. Researchers are fond of saying that there is no film history, only film histories. For some, this means that there can be no intelligible, coherent “grand narrative” that puts all the facts into place. The history of avant-garde film does not fit neatly into the history of color technology or the development of the Western or the a good college essay life of John Ford. For others, film history means that historians work from various perspectives and to write University with different interests and University (Navitas) purposes. We agree with both points. There is no Big Story of Film History that accounts for all events, causes, and consequences. And the variety of music to Newcastle University historical approaches guarantees that historians will draw diverse conclusions. We also think that research into film history involves asking a series of questions and searching for how to Ruskin University (Navitas) evidence in music to write University, order to answer them in the course of an argument. When historians focus on different questions, turn up different evidence, and formulate different explanations, we derive not a single history but a diverse set of historical arguments.

What Do Film Historians Do? While millions are watching movies at this moment, a few thousand are studying the films of the past. One person is trying to legit essay Academy, ascertain whether a certain film was made in to Newcastle, 1904 or 1905. College Essay University (INTO)! Another is tracing the fortunes of a short-lived Scandinavian production company. To Newcastle University! Another is poring over a 1927 Japanese film, shot by shot, to find out how it tells its story. A Good State (INTO)! Some researchers are comparing prints of an obscure film to determine which one can be considered the original. Other scholars are studying a group of films signed by the same director or set designer or producer. Essays University! Some are scrutinizing patent records and technical diagrams, legal testimony, and production files. And still others are interviewing retired employees to discover how the Bijou Theater in their hometown was run during the critical thinking Aiglon 1950s. One reason is evident.

Most film historiansteachers, archivists, journalists, and music essays to Newcastle University freelancersare cinephiles, lovers of cinema. Like bird-watchers, fans of 1960s television, art historians, and other devotees, they enjoy acquiring knowledge about the object of their affection. Movie fans may stop there, regarding the accumulating of facts about their passion as an end in itself. But whatever the pleasure of knowing the names of thinking training Sevenoaks School all the Three Stooges’ wives, most film historians are not trivia buffs. Film historians mount research programs , systematic inquiries into the past. A historian’s research program is organized around questions that require answers. A research program also consists of assumptions and background knowledge. For a film historian, a fact takes on significance only in the context of a research program. Consider this image, from a film of the silent era.

A film archivistthat is, someone who works in a library devoted to collecting and preserving motion picturesoften comes across a film that is unidentified. To Write Essays To Newcastle! Perhaps the title credit is missing or the print carries a title that differs from that of the original film. Writing College Washington State University (INTO)! The archivist’s research program is, broadly, identification. To Newcastle University! The film presents a series of questions: What is the date of production or of Abbey College release? In what country was it made? What company and personnel made the film? Who are the actors? Our mysterious film carries only the French title Wanda l’espione (“Wanda the Spy”)most likely a title given to music to Newcastle University, it by a distributor. It was probably imported rather than made in thinking Sevenoaks School, Belgium, where the print was discovered. To Newcastle University! Fortunately there are some clues in the print itself. The lead actress, seated in the foreground, is a famous star, Francesca Bertini.

Identifying her makes it almost certain that the a good essay Washington University film is Italian. But Bertini was a star from to write essays University 1907 into the 1930s. Critical Online College! How can we narrow the dates further? The film’s style helps. Music University! The camera points straight toward the how to write a discursive Anglia University back wall of the set, and the actors seldom move closer to the camera than they are seen here. The editing pace is music essays University slow, and the action is staged so that performers enter and exit through a rear doorway. All these stylistic features are typical of European filmmaking of the mid-1910s. Such clues can be followed up by referring to a filmography (a list of films) of Bertini’s career. A plot description of a 1915 film in which she starred, Diana l’affascinatrice (“Diana the Seductress”), matches the action of the unidentified print.

Note that the identification depended on certain assumptions. For example, the writing a good Washington State researcher assumed that it’s extremely unlikely for to write essays to Newcastle a modern filmmaker to create a fake 1915 Italian film, just to critical thinking School, baffle archivists. (Film historians need not worry about forgeries, as art historians must.) Note, too, that the researcher needed some background knowledge. She had reason to believe that films staged and cut a certain way are characteristic of the mid-1910s, and she recognized a star from other films of the period. Most historians go beyond identification and tackle broader subject areas. Consider another common situation. An archive holds many films made by the same production company, and it also has numerous filing cabinets bulging with documents concerning that company’s production process. Its collection also includes scripts in music to Newcastle University, various drafts; memos passed among writers, directors, producers, and other staff; and courses online Lakefield sketches for sets and costumes. This is music to write University a rich lode of datatoo rich, in fact, for one researcher to tackle. The historian’s problem is now selecting relevant data and salient facts. What makes a datum relevant or a fact salient is the critical historian’s research program and to write essays to Newcastle University its questions. One scholar might be interested in tracing common features of the thinking online Aiglon College company’s production process; he might ask something like, “In general, how did this firm typically plan, execute, and market its movies?” Another historian’s research program might concentrate on the films of a certain director who worked for the company.

She might ask, “What aspects of visual style distinguish the director’s films?” Some facts would be central to one program but peripheral to another. The historian interested in the company’s business routines might not particularly care about to Newcastle a daring visual innovation introduced by the director who is the focus of the other historian’s inquiry. In turn, the stylistic historian might be uninterested in how the company’s producers promoted certain stars. Again, assumptions exert pressure on critical online College, the researcher’s framing of to Newcastle questions and pursuit of information. The company historian assumes that he can trace general tendencies of production organization, largely because film companies tend to Abbey Cambridge, make films by following fairly set routines. The director-centered researcher assumes that her director’s films do have a distinct style. Essays To Newcastle! And both historians would mobilize background knowledge, about how companies work and how directors direct, to guide their research.

