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media framing essay This review essay looks at how the media — particularly television news — shapes political attitudes and behavior. It examines the difference between episodic and thematic frames, the media's role as political agenda-setter, the question of establishment bias, the so-called objectivity ethic, the public's waning confidence in the press, the political consequences of news, and articles The Windsor School, a handful of write an application essay for college of Manitoba/ of Manitoba, other questions that all of articles for websites School, us — professional journalists and news consumers alike — need to think about and come to terms with in our increasingly news-obsessed and media-saturated culture. The piece was written in January 1993. In the writing essay MacDuffie ever-expanding body of media effects research, relatively little attention has been paid to how news is framed, and still less has been written on write articles for websites The Windsor, the political consequences of media frames. Purchase Essay The Knox School! A frame is the central organizing idea for making sense of relevant events and suggesting what is at issue.

News and write articles for websites The Windsor, information has no intrinsic value unless embedded in a meaningful context which organizes and lends it coherence. News stories can be understood as narratives, which include information and factual elements, to html courses online be sure, but also carry an implicit message. Articles For Websites! The medium, in the case of news coverage, is the ultimate message. As James Britton writes: Experience is kaleidoscopic: the experience of every moment is unique and unrepeatable. Writing Essay School! Until we can group items in it on the basis of their similarity we can set up no expectations, make no predictions: lacking these we can make nothing of the present moment. To identify frames, the informational content of news reports is less important than the articles for websites interpretive commentary that attends it. While this is true of write application essays St. John's-Ravenscourt School, journalism in general, it is especially evident in television news which is write School, replete with metaphors, catchphrases, and other symbolic devices that provide a shorthand way of suggesting the underlying storyline. These devices provide the rhetorical bridge by which discrete bits of information are given a context and relationship to writing MacDuffie one another. Shanto Iyengar, professor of political science and communication studies at UCLA, has pioneered the research in the framing effects of news coverage on public opinion and political choice.

He explains that viewers are sensitive to contextual cues when they reason about national affairs. Their explanations of issues like terrorism or poverty are critically dependent upon the particular reference points furnished in articles for websites School media presentations. The frames for a given story are seldom conscientiously chosen but represent instead the write essays effort of the journalist or sponsor to convey a story in a direct and meaningful way. As such, news frames are frequently drawn from, and reflective of, shared cultural narratives and write for websites The Windsor, myths and resonate with the larger social themes to which journalists tend to be acutely sensitive. In his book Is Anyone Responsible ?, Shanto Iyengar evaluates the framing effects of television news on political issues. Through a series of writing reflective essay, laboratory experiments (reports of which constitute the core of the book), he finds that the framing of issues by television news shapes the way the public understands the causes of and the solutions to write for websites The Windsor central political problems. Since electoral accountability is the foundation of representative democracy, the public must be able to how to an application University International of Manitoba - NAVITAS establish who is responsible for social problems, Iyengar argues.

Yet the news media systematically filter the issues and deflect blame from the The Windsor School establishment by framing the news as only a passing parade of specific events, a 'context of no context.' Television news is routinely reported in the form of specific events or particular cases — Iyengar calls this episodic news framing — as distinct from thematic coverage which places political issues and events in some general context. Episodic framing, he says, depicts concrete events that illustrate issues, while thematic framing presents collective or general evidence. Iyengar found that subjects shown episodic reports were less likely to consider society responsible for the event, and subjects shown thematic reports were less likely to consider individuals responsible. In one of the clearest demonstrations of this phenomenon, subjects who viewed stories about how to write application St. John's-Ravenscourt poverty that featured homeless or unemployed people (episodic framing) were much more likely to blame poverty on individual failings, such as laziness or low education, than were those who instead watched stories about high national rates of unemployment or poverty (thematic framing).

Viewers of the thematic frames were more likely to articles for websites attribute the causes and solutions to governmental policies and other factors beyond the victim's control. The preponderance of episodic frames in television news coverage provides a distorted portrayal of recurring issues as unrelated events, according to Iyengar. This prevents the public from cumulating the how to write application essays School evidence toward any logical, ultimate consequence. Write Articles! Moreover, the practice simplifies complex issues to the level of anecdotal evidence and Lakefield School, encourages reasoning by write for websites resemblance — people settle upon causes and treatments that 'fit' the observed problems. These assertions present a veritable challenge to standard journalistic procedure. Since the early part of this century when the ethic of objectivity began to argumentative essay The Knox dominate news reportage, journalists have used the individual frame to articles The Windsor dramatize a story. What Of Critical! The general presumption was that personalized news stories were not only more accessible and write articles for websites, newsworthy but that this form of muckraking spurred governmental and social service agencies to action by writing essay School arousing public support on write for websites School, behalf of the disadvantaged. Yet Iyengar suggests that the opposite is in fact the case.

He adds, however, that the effects of his experiments tend to vary widely, depending on the subject matter of the writing essay news. Shanto Iyengar looks at why we think what we do about politics in Is Anyone Responsible? But the theories and premises of his research are derived in large part from his 1987 book News That Matters (co-authored with Donald Kinder). In the book, he examines how we think about politics, suggesting that television determines what we believe to be important issues largely by paying attention to some problems and ignoring or paying minimal attention to others. Our evidence implies an American public with a limited memory for write for websites The Windsor School last month's news and a recurrent vulnerability to today's, Iyengar and Kinder write. When television news focuses on a problem, the html College public's priorities are altered, and articles for websites, altered again as television news moves on to something new. The idea of the media as agenda-setter was hardly new. In the late 1960s, Maxwell E. McCombs and Donald L. Shaw began studying the agenda-setting capacity of the news media in American presidential elections. They were especially interested in the question of information transmission — what people actually learn from news stories, rather than attitudinal changes, the courses online College School subject of earlier research. Their research precipitated a stream of empirical studies that underscored the media's critical role as vehicles of political information.

In their 1977 book, The Emergence of American Political Issues, McCombs and Shaw argued that the most important effect of the mass media was its ability to mentally order and organize our world for us. The news media may not be successful in telling us what to think, the authors declared, but they are stunningly successful in telling us what to think about. McCombs and Shaw also note that the media's tendency to structure voters' perceptions of political reality in effect constitutes a bias: to a considerable degree the articles for websites art of essay for college of Manitoba/ International College - NAVITAS, politics in a democracy is the School art of determining which issue dimensions are of major interest to reflective essay School the public or can be made salient in order to win public support. The presidential observer Theodore White arrived at the same conclusion in his landmark book, The Making of a President : The power of the press in write for websites The Windsor America is a primordial one. It sets the agenda of public discussion; and this sweeping political power is unrestrained by writing essay School any law.

It determines what people will talk and think about write The Windsor School — an purchase School, authority that in other nations is reserved for write articles for websites The Windsor tyrants, priests, parties and mandarins. Iyengar's contention that the media, through episodic news framing, deflect accountability from elected officials, and that their coverage in fact propagates the status quo is widely substantiated by courses other scholars. In an insightful piece in the May/June 1991 issue of the Columbia Journalism Review , James Boylan reflects on voter alienation and the challenge it poses to the press. He writes that information, the articles for websites raw material of html Lakefield College School, news, usually turns out to be the peculiar property of those in power and their attendant experts and publicists. The conclusion he draws from this is that political reporting, like other reporting, is defined largely by its sources. President Johnson once quipped that Reporters are puppets. They simply respond to the pull of the most powerful strings.

The point echoes Walter Lippmann's classic analysis of the press, Public Opinion , in The Windsor which he raised difficult questions about adequacy and the purity of media information. If the information we are getting is tainted, he asked, are we capable of performing our duty as democratic citizens? The press . is too frail to carry the whole burden of popular sovereignty, to supply spontaneously the truth which democrats hoped was inborn. And when we expect it to supply such a body of truth we employ a misleading standard of judgment. We misunderstand the limited nature of news. In their oft-quoted book Media Power Politcs (1981), David Paletz and Robert Entman argue that by granting elites substantial control over the content, emphases, and flow of public opinion, media practices diminish the public's power. What this means, they concluded, was that the mass media are often the unwitting handmaidens of the powerful. This same conclusion is drawn by New York University's Robert Karl Manoff in the March/April 1987 issue of Center Magazine . He maintains that one of the major problems of today's journalism is that the courses online press is allied with the state. The press, he writes, is actually a handmaiden of power and American politics. It reports governmental conflict only when conflict exists within the state itself.

Journalists and officials share a managerial ethos in articles for websites The Windsor School which both agree that national security, for what School instance, is best handled without the public's knowledge. Arthur J. Heise, associate professor at Florida International University in Miami, sees the role of the articles for websites media as a public management function, one he sees as essential to a healthy democracy. Of Critical Strathallan School! The erosion of public confidence in government can be at least partially attributed to the media's failure in its role as a free and independent press . . . to live up to its constitutional responsibilities. Many in the news media could agree, at least in large measure, that they are not covering the affairs of the state as fully, as penetratingly and as aggressively as they might. The problem may have less to do with the type or the quantity of coverage than with the fact that most of the time most of the media rely on articles School, information not ferreted out by investigative reporters but provided by pay to essay College government.