Historians in any discipline do more than accumulate facts. No facts speak for themselves. Facts are interesting and important only as part of research programs. Facts also help us ask and critical thinking online answer questions. Film History as Description and Explanation. Inevitably, a historian needs at least a little information, along with background knowledge and assumptions, to prod her to ask questions. But the historian does not necessarily sift through mountains of facts and music essays to Newcastle then judiciously ask a question. A historian may begin with a question, and sometimes that question might be better described as a hunch or an intuition or even just an itch.

For example, one young historian saw a few of the “anarchic” American comedies of the 1930s and noticed that their vulgar gags and absurd situations were very different from the more sophisticated comedy of the period. Suspecting that stage comedy might have been a source, he framed a question: “Might vaudeville and its performance style have shaped these particular comedies of the early 1930s?” He began to gather information, examining films, reading coverage of the comedians in how to essay Ruskin (Navitas), the Hollywood trade press, and music to Newcastle studying shifts in American taste in humor. The process of research led him to refine his question and to mount a detailed account of how comedians introduced a vaudeville aesthetic into critical training Sevenoaks, sound films but then muted it in accord with Hollywood’s standards of taste. 1. Nonhistorians often visualize the historical researcher as a cousin to to write University, Indiana Jones, braving library stacks and crawling through attics in html courses School, quest of the treasure-lode of to Newcastle documents that overturn popular opinion. Certainly new documentation has a key role to play in historical research. Thinking School! One scholar gained entry to the long-inaccessible files of Hollywood’s self-censorship agency, the Hays Office, and she was able to put forth a new account of the office’s procedures and University functions. 2 Similarly, the increasing availability of films from cinema’s earliest era has created an entire subfield of cinema history. 3. Still, many research programs rely more on essay Anglia University (Navitas), asking new questions than on unearthing new data.

Sometimes the research question seems to have been answered by to Newcastle University, previous historians, but another researcher comes along and suggests a more complete or complex answer. For example, no historian disputes the Abbey College fact that Warner Bros. was quick to invest in talking pictures in the mid-1920s. For a long time most historians believed that Warners took this risky step because it was on to write to Newcastle, the verge of bankruptcy and was desperate to save itself. But another historian with economic training concluded that the evidencewhich had long been publicly available to writing Mercersburg, researcherspointed to a quite different conclusion. Far from music to write to Newcastle facing bankruptcy, Warners was quickly expanding and investing in sound films was part of a carefully planned strategy for breaking into the ranks of the major studios. 4.

Our examples all indicate that the historian’s research program aims to do at least two things. First, the historian tries to describe a process or state of affairs. She asks What and who and where and legit essay when. What is this film, and who made it, and where and music to write University when? In what ways does this director’s work differ from critical training Sevenoaks School that of others?

What was the vaudeville comedic style? What evidence is there that a studio was nearly bankrupt? Who is the actor in to write, this shot? Who was responsible for scripts at this company? Where was this film shown, and html courses Lakefield who might have seen it? Here the historian’s problem is largely one of music University finding information that will answer such questions. Accurate description is indispensable for all historical research. Scholars have spent countless hours identifying films, collating versions, compiling filmographies, establishing timelines, and creating reference works that supply names, dates, and the like. The more sophisticated and legit writing Mercersburg Academy long-lived a historical discipline is, the richer and more complete its battery of music to write essays University descriptive reference material will be. Second, the historian tries to explain a process or state of affairs.

He asks, How does this work? and Why did this happen? How did this company assign tasks, lay out responsibilities, carry a project to completion? How did this director’s work influence other films from the company? Why did Warners pursue talkies when larger companies were reluctant to html online College, do so? Why did some sound comedians adopt the vaudeville comedic style while others did not? The film historian, like a historian of art or politics, proposes an music to Newcastle explanatory argument . Having asked how or why, she puts forward an answer, based on an examination of evidence in School, light of assumptions and background knowledge. In reading historical writings, we need to music to write essays University, recognize that the essay or book is not just a mass of facts but an Mercersburg argument. The historian’s argument consists of evidence marshalled to create a plausible explanation for an event or state of affairs. That is, the to write University argument aims to answer some historical question. Most arguments about film history rely on evidence. Evidence consists of information that gives grounds for believing that the argument is sound.

Evidence helps us judge whether the historian has presented a plausible answer to the original question. Film historians work with evidence of many sorts. For many historians, copies of the films they study are central pieces of evidence. But this data set is partial. A-g List Abbey College! Although the cinema is a relatively young medium, invented only a little over a century ago, many films have already been lost or destroyed. For decades, movies were seen as products with temporary commercial value, and companies did little to ensure their preservation. Even when film archives began to to write to Newcastle University, be founded in the 1930s, they faced the daunting task of collecting and sheltering the thousands of films that had already been made. Archivists had to choose what they could afford to a-g list Abbey College Cambridge, retain. Moreover, the nitrate film stock, upon which most films up to the early 1950s were shot and to write essays to Newcastle printed, was highly flammable and deteriorated over writing essay State University (INTO) time.

Deliberate destruction of films, warehouse fires, and the gradual decomposition of nitrate stored in bad conditions have led to the loss of many titles. University! In the frame below, from Willy Reilly and His Colleen Bawn , an Irish film from 1918, severe nitrate deterioration has obliterated the most important figures. According to a-g list Cambridge, rough estimates, only about 20 percent of silent films are known to survive. Many of these are still sitting in vaults, unidentified or unpreserved due to lack of funds. More recent films may be inaccessible to essays University, the researcher as well. Films made in some small countries, particularly in Third World nations, were not made in many copies and did not circulate widely. Small archives may not have the facilities to preserve films or show them to researchers. In some cases, political regimes may choose to suppress certain films and promote others. Finding reliable copies to study is a major challenge for the historian whose questions center on the films. Historians also rely on College Cambridge, print sources. These may be published sources, such as books, magazines, trade journals, and newspapers, or unpublished ones, like memoirs, letters, notes, production files, scripts, and music to write essays to Newcastle University court testimony.

Historians of film technology scrutinize cameras, sound recorders, and other equipment. A film studio or an important location might also serve as a source of evidence. Usually historians must verify their evidence. Often this depends on using the sort of how to a discursive University (Navitas) descriptive research we have already mentioned, such as combing primary documents, checking filmographies and to Newcastle reference works, and the like. The problem of verification is particularly acute with film prints. Films have always circulated in differing versions. In the 1920s, Hollywood films were shot in two versions, one for the United States and one for export.

These could differ considerably in length, content, and even visual style. To this day, many Hollywood films are released in critical thinking Aiglon College, Europe in more erotic or violent versions than are screened in the United States. In addition, many old films have deteriorated and been subject to music to write, cutting and html courses revision. Even modern restorations do not always reproduce the original release version. Often, then, the historian doesn’t know whether the print she is seeing represents anything like an original, if indeed there can be said to be a single original version. Historians try to be aware of the differences among the versions of the films they are studying. The fact that there are different versions can itself be a source of questions. Historians generally distinguish between primary and secondary sources. As applied to to write essays University, film, primary usually refers to sources the people directly involved in whatever is legit writing Mercersburg Academy being studied.

For example, if you were studying Japanese cinema of the 1920s, the surviving films, interviews with filmmakers or audience members, and contemporary trade journals would count as primary material. Later discussions concerning the music to write to Newcastle period, usually by another historian, would be considered secondary. Often, though, one scholar’s secondary source is another’s primary source, because the researchers are asking different questions. A critic’s 1966 essay about a 1925 film would be a secondary source if your question centered on the 1925 film. If, however, you were writing a history of film criticism during the writing college Washington State (INTO) 1960s, the essays University critic’s essay would be a primary source.

Explaining the Past: Basic Approaches. There are distinct types of explanation in film history. A standard list would include: Biographical history: focusing on an individual’s life history. Industrial or economic history: focusing on business practices. Aesthetic history: focusing on thinking online Aiglon, film art (form, style, genre) Technological history: focusing on to write essays University, the materials and html Lakefield machines of film. Social/cultural/political history: focusing on to write essays to Newcastle, the role of cinema in the larger society. This sort of inventory helps us understand that there is not one history of film but many possible histories, each adopting a different perspective.

Typically, the researcher begins with an interest in a-g list Abbey Cambridge, one of these areas, which helps him to formulate his initial question. Nevertheless, such a typology shouldn’t be taken too rigidly. Not all questions the music to Newcastle historian may ask will fall neatly into only one of these pigeonholes. If you want to thinking online Aiglon, know why a film looks the way it does, the question may not be purely aesthetic; it might be linked to the biography of the music to write essays University filmmaker or to the technological resources available when the film was made. A study of film genres might involve both aesthetic and cultural factors. A person’s life cannot easily be separated from his or her working conditions within a film industry or from the contemporary political context. We propose that the student of film history think chiefly in terms of critical online Aiglon questions, keeping in mind that some interesting questions are likely to music University, cut across categorical boundaries. Explaining the Past: Organizing the essay University (INTO) Evidence.

Finding an answer to essays to Newcastle University, a historical question may involve both description and thinking explanation, in different mixtures. The techniques of descriptive research are specialized and music essays to Newcastle University require a wide range of background knowledge. Essay Ruskin (Navitas)! For example, some experts on early silent cinema can determine when a film copy was made by examining the stock on which it is to write to Newcastle printed. Write Ruskin University (Navitas)! The number and shape of the sprocket holes, along with the manner in which a manufacturer’s name is printed along the essays to Newcastle edge of the film strip, can help date the print. Knowing the age of the stock can in turn help narrow down the film’s date of a-g list production and country of to write origin.

Historical explanation also involves concepts that organize the evidence produced by specialized knowledge. Here are some of them. Chronology Chronology is essential to historical explanation, and descriptive research is an legit writing services Mercersburg indispensable aid to establishing the sequence of events. The historian needs to know that this film was made before that one or that event B took place after event A. But history is not mere chronology. A chronology stops short of explanation, just as a record of high and low tides gives no hint as to why tides change. History, as we have already seen, centrally involves explanation. Causality Much historical explanation involves cause and effect. To Newcastle! Historians work with conceptions of various kinds of causes. Individual Causes People have beliefs and desires that affect how they act.

In acting, they make things happen. It is often reasonable to explain a historical change or a past state of affairs in light of the attitudes or behavior of individuals. This is not to say that individuals make everything happen or that things always happen as people originally intended or that people always understand just why they did what they did. It is simply to say that historians may justifiably appeal to what people think and feel and do as part of an explanation. Some historians believe that all historical explanation must appeal to person-based causes sooner or later. This position is usually called methodological individualism. A different, and even more sweeping, assumption is that only individuals, and thinking Aiglon College exceptional individuals at that, have the music to write essays University power to create historical change. This view is sometimes labeled the Great Man theory of history, even though it is applied to women as well. Earlier generations of film historians, for write Anglia University example, were inclined to University, treat D.W. Critical Thinking Online Aiglon College! Griffith as the most important figure in the U.S. silent cinema because it seemed that he invented a number of editing techniques that became widespread. More recent historians have developed a counterargument, thanks to the greater availability of films by other directors and a more comparison-based method.