This reliance on officially-provided information is write articles for websites The Windsor School, such that journalists as prominent as Tom Wicker of the New York Times have described it as the biggest weakness of the American press In a provocative article titled All the Congressmen's Men, the late Walter Karp, author of Liberty Under Siege: American Politics, 1976-1988 , observed that the press does not act, it is acted upon. So passive is the press that even seemingly bold 'adversarial' stories often have the sanction of the highest officials. He quotes from a wealth of sources and presents ample evidence suggesting that the write essay vaunted power of the press is no more than a shabby fiction, and the political powers have in effect subjugated and distorted the write articles for websites School media. Our public realm lies steeped in twilight, he charges, and we call that twilight news. Karp, Heise, and pay to Strathallan, Iyengar and Kinder all cite a landmark study conducted by media critic Leon V. Sigal who analyzed nearly 3,000 news stories that appeared in New York Times and for websites School, Washington Post between 1949 and how to write essay University of Manitoba/ of Manitoba - NAVITAS, 1969. He found that nearly four out of five of the stories involved official sources. The significance of media sources becomes immediately apparent in the context of media framing.

As Iyengar writes in the September 1987 issue of write articles for websites School, American Political Science Review , the invoking of different reference points triggers completely different strategies of choice or judgment. Choices between risky prospects can be profoundly altered merely by altering the description of the alternatives. Framing the prospects in terms of possible losses, for example, induces risk-seeking behavior while describing the identical prospects in what six stages of critical thinking Strathallan School terms of potential gains makes people risk averse. Objectivity has been the ruling principle in American journalism for the better part of the 20th century. Write Articles For Websites School! The ethic emerged as a reaction to purchase School the sensationalism that pervaded the news industry a century ago. The objectivity standard called for more discipline on the part of reporters and editors because it required that each item be attributed to write articles for websites The Windsor some authority or credible source. Objectivity increased the quantity of literal facts in the news, and it did much to strengthen the growing sense of discipline and ethics in journalism. (The ethic of objectivity is not to be mistaken for how to write an application for college of Manitoba/ International College the fairness doctrine, however, which demands the presentation of opposing and/or balanced viewpoints.) Yet a growing number of pieces have been written in recent years suggesting that the ideal of objectivity has, in the words of Ben Bagdikian, exacted a high cost from journalism and from public policy.

Social historian Michael Schudson points out that objectivity became a standard in articles for websites The Windsor journalism precisely when the impossibility of overcoming subjectivity in presenting the news was widely accepted and essay College, . precisely because subjectivity had come to be regarded as inevitable. In a persuasive 1984 essay in for websites School The Quill , Theodore Glasser, professor of journalism at the University of Minnesota, made the point that objectivity precludes responsibility. First . objectivity in journalism is biased in favor of the status quo; it is inherently conservative to the extent that it encourages reporters to rely on what sociologist Alvin Gouldner so appropriately describes as the managers of the status quo — the prominent and the elite. Second, objective reporting is biased against independent thinking; it emasculates the intellect by treating it as a disinterested spectator. Pay To Write Hillfield! Finally, objective reporting is biased against the very idea of responsibility; the day's news is viewed as something journalists are compelled to report, not something they are responsible for creating. . . . What objectivity has brought about, in short, is a disregard for the consequences of newsmaking. The Joan Shorenstein Center on the Press, Politics and for websites The Windsor, Public Policy at Harvard University recently published a report titled Restoring the Bond: Connecting Campaign Coverage to Voters. One of the lessons learned from the 1988 presidential campaign, the report finds, is that journalists have contributed to the alienation and anger among voters. How To Write An Application University International College Of Manitoba! If a single overriding theme emerges from this work, it is School, a concern that campaigns have become distant from the concerns of voters, that a 'disconnect' has developed between the electorate and their prospective leaders — and that journalism, rather than bridging the gap, has helped create and sustain it. The Center's report also criticized the essay The Knox prevailing insider approach to campaign coverage; the media's focus on political strategy and advertising over substance; and write articles for websites School, the tendency for the production demands of television to determine the International way candidates and issues are presented and The Windsor School, discussed during presidential campaigns. How To Write School! In practice, the articles School report concludes, this means that the public is losing its grip on the democratic process.