These scholars claim that Griffith developed certain tendencies that were already present, pushing them to music essays University, a new level of thinking online expression. Moreover, his most original techniques were not picked up by others, so in some respects other directors had more influence on standard editing practice. As an music to write essays individual Griffith remains important, but he is probably not the thinking Aiglon Great Innovator that people once considered him. Group Causes People often act in groups, and at times we speak of the group as having a kind of music essays to Newcastle existence over and above the essay Mercersburg individuals who compose it. Groups have rules and roles, structures and routines, and often these factors make things happen. We speak of a government’s declaring war, yet this act may not be reducible to more detailed statements about what all the individuals involved believed and did. When we say that Warner Bros. decided to adopt sound, we are making a meaningful claim, even if we have no information about the beliefs and desires of the individual decision makers at the company; we may not even fully know who they were. To Write University! Some historians assert that any historical explanation must, sooner or later, ground itself in group-based causes.

This position is online Aiglon usually called holism, or methodological collectivism, as opposed to methodological individualism. Several sorts of groups are important to the history of cinema. Throughout our book we talk about institutions government agencies, film studios, distribution firms, and other fairly formal, organized groups. We also talk about more informal affiliations of filmmakers. These are usually called movements or schools, small assemblies of music to write to Newcastle filmmakers and thinking training School critics who share the same interests, beliefs about cinema, conceptions of film form and style, and the like. The Soviet filmmakers of the 1920sLev Kuleshov, Sergei Eisenstein, V.I.

Pudovkin, and music essays many othersare a classic instance of a movement. Critical Thinking! Despite their individual differences, these men held in common a commitment to music to write essays to Newcastle University, editing, often disjunctive editing, as central to thinking College, a movie’s effects on a viewer. Less well-defined cases of a movement would be German Expressionist film of the 1920s, Italian neorealism after World War II, and French New Wave filmmaking during the 1960s. In these instances, the filmmakers often insisted that they shared no consciousness of belonging to a movement. Still, historians often find common trends in the films, in University, the production circumstances, and in the local film culture, and these factors justify treating the filmmakers as a group, even if not a full-fledged movement. Influence Most historians use some notion of influence to explain change. Influence describes the inspiration that an individual, a group, or a film can provide for others. Members of a movement can deliberately influence a director to make a film a certain way, but a chance viewing of writing a good college essay (INTO) a movie can also influence a director. Influence does not mean simple copying.

You may have been influenced by a parent or a teacher, but you have not necessarily mimicked his or her behavior. Music Essays! In the arts, influence is often a matter of one artist’s getting ideas from html courses online College other artists’ work but then pursuing those ideas in a personal way. The result may be quite different from the music essays University initial work that stimulated it. The contemporary director Jean-Luc Godard was influenced by Jean Renoir, although their films are markedly different. Sometimes we can detect the influence by examining the films; sometimes we rely on the testimony of the filmmaker. A body of work by a group of directors may also influence later films. Soviet cinema of the writing a good college essay State 1920s influenced the documentary director John Grierson. Music To Write Essays To Newcastle University! The Hollywood cinema, as a set of films, has been enormously influential throughout film history, although all the directors influenced by it certainly did not see exactly the same films. Influences are particular kinds of causes, so it is not surprising that influences may involve both individual activity and group activity. Trends and Generalizations Any historical question opens up a body of data for investigation. Once the historian starts to look closely at the datato go through a studio’s records, examine the films, page through the trade pressshe discovers that there is essay much more to explore than the initial question touches on.

It’s like looking into a microscope and discovering that a drop of water teems with organisms of confounding variety, all going about very different business. Every historian omits certain material. For one thing, the historical record is music to write University already incomplete. Legit Essay Writing Academy! Many events go unrecorded, and many documents are lost forever. Music Essays To Newcastle University! Further, historians inevitably select. They unweave the tangles of history and create a more coherent pattern. Write A Discursive Ruskin University! A historian simplifies and streamlines according to the question he is pursuing. One principal way historians go about such simplification is by postulating trends.

Lots of things are going on, they admit, but “by and music to write essays to Newcastle University large” or “on the whole” or “for the most part,” we can identify a general tendency. Most Hollywood films of the 1940s were made in black and white, but most Hollywood films today are in critical training School, color. On the whole, there has been a change, and we can see a trend toward the increasing use of color film stock between the 1940s and the 1960s. Our task is to explain how and why this trend occurred. By positing trends, historians generalize. They necessarily set aside interesting exceptions and aberrations. But this is no sin, because the answer to a question is necessarily pitched at a certain level of generality. All historical explanations pull back from the throbbing messiness of reality. By recognizing that tendencies are “for-the-most-part” generalizations, the scholar can acknowledge that there is more going on music University, than she is trying to explain. Periods Historical chronology and causation are without beginning or end. The child who incessantly asks what came before that or what made that happen soon discovers that we can trace out critical online Aiglon College a sequence of events indefinitely.

Historians necessarily limit the stretch of to write University time they will explore, and they go on courses online Lakefield College School, to divide that stretch into meaningful phases or segments. For example, the historian studying American silent cinema already assumes that this period within film history ran from about 1894 to around 1929. The historian will probably further segment this stretch of time. She might break it down by essays University, decade, treating the 1900s, the 1910s, and critical training the 1920s. Instead, she might divide it with respect to changes external to filmsay, preWorld War I, World War I, and postWorld War I. Another possibility is creating periods that mark phases in music to Newcastle, the development of how to write Anglia Ruskin storytelling style, such as 18941907, 19081917, and music to write to Newcastle 19181929. Every historian marks out periods according to the research program he adopts and the question he asks. Historians recognize that periodization can’t be rigid: trends do not follow in essay writing, neat order. To Write Essays! It is illuminating to critical training School, think of the American “structural” film of the early 1970s as a response to the “lyrical” film of the University 1960s, but lyrical films were still being made well in the 1970s and critical thinking online Aiglon afterward.

Histories of genres often mark off periods by innovative films, but this is not to deny that more ordinary movies display a great deal of continuity across periods. Rosemary’s Baby (1968) brought Satanic horror into the A-picture realm, but in the years that followed, most horror films continued to be low-budget product. Similarly, we ought not to expect that the history of technology or styles or genres will march in step with political or social history. The period after World War II was indeed distinctive, because this global conflict had major effects on music to Newcastle University, film industries and filmmakers in most countries; but not all political events demarcate distinct periods in relation to changes in a discursive Anglia, film form or the film market. The assassination of President Kennedy was a wrenching event, but it had little effect on activities in the film world. To Newcastle! Here, as ever, the training Sevenoaks School historian’s research program and to write central question will shape her sense of the relevant periods and parallel events. Legit Essay Academy! This is, again, one reason that scholars often speak of film histories rather than a single film history. Significance In mounting explanations, historians of all arts make assumptions about the significance of the artworks they discuss.

We might treat a work as a “monument,” studying it because it is music essays to Newcastle a highly valued accomplishment. Services Mercersburg! Alternatively, we might study a work as a “document” because it records some noteworthy historical activity, such as the state of a society at music to Newcastle University a given moment or a trend within the University (Navitas) art form itself. Most historians assume that the films they discuss have significance on any or all of the music University following three criteria: Intrinsic excellence: Some films are, simply, outstanding by artistic criteria. They are rich, moving, complex, thought-provoking, intricate, meaningful, or the like. At least partly because of write a discursive Anglia their quality, such films have played a key role in essays to Newcastle, the history of cinema. Influence: A film may be historically significant by how to write a discursive Ruskin, virtue of its influence on other films. It may create or change a genre, inspire filmmakers to try something new, or gain such a wide popularity that it spawns imitations and tributes. Since influence is an important part of historical explanations, this sort of film plays a prominent role in most histories. Typicality: Some films are significant because they vividly represent instances or trends.

They stand in for many other films of the same type. The three criteria don’t have to to Newcastle University, combine. An influential film doesn’t have to be excellent or typical, and an excellent film may never exert much influence. The films of Robert Bresson are usually considered exceptionally good, but for a long time they influenced no other filmmaking. But of course in some cases the criteria can combine. A highly accomplished genre film, such as Singin’ in the Rain or Rio Bravo , is often considered both excellent and highly typical. Many acclaimed masterworks, such as The Birth of a Nation or Citizen Kane, were also very influential, and some also typify broader tendencies.

The preface to Film History: An Introduction , third edition, outlines the questions we focus on, but it’s probably worth mentioning them here as well. Although the book surveys the history of world cinema, we could hardly start with the question What is the history of world cinema? That would give us no help in setting about our research and organizing the State material we find. Instead, we have highlighted three major questions. 1. How have uses of the film medium changed or become normalized over time? Within “uses of the medium” we include matters of film form: the part/whole organization of the film. Often this involves telling a story, but a film’s overall form might also be based on an argument or an abstract pattern.

The term “uses of the music to Newcastle University medium” also includes matters of film style, the critical online College patterned uses of film techniques ( mise-en-scène, or staging, lighting, setting, and costume; camerawork; editing; and sound). Essays University! In addition, any balanced conception of how the medium has been used must also consider film modes (documentary, avant-garde, fiction, animation) and genres (for example, the write Western, the thriller, or the musical). So we also examine these phenomena. All such matters are central to most college and university survey courses in film history. A central purpose of our book is to survey the uses of the medium in different times and places. Sometimes we dwell on the creation of stable norms of form and style, as when we examine how Hollywood standardized certain editing options in the first two decades of music essays filmmaking.

At other times, we examine how filmmakers have proposed innovative ways of structuring form or using film technique. 2. Essay! How have the conditions of the film industryproduction, distribution, and exhibitionaffected the uses of the music to write to Newcastle University medium? Films are made within modes of production, habitual ways of organizing the labor and materials involved in courses online Lakefield College, creating a movie. Some modes of production are industrial; that’s when companies make films as a business. The classic instance of industrial production is the studio system, in music essays, which firms are organized in order to make films for critical thinking Aiglon large audiences through a fairly detailed division of music to write essays labor. Hollywood’s studio system is the a good college Washington State University (INTO) most famous, but there have been studio systems of production in many countries. Another sort of industrial production might be called the artisanal, or one-off, approach, in which a production company makes one film at to write University a time (perhaps only one film, period). Still other modes of production are less highly organized, involving small groups or individuals who make films for specific purposes.

In all these instances, the ways in which films are made have had particular effects on the look and sound of the finished products. An avant-garde films, made on a low budget by an individual filmmaker, is more likely to be a personal expression than a big-budget Hollywood blockbuster. The ways in which films are exhibited have also affected film history. For example, the major technological innovations associated with the early 1950s wide-screen picture, stereophonic sound, increased use of color were actually available decades earlier. Critical Thinking Training School! Each could have been developed before the 1950s, but the U.S. film industry had no pressing need to do so since film attendance was so high that spending money on essays to Newcastle, new attractions would not have significantly increased profits. Only when attendance dropped precipitously in the late 1940s were producers and exhibitors pushed to introduce new technologies to lure audiences back into html courses online Lakefield School, theaters. 3. How have international trends emerged in essays to Newcastle, the uses of the film medium and in the film market?

In Film History we try to balance the consideration of important national contributions with a sense of how international and cross-cultural influences were operating. Many nations’ audiences and film industries have been influenced by directors and critical training films that have migrated across their borders. Music To Write To Newcastle University! Genres are vagabond as well. The Hollywood Western influenced the legit services Japanese samurai film and the Italian Western, genres that in turn influenced the music to Newcastle University Hong Kong kung-fu films of the 1970s. Interestingly, Hollywood films then began incorporating elements of the martial arts movie. Just as important, the film industry itself is significantly transnational. At certain periods, circumstances closed off countries from the flow of writing college essay State University (INTO) films, but most often there has been a global film market, and music to write essays we understand it best by tracing trends across cultures and regions. We have paid particular attention to conditions that allowed people to a-g list Cambridge, see films made outside their own country. Each of these how questions accompanies a great many why questions. For any part of the processes we focus on, we can ask what conditions caused them to operate as they did. Why, for instance, did Soviet filmmakers undertake their experiments in disturbing, aggressive narrative?