According to the arguments set forth by Shanto Iyengar, the breakdown of public confidence in media reportage is School, a result of the way campaigns are framed. Nowhere is the debilitating influence of episodic framing on political accountability more apparent than in presidential election campaigns . . . Write For Websites! [which] guarantee that coverage of the issues and the candidates' policy proposals will receive minimal attention. There has been an effort, at least on the part of some journalists, to be more issue-specific during the 1992 campaigns, as witnessed by a wealth of articles and debates about how to improve public discourse. Everette Dennis, executive director of the Gannet Center for Media Studies at writing reflective MacDuffie School, Columbia University, suggests in The Windsor School his book Reshaping the Media that reporting standards are moving toward more analysis and thematic coverage: There is an application for college College of Manitoba, more context today as we see coverage of national trends.

We are also witnessing better efforts to connect fragments of news into patterns of continuity. This is the opposite of what Lord Tennyson described when he warned about fragments of singular instance. Public affairs reporting in write The Windsor School newspapers and in broadcasting is more conscious of time and of protracted governmental decisions. It now traces the long evolutionary flow in the decisions of government that do not often lend themselves to html courses online immediacy and the quick news fix, but need continuity and follow-up. POLITICAL CONSEQUENCES OF THE NEWS MEDIA.

Ultimately, however, there has been very little written about the political consequences of media reporting. The failure to see journalism as a democratic means rather than an The Windsor School, end unto itself is perhaps symptomatic of the gulf between the press and the public. Surveying the available research on the political effects of mass media, Paul Burstein at the University of Washington points out that politics is only important insofar as political actions have important consequences. Sociologists must know this, at some level, but when studying politics they assidiously avoid focusing on consequences. Politics is routinely taken to mean campaigns, elections, and html courses online, the affairs of write articles The Windsor School, big government. Are The Six Stages Thinking Strathallan School! Exceedingly few sources refer to the media's role in facilitating public politics. If democracy requires more of us than the act of casting a vote, the media scarcely reflect that notion. As Christopher Lasch puts it:

What democracy requires is public debate, not information. For Websites The Windsor School! . Essay! . Write! . Unless information is generated by sustained public debate, most of it will be irrelevant at writing reflective essay School, best, misleading and manipulative at worst. . . . Much of the press, in its eagerness to inform the public, has become a conduit for the equivalent of junk mail. But critics of this claim, such as Paul Light, associate dean of the Humphrey Institute of Public Affairs at the University of Minnesota, maintain, that it is up to School the citizens to determine the agenda. The problem, of pay to write essay Hillfield College, course, is on the consumer side of the write ledger. Having more analysis, and the financial protection that might go with it, is hardly useful if voters choose to watch Geraldo, Oprah, Maury, Phil and writing, Sally instead. . . . Much as we focus on the supply side of the equation, the write The Windsor School problem with American politics appears to reside on the demand side, whether voters either want the information we elites value or not. Even when the media does offer substance and analysis, it may still not offer citizens a basis for how to write application essays St. John's-Ravenscourt choice or action. Acting together requires dialogue,and that is something the news media rarely if ever provide or engender. As passive recipients of information, we are simply an for websites School, audience to what Bill Moyers has called the monologue of televisual images. In Images of Education , media critic George Kaplan sums up the an application of Manitoba - NAVITAS problem: Many of today's serious documentaries are thoughtful presentations that leave us informed and healthily curious. They refute the stereotyped contention that television has helped make us a less reflective people with shorter attention spans. As a general proposition, though, they do not impose moral and intellectual choices on write for websites School, us.

They usually leave us unmoved and unchallenged. In sum, journalists may take us seriously as news consumers but generally ignore our wider role as citizens. As a rule, they do not encourage communication, strengthen the public dialogue, or facilitate the formulation of how to write of Manitoba/ International of Manitoba, common decisions. In fact, they may do just the opposite by routinely framing news in objective and episodic formats. Write Articles For Websites The Windsor! And even when the function of html, journalism is considered to be education, in James Boylan's words, the public's role is still likely to be conceived as passive. Ben H. Bagdikian. The Media Monopoly . (Boston: Beacon Press, 1983) Barone Center on the Press, Politics and Public Policy report: Restoring the Bond: Connecting Campaign Coverage to Voters. November 1989 James Boylan.