Why did Hollywood’s studio system begin to fragment in the late 1940s? Why did “new waves” and essays “young cinemas” arise in Europe, the Soviet Union, and Japan around 1960? Why are more films produced now with international investment than in the 1930s or 1940s? Historians are keen to know what factors made a change occur, and essay writing services Mercersburg Academy our general questions include a host of subquestions about causes and effects. Recall our five general explanatory approaches: biographical, industrial, aesthetic, technological, and social. If we had to squeeze our book into one or more of these pigeonholes, we could say that its approach is predominantly aesthetic and industrial. It examines how types of films, film styles, and film forms have changed in relation to the conditions of essays film production, distribution, and exhibition within certain countries and a-g list College within the international flow of films. But this summary of our approach is to write essays University too confining, as even a cursory look at legit writing services Mercersburg Academy what follows will indicate. Sometimes we invoke an individual a powerful producer, an innovative filmmaker, an University imaginative critic. Sometimes we consider technology.

And we often frame our account with discussions of the critical training Sevenoaks political, social, and cultural context of a period. Take, for example, our central question: How have uses of the film medium changed or become normalized over time? This is a question about aesthetic matters, but it also impinges on factors of technology. For instance, conceptions of “realistic” filmmaking changed with the introduction of University portable cameras and sound equipment in the late 1950s. Similarly, our second question How have the conditions of the film industry affected the uses of the critical thinking Sevenoaks medium? is at University once economic, technological, and aesthetic. Finally, asking how international trends have emerged in the uses of the film medium and in the film market concerns both economic and social/cultural/political factors. In the early era of cinema, films circulated freely among countries, and viewers often did not know the nationality of html courses online Lakefield School a film they were seeing. In the 1910s, however, war and nationalism blocked certain films from circulating. At the same time, the growth of particular film industries, notably Hollywood, depended on to Newcastle University, access to other markets, so the degree to which films could circulate boosted some nations’ output and hindered that of others.

In addition, the circulation of U.S. films abroad served to spread American cultural values, which in turn created both admiration and hostility. In sum, we have been guided, as we think most historians are, by training Sevenoaks School, research questions rather than rigid conceptions of the type of history we are writing. Music To Write To Newcastle University! And what we take to online Aiglon College, be the most plausible answer to to Newcastle University, a given question will depend on the strength of the evidence and college State (INTO) the argument we can make for it not on a prior commitment to writing only a certain kind of history. Our answers to historical questions are, however, not simply given in a list or summary. Like most historical arguments, ours takes a narrative form. Historians use language to communicate their arguments and music to write essays University evidence to others.

Descriptive research programs can do this through a summary of critical thinking training findings: this film is music to write University Diana l’affascinatrice, made in Italy by Caesar-Film in 1915, directed by Gustavo Serena, and so on. But historical explanations require a more complicated crafting. Sometimes historians frame their explanations as persuasive arguments. Html Courses Online School! To take an essays University example already cited, a historian investigating the development of sound by Warner Bros. might start by considering the various explanations already offered and writing services Mercersburg taken for granted. Then he might set forth the reasons for believing his alternative interpretation. Essays! This is a familiar form of rhetorical argument, eliminating unsatisfactory beliefs before settling on a more plausible one. More often, historians’ explanations take the form of stories. Narrative history, as it is essay Washington (INTO) called, seeks to answer how and to write essays to Newcastle University why questions by tracing the relevant circumstances and critical Sevenoaks conditions over time. It produces a chain of music to write to Newcastle University causes and effects, or it shows how a process works, by telling a story.

For instance, if we are trying to answer the college Washington (INTO) question How did the to write essays to Newcastle University Hays Office negotiate with firms to a-g list College, arrive at an agreement about an acceptable film? we can frame a step-by-step narrative of the censorship process. Or, if we are seeking to explain what led the Hays Office to to write University, be created, we might lay out the causal factors as a story. As these examples indicate, the story’s “characters” might be individuals or groups, institutions or even films; the “plot” consists of the situations in which the players operate and a-g list College Cambridge the changes they initiate and undergo. Narrative is one of the basic ways in which humans make sense of the world, and so it’s not surprising that historians use stories to make the past intelligible. Film History: An Introduction follows tradition in music to write University, creating a large-scale narrative, one that includes several stories within it. We divide film history into six large periods early cinema (to about critical thinking online Aiglon College 1919), the late silent era (19191929), the development of sound cinema (19261945), the period after World War II (19461960s), the period running from the 1960s to the 1980s, and the contemporary era (1980s-the present). These divisions reflect developments in to write, (1) film form and style; (2) major changes in courses online Lakefield, film production, distribution, and exhibition; and (3) significant international trends. The periodization can’t be exactly synchronized for all three areas, but it does indicate approximate boundaries for the changes we try to trace. An alternative organizational pattern is that of the topical history . To Write University! Topical history treats an idea or theme rather than a story.

If you were writing a book-length history of Manhattan, for instance, you might devote one chapter to geography, another to political dynamics, another to social changes, another to the events of 9/11, and so on. Thinking Training Sevenoaks School! The chapters themselves might be organized as narratives (though maybe not), but the overall structure would give a portrait of a city’s history from several angles. The historian must decide, at various levels, between narrative organization and topical organization. Suppose your question was How did America ’s postwar occupation of Germany affect the essays local film industry and culture? Once you’ve done your research and come to some conclusions, you could organize your presentation narratively or topically.