Where Have all the People Gone? Columbia Journalism Review , May-June 1991. Everette E. Dennis. Reshaping the write The Windsor School Media . (Newbury Park, CA, 1990) Theodore Glasser. Objectivity Precludes Responsibility. The Quill , Feb. 1984. Shanto Iyengar.

Is Anyone Responsible? (Univ. of Chicago Press, 1991) Shanto Iyengar. Television News and Citizens' Explanations of National Issues. American Political Science Review , Sep. How To An Application Essay University Of Manitoba/ College! 1987. Shanto Iyengar Donald Kinder. News That Matters. (Univ. of Chicago Press, 1987) George Kaplan. Images of Education . (NSPRA/IEL, 1992) Walter Karp. All the Congressmen's Men. Harper's Magazine , Jul. 1989.

Christopher Lasch. Journalism, Publicity and the Lost Art of write articles for websites The Windsor, Argument. Gannet Center Journal , Spring 1990. Maxwell E. McCombs Donald L. Shaw. The Emergence of American Political Issues: The Agenda-Setting Function of the Press . (West Publishing Co., 1977) David L. Html Courses School! Paletz Robert M. Entman. Media Power Politics . (New York: Free Press, 1981) Michael Schudson. Discovering the News . (New York: Basic Books, 1978) This literature review was written in 1993 as part of a background study prepared for the Kettering Foundation. Copyright 2017 by write for websites The Windsor School Scott London.

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The theory contribution of case study research designs. The objective of this paper is to highlight similarities and differences across various case study designs and to analyze their respective contributions to theory. Although different designs reveal some common underlying characteristics, a comparison of such case study research designs demonstrates that case study research incorporates different scientific goals and collection and analysis of data. This paper relates this comparison to a more general debate of how different research designs contribute to a theory continuum. The fine-grained analysis demonstrates that case study designs fit differently to the pathway of the theory continuum. For Websites? The resulting contribution is a portfolio of case study research designs. Argumentative School? This portfolio demonstrates the heterogeneous contributions of case study designs. Based on this portfolio, theoretical contributions of case study designs can be better evaluated in terms of understanding, theory-building, theory development, and theory testing. I thank two anonymous reviewers for their constructive comments.

I am grateful for valuable thoughts generously provided by Ann Kristin Zobel. Case study research scientifically investigates into The Windsor, a real-life phenomenon in-depth and within its environmental context. Such a case can be an html courses online individual, a group, an organization, an event, a problem, or an write articles for websites The Windsor School anomaly (Burawoy 2009 ; Stake 2005 ; Yin 2014 ). Unlike in experiments, the contextual conditions are not delineated and/or controlled, but part of the investigation. Typical for case study research is non-random sampling; there is no sample that represents a larger population. Contrary to quantitative logic, the case is chosen, because the case is of interest (Stake 2005 ), or it is chosen for theoretical reasons (Eisenhardt and Graebner 2007 ). For within-case and across-case analyses, the emphasis in writing MacDuffie School data collection is on interviews, archives, and write articles The Windsor (participant) observation (Flick 2009 : 257; Mason 2002 : 84).

Case study researchers usually triangulate data as part of online College their data collection strategy, resulting in a detailed case description (Burns 2000 ; Dooley 2002 ; Eisenhardt 1989 ; Ridder 2016 ; Stake 2005 : 454). Potential advantages of a single case study are seen in write for websites The Windsor School the detailed description and reflective essay analysis to gain a better understanding of “how” and “why” things happen. In single case study research, the opportunity to open a black box arises by looking at deeper causes of the write articles The Windsor School phenomenon (Fiss 2009 ). The case data can lead to the identification of patterns and relationships, creating, extending, or testing a theory (Gomm et al. 2000 ). Potential advantages of multiple case study research are seen in cross-case analysis. A systematic comparison in cross-case analysis reveals similarities and differences and how they affect findings.

Each case is analyzed as a single case on its own to compare the mechanisms identified, leading to theoretical conclusions (Vaughan 1992 : 178). As a result, case study research has different objectives in terms of contributing to theory. On the one hand, case study research has its strength in what six stages thinking Strathallan creating theory by for websites, expanding constructs and relationships within distinct settings (e.g., in single case studies). On the other hand, case study research is pay to write Strathallan a means of advancing theories by comparing similarities and differences among cases (e.g., in multiple case studies). Unfortunately, such diverging objectives are often neglected in case study research. Burns ( 2000 : 459) emphasizes: “The case study has unfortunately been used as a ‘catch –all’ category for anything that does not fit into write The Windsor, experimental, survey, or historical methods.” Therefore, this paper compares case study research designs.

Such comparisons have been conducted previously regarding their philosophical assumptions and orientations, key elements of case study research, their range of application, and the lacks of methodological procedures in essay Hillfield Strathallan College publications. (Baxter and write The Windsor School Jack 2008 ; Dooley 2002 ; Dyer and Wilkins 1991 ; Piekkari et al. 2009 ; Welch et al. 2011 ). This paper aims to write application essays School, compare case study research designs regarding their contributions to theory. Case study research designs will be analyzed regarding their various strengths on a theory continuum. Edmondson and McManus ( 2007 ) initiated a debate on whether the stage of theory fits to research questions, style of data collection, and analyses. Similarly, Colquitt and Zapata-Phelan ( 2007 ) created a taxonomy capturing facets of for websites empirical article’s theoretical contributions by distinguishing between theory-building and The Knox theory testing. Write Articles The Windsor School? Corley and Gioia ( 2011 ) extended this debate by application School, focusing on the practicality of theory and the importance of prescience. Write Articles For Websites The Windsor School? While these papers consider the whole range of methodological approaches on a higher level, they treat case studies as relatively homogeneous.

This paper aims to delve into a deeper level of analysis by solely focusing on what six stages of critical School case study research designs and their respective fit on this theory continuum. The Windsor School? This approach offers a more fine-grained understanding that sheds light on the diversity of case study research designs in online College terms of their differential theory contributions. Such a deep level of analysis on write case study research designs enables more rigor in theory contribution. Strathallan College? To analyze alternative case study research designs regarding their contributions to theory, I engage into the following steps: First, differences between case study research designs are depicted. I outline and compare the case study research designs with regard to for websites The Windsor, the key elements, esp. differences in research questions, frameworks, sampling, data collection, and how to application essays St. John's-Ravenscourt data analysis. These differences result in a portfolio of various case study research designs. Second, I outline and substantiate a theory continuum that varies between theory-building, theory development, and testing theory. Based on this continuum, I analyze and discuss each of the write articles case study research designs with regard to their location on the theory continuum. Writing Essay MacDuffie? This analysis is based on a detailed differentiation of the phenomenon (inside or outside the theory), the status of the theory, research strategy, and methods.

As a result, the contribution to the literature is write a portfolio of case study research designs explicating their unique contributions to theory. The contribution of this paper lies in a fine-grained analysis of the interplay of methods and theory (van Maanen et al. 2007 ) and the methodological fit (Edmondson and McManus 2007 ) of argumentative essay School case study designs and the continuum of write for websites School theory. Strathallan College? It demonstrates that different designs have various strengths and that there is a fit between case study designs and different points on a theory continuum. If there is write articles The Windsor School no clarity as to whether a case study design aims at creating, elaborating, extending, or testing theory, the contribution to theory is difficult to identify for authors, reviewers, and readers. Consequently, this paper aims to clarify at which point of the continuum of theory case study research designs can provide distinct contributions that can be identified beyond their traditionally claimed exploratory character. 2 Differences across case study design: a portfolio approach.

Only few papers have compared case study research designs so far. In all of these comparisons, the number of designs differs as well as the issues under consideration. In an early debate between Dyer and essays St. John's-Ravenscourt Wilkins ( 1991 ) and Eisenhardt ( 1991 ), Dyer and Wilkins compared the articles case study research design by Eisenhardt ( 1989 ) with “classical” case studies. The core of the debate concerns a difference between in-depth single case studies (classical case study) to a focus on the comparison of multiple cases. Dyer and Wilkins ( 1991 : 614) claim that the essence of a case study lies in the careful study of a single case to identify new relationships and, as a result, question the Eisenhardt approach which puts a lot of are the six stages of critical Strathallan School emphasis on comparison of multiple cases. Eisenhardt, on the contrary, claims that multiple cases allow replication between cases and is, therefore, seen as a means of write for websites The Windsor School corroboration of propositions (Eisenhardt 1991 ). How To Write Application St. John's-Ravenscourt? Classical case studies prefer deep descriptions of School a single case, considering the write St. John's-Ravenscourt School context to reveal insights into the single case and by that elaborate new theories. The comparison of multiple cases, therefore, tends—in the opinion of Dyer and Wilkens—to surface descriptions. This weakens the possibility of context-related, rich descriptions. While, in classic case study, good stories are the aim, the development of good constructs and The Windsor School their relationships is aimed in Eisenhardt’s approach.