That is, your chapters could proceed in chronological order to trace the changes in how to Anglia Ruskin, the industry between 1945 and the early 1950s. Or each chapter could deal with events occurring across the entire period, but in different spheres production, censorship, journalism, exhibition, and the like. Music To Write Essays To Newcastle! In another topical layout, you could organize the book around key films or film policies that had an impact on different spheres of School German life. 5. To suggest the flavor of doing historical research, we offer one of our own experiences. Here Kristin explains the process of music essays University researching a book-length study of Ernst Lubitsch’s films. Of the directors widely considered to be among the greatest, Ernst Lubitsch has had relatively little of critical training Sevenoaks School substance written about him. The other directors of Germany’s “golden age” of the silent cinema, F. Music Essays! W. Murnau and especially Fritz Lang, have received more attention.

Perhaps this has been the case because Lubitsch has no one thematic concern underlying his work. Murnau and Lang also are linked to the German Expressionist movement, while Lubitsch worked outside it. His habit of moving between vast historical epics and broad comedies for his German films makes him hard to html courses online, pin down. But why is he important? Filmmakers and cinema buffs love Lubitsch, partly for the sheer quality of his work, from the essays hilarious silent comedies of the late 1910s, like I Don’t Want to Be a Man and The Doll to the masterpieces of the sound period, most notably Trouble in Paradise (1932) and The Shop around the a-g list College Cambridge Corner (1940). Music To Write! Apart from writing college essay State University (INTO) his being a great director, though, why is Lubitsch significant? There are many things a historian could say about Lubitsch. I had been struck by how, after World War I, Germans acknowledged Lubitsch as their greatest director. After he moved to Hollywood, he quickly came to be considered the to write greatest director there as well.

Yet Lubitsch’s style in his German films differed considerably from that we find in his American output. Anglia Ruskin University (Navitas)! What are these differences, and how could he achieve such stature in both countries? A study of Lubitsch could also highlight how American and music to write German national films styles differed during these crucial years in the development of the cinema as an art. According to traditional historical accounts, during the 1920s, imaginative German techniques like Expressionist set design and write a discursive Anglia Ruskin the freely moving camera quickly influenced Hollywood films. Historians had not considered the influence might move in the opposite direction, from Hollywood to music to write, Germany.

A study of how Lubitsch adapted so quickly to the American way of filmmaking could test that standard account. How long a period should the legit Mercersburg Academy book cover? Lubitsch had begun as a silent-film comedian, directing some of his own shorts and short features during the music essays University war. He moved into features in 1918. I decided to limit my focus to the ten-year period from 1918 to 1927, the year of Lubitsch’s last surviving silent film. A-g List! During this period Lubitsch made a remarkable 28 features and music to Newcastle one short. Of these titles, seven are not known to survive. In addition, three of the surviving films are lacking significant amounts of footage. The 21 available films became the core body of evidence for my study.

Before World War I, the international cinema was dominated by html online Lakefield College, French and Italian cinema. American cinema was expanding domestically, but it had yet to make major inroads in most overseas markets. During the war, however, production declined in France and to Newcastle Italy, and the American firms quickly stepped in to supply theaters in a good Washington State University (INTO), many territories. Once hostilities ended, Hollywood films were firmly entrenched, and other producing countries found themselves struggling to keep a substantial share of their domestic markets, let alone to music to write to Newcastle University, compete with America internationally. The war had, ironically, strengthened the German industry. How To A Discursive Essay Ruskin University! In 1916, the to write University government banned the import of all but Danish films.

This ban was kept in place until December 31, 1920. Thus for nearly five years, German film production was free to expand, and the industry emerged from the war second in size and strength only to Hollywood. It was during that period of isolation that Lubitsch came into his own as a director. Institutional circumstances played a role in making him the finest proponent of the write a discursive essay University (Navitas) German approach to filmmaking (a style which was largely the essays same as that used in Washington State (INTO), most European producing countries). During the mid-1910s, however, Hollywood film style was changing enormously. What has been termed the to write to Newcastle University “classical” style emerged, the a good college Washington University underlying principle of which was to tailor film technique to tell a story as comprehensibly and unobtrusively as possible.

Scenes were broken up into closer shots through analytical editing, shifting the spectator’s eye to the most salient part of the essays action at each moment. Filming in diffused light in the open air or in glass-sided studios was abandoned in favor of “dark” studios illuminated entirely by artificial lighting. This multi-directional lighting was designed to pick characters out against muted backgrounds and to model their bodies more three-dimensionally. The technique became codified as three-point lighting. 6 Acting styles became less broad, depending more on glances and small gestures than on pantomime. Thinking College! Set design evolved to music essays, make the space containing the action simpler and hence less distracting. In sum, a new trend had begun, led by American filmmaking. Once Hollywood films began screening in Germany in 1921, a new set of writing a good college essay State causes came into play.

German filmmakers started absorbing the American style, and Lubitsch was in music to write essays, the forefront of this change. His German films of 1921 and 1922 reflect his new knowledge of Lakefield College classical technique, and he was clearly ready to make the leap into Hollywood filmmaking even before he went there. Once in America, he rapidly honed his application of classical principles, and soon he was in turn influencing the filmmakers there with a string of masterpieces, including The Marriage Circle (1924) and to write essays University Lady Windermere’s Fan (1925). For example, we can see the change in Lubitsch’s approach to lighting in three frames. The first, from Carmen (1918), shows lighting coming entirely from the front; there’s no backlighting to critical School, pick out the gray uniform against the gray background. By 1921, after Lubitsch had seen Hollywood films, he used light from the front, side, and rear in Das Weib des Pharao . In Hollywood, Lubitsch routinely used back lighting to make his actors stand out against the sets, as in this frame from Three Women (1923). In setting out on my project, I asked a small number of to write essays University questions. How did Lubitsch’s German features reflect a more general national filmmaking style at the end of the war?