Eisenhardt ( 1991 : 627) makes a strong plea on more methodological rigor in case study research, while Dyer and Wilkins ( 1991 : 613) criticize that the new approach “… includes many of the attributes of hypothesis-testing research (e.g., sampling and online School controls).” Dooley ( 2002 : 346) briefly takes the case study research designs by Yin (1994) and Eisenhardt ( 1989 ) as exemplars of write articles for websites School how the processes of case study research can be applied. The approach by Eisenhardt is application essays St. John's-Ravenscourt seen as an exemplar that advances conceptualization and operationalization in write articles for websites The Windsor the phases of theory-building, while the approach by Yin is seen as exemplar that advances minimally conceptualized and operationalized existing theory. Baxter and Jack ( 2008 ) describe the designs by what are the of critical thinking Strathallan, Yin (2003) and Stake ( 1995 ) to demonstrate key elements of qualitative case study. The authors outline and write articles The Windsor School carefully compare the approaches by Yin and Stake in conducting the research process, neglecting philosophical differences and theoretical goals. Piekkari et al. ( 2009 ) outline the methodological richness of case study research using the approaches of Yin et al. (1998), and Stake. They specifically exhibit the role of philosophical assumptions, establishing differences in conventionally accepted practices of case study research in published papers.

The authors analyze 135 published case studies in four international business journals. The analysis reveals that, in essay MacDuffie contrast to write for websites The Windsor, the richness of case study approaches, the majority of published case studies draw on positivistic foundations and are narrowly declared as explorative with a lack of clarity of the theoretical purpose of the case study. Case studies are often designed as multiple case studies with cross-sectional designs based on interviews. In addition to pay to, the narrow use of The Windsor School case study research, the how to for college International - NAVITAS authors find out that “… most commonly cited methodological literature is write School not consistently followed” (Piekkari et al. 2009 : 567). Welch et al. ( 2011 ) develop a typology of theorizing modes in courses online College case study methods. Based on the two dimensions “contextualization” and write articles “causal explanation”, they differentiate in their typology between inductive theory-building (Eisenhardt), interpretive sensemaking (Stake), natural experiment (Yin), and what are the of critical Strathallan School contextualised explanation (Ragin/Bhaskar). The typology is used to analyze 199 case studies from three highly ranked journals over a 10-year period for whether the theorizing modes are exercised in the practice of publishing case studies. As a result, the write authors identify a strong emphasis on the exploratory function of case studies, neglecting the richness of online School case study methods to challenge, refine, verify, and test theories (Welch et al. Articles For Websites? 2011 : 755).

In addition, case study methods are not consistently related to theory contribution: “By scrutinising the linguistic elements of texts, we found that case researchers were not always clear and consistent in the way that they wrote up their theorising purpose and process” (Welch et al. Six Stages Of Critical? 2011 : 756). As a result, the comparisons reveal a range of case study designs which are rarely discussed. In contrast, published case studies are mainly introduced as exploratory design. The Windsor? Explanatory, interpretivist, and critical/reflexive designs are widely neglected, narrowing the possible applications of case study research.

In addition, comparisons containing an analysis of published case studies reveal a low degree in accuracy when applying case study methods. What is St. John's-Ravenscourt missing is a comparison of case study research designs with regard to write articles School, differences in the contribution to theory. Case study designs have different purposes in write essay Hillfield Strathallan College theory contribution. Confusing these potential contributions by inconsistently utilizing the appropriate methods weakens the contribution of case studies to articles for websites The Windsor, scientific progress and, by that, damages the reputation of case studies. To conduct such a comparison, I consider the four case study research approaches of Yin, Eisenhardt, Burawoy, and how to an application essay for college University International - NAVITAS Stake for the following reasons. These approaches are the main representatives of case study research design outlined in the comparisons elaborated above (Baxter and Jack 2008 ; Dooley 2002 ; Dyer and Wilkins 1991 ; Piekkari et al. 2009 ; Welch et al.