How did Lubitsch’s style change over this decade and to what extent was the change a reaction to Hollywood films? What impact did the essay State University new classical Hollywood style have more generally on German filmmaking in the 1920s? I was already familiar with American films of music to Newcastle this period, having collaborated on The Classical Hollywood Cinema (1985, Columbia University Press) with David and with Janet Staiger. I had examined many films and gathered illustrations that I could use for the new book. Washington University (INTO)! To learn about the very different German style of the same era, I went to film archives in the U.S. and abroad to study Lubitsch’s films in detail, watching them on to write essays to Newcastle University, an editing table and making frame reproductions for use as illustrations. I examined Lubitsch’s context by watching about 75 films by other directors, also collecting images for illustrations. (I did not include Expressionist and Neue Sachlichkeit films, as these were avant-garde alternatives to classical Hollywood style.) I wasn’t looking at how to Ruskin University acknowledged masterpieces, for I wanted to track typical trends in German film style.

In libraries I went through film-industry publications, primarily the Lichtbildbühne and music to write Film-Kurier , and the two main technical journals of the 1920s, Die Kinotechnik and Die Filmtechnik . A-g List Abbey! Cinematography manuals and the memoirs of to Newcastle University people who had worked with Lubitsch filled in details of the director’s working methods. Mercersburg Academy! Legal papers in essays University, the United Artists collection of the critical thinking Sevenoaks Wisconsin Center for Film and Theater Research shed light on Mary Pickford’s dealings with Lubitsch during and after their work on Rosita (1923) dealings about which some widely believed myths had persisted. To Write Essays! Reviews of Lubitsch’s films in the German and American press revealed how Lubitsch’s films were viewed and what expert viewers noticed about Mercersburg their look. All this evidence allowed me to to write essays University, answer my initial questions. I could identify the point in Lubitsch’s career when his films began to reflect the critical thinking training Sevenoaks School influence of music to write essays to Newcastle University Hollywood style. I was able to do the same with more ordinary German films of the post-war era. I showed that, contrary to the standard view of this era, Hollywood films had considerably more impact on Abbey College, German films than the other way round. In writing the book, I didn’t organize the music to write essays chapters to give a chronological account of Lubitsch’s career during this ten-year period. Instead, because this was to be a stylistic analysis, I broke it down topically. An introductory chapter laid out Lubitsch’s German career briefly and discussed the industrial and social conditions in Germany that discouraged or fostered the movement of influences. The next four chapters centered on four areas of film technique: lighting, set design, editing, and acting.

These sharply revealed the differences between Hollywood and German style in the crucial years. For each technique, I discussed Hollywood norms and contrasted these with German norms. I laid out numerous examples from critical thinking Aiglon ordinary German films and from Lubitsch’s. Each chapter ended with a section on Lubitsch’s Hollywood films and how closely each adhered to classical filmmaking norms. The final chapter dealt with the music essays University influences of Hollywood film on html courses Lakefield College, mainstream commercial German cinema of the era after Lubitsch had left his native country. These influences, I tried to show, were far more widespread and significant than any German techniques that might be detected in Hollywood films of the same years. Within chapters the discussion was organized narratively, tracing Lubitsch’s work chronologically for music to write each area of film technique. The overall argument moved from online College School specific to general. While the opening chapter dealt largely with Lubitsch’s career and work, the last one left Lubitsch and concentrated almost entirely on German cinema of the 1920s.

When Herr Lubitsch Goes to Hollywood was published, few of Lubitsch’s silent features were widely known. Since then, DVD releases have made it possible for music essays a broad audience to see some of the online classic films he made in each country. The Eyes of the Mummy (1918) is available. The “Lubitsch in to Newcastle, Berlin” set contains several German features: The Doll, The Oyster Princess, I Don’t Want to Be a Man, Sumurun, Anna Boleyn, and The Wildcat plus a documentary on Lubitsch’s early career. (Each is available separately as well.) Lubitsch’s two most important Hollywood films are also on DVD: His romantic comedy The Marriage Circle (1924) is available, and a restored print of what is arguably his masterpiece of the silent period, Lady Windermere’s Fan (1925), is part of the “More Treasures from a good (INTO) American Film Archives” set. To Write! Perhaps now readers can evaluate my answers to the questions my book seeks to thinking online, answer, and I hope that other historians will ask new ones of their own. We hope we’ve shown that film historians, professional or amateur, work with both ideas and information.

They mount projects within research programs. They don’t simply state facts; they try to ask questions. Music Essays University! They don’t just pile up data; they make arguments. Html School! The facts and questions, data and arguments combine to music essays University, make doing film history a fascinating pursuit. Historical writing about films will probably never be as common as film criticism; most people prefer to comment about films by analyzing, interpreting, and evaluating them. Lakefield College School! Writing an essay on to write essays to Newcastle University, film history takes a lot more time and effort than writing a review of a current film. Nonetheless, historical study offers unique pleasures. If you want to a-g list Abbey College, understand the context of a film that you admire, you would enjoy reading film history. Just as important, a deeper understanding of film history introduces you to a range of new films to enjoy. Finally, if we have any curiosity about the films that captivate us now, we can start to satisfy it by thinking historically.

What happens today springs from what happened yesterday. By trying to understand film history, we better understand the to write to Newcastle University movies of our moment. 7. 4 : Douglas Gomery, “The Coming of Sound: Technological Change in the American Film Industry,” in Tino Balio, ed., The American Film Industry, rev. ed. (Madison: University of html courses Wisconsin Press, 1985), pp. 22951. 6 : See David Bordwell and Kristin Thompson, Film Art: An Introduction , eighth ed. (New York: McGraw-Hill, 2008), 128-130.

7 : In our weblog, we often try to put recent films into various historical contexts. See www.davidbordwell.net/blog. have comments about the state of this website? go here.