2011 ). I follow especially the articles School argument by Piekkari et al. Reflective Essay? ( 2009 ) that these approaches contain a broad spectrum of methodological foundations of exploratory, explanatory, interpretivist, and critical/reflexive designs. The chosen approaches have an explicit and detailed methodology which can be reconstructed and compared with regard to their theory contribution. Although there are variations in the application of the designs, to the best of my knowledge, the designs represent the spectrum of case study methodologies. A comparison of these methodologies revealed main distinguishable differences. To highlight these main differences, I summarized these differences into write articles for websites, labels of “no theory first”; “gaps and html online School holes”; “social construction of reality”; and “anomalies”. I did not consider descriptions of write articles for websites The Windsor School case study research in pay to write essay Hillfield College text books which focus more or less on write articles for websites The Windsor School general descriptions of the common characteristics of case studies, but do not emphasize differences in methodologies and theory contribution. In addition, I did not consider so-called “home grown” designs (Eisenhardt 1989 : 534) which lack a systematic and explicit demonstration of the methodology and where “… the hermeneutic process of inference—how all these interviews, archival records, and notes were assembled into a coherent whole, what was counted and what was discounted—remains usually hidden from the reader” (Fiss 2009 : 425).

Finally, although often cited in the methodological section of case studies, books are not considered which concentrate on data analysis in qualitative research per se (Miles et al. 2014 ; Corbin and Strauss 2015 ). Therefore, to analyze the contribution of case study research to the scientific development, it needs to compare explicit methodology. This comparison will be outlined in the following sections with regard to write of Manitoba/ International College, main methodological steps: the role of the case, the collection of data, and the analysis of write The Windsor School data. 2.1 Case study research design 1: no theory first. A popular template for building theory from case studies is a paper by Eisenhardt ( 1989 ). What Are The Strathallan? It follows a dramaturgy with a precise order of for websites single steps for constructing a case study and is one of the most cited papers in methods sections (Ravenswood 2011 ). This is impressive for two reasons. On the one hand, Eisenhardt herself has provided a broader spectrum of case study research designs in her own empirical papers, for example, by combining theory-building and theory elaboration (Bingham and Eisenhardt 2011 ). Writing MacDuffie? On the other hand, she “updated” her design in a paper with Graebner (Eisenhardt and Graebner 2007 ), particularly by articles for websites, extending the range of inductive theory-building. How To Essays School? These developments do not seem to be seriously considered by most authors, as differences and elaborations of articles for websites The Windsor this spectrum are rarely found in publications.

Therefore, in the following, I focus on the standards provided by Eisenhardt ( 1989 ) and Eisenhardt and Graebner ( 2007 ) as exemplary guidelines. Eisenhardt follows the ideal of ‘no theory first’ to capture the richness of write application St. John's-Ravenscourt School observations without being limited by write School, a theory. What Of Critical Thinking? The research question may stem from write articles The Windsor School a research gap meaning that the research question is of relevance. Tentative a priori constructs or variables guide the investigation, but no relationships between such constructs or variables are assumed so far: “Thus, investigators should formulate a research problem and possibly specify some potentially important variables, with some reference to how to write an application essay for college University of Manitoba/ - NAVITAS, extant literature. However, they should avoid thinking about specific relationships between variables and theories as much as possible, especially at the outset of the process” (Eisenhardt 1989 : 536). Cases are chosen for theoretical reasons: for the likelihood that the cases offer insights into the phenomenon of interest. Write Articles School? Theoretical sampling is deemed appropriate for illuminating and extending constructs and identifying relationships for the phenomenon under investigation (Eisenhardt and Graebner 2007 ). Cases are sampled if they provide an unusual phenomenon, replicate findings from other cases, use contrary replication, and eliminate alternative explanations.

With respect to essay Hillfield, data collection, qualitative data are the primary choice. Write Articles School? Data collection is based on triangulation, where interviews, documents, and observations are often combined. A combination of qualitative data and write essay for college of Manitoba/ International quantitative data is possible as well (Eisenhardt 1989 : 538). Data analysis is conducted via the write articles School search for within-case patterns and cross-case patterns. Systematic procedures are conducted to compare the emerging constructs and write application essays St. John's-Ravenscourt School relationships with the write articles for websites The Windsor data, eventually leading to new theory. A good exemplar for this design is the investigation of technology collaborations (Davis and Eisenhardt 2011 ). The purpose of this paper is to understand processes by which technology collaborations support innovations. Eight technology collaborations among ten firms were sampled for theoretical reasons. Qualitative and quantitative data were used from semi-structured interviews, public and private data, materials provided by informants, corporate intranets, and business publications. The data was measured, coded, and triangulated.

Writing case histories was a basis for within-case and pay to essay cross-case analysis. Iteration between cases and emerging theory and articles for websites The Windsor considering the what are the Strathallan relevant literature provided the basis for the development of a theoretical framework. Another example is the investigation of what is learned in organizational processes (Bingham and Eisenhardt 2011 ). This paper demonstrates that the case study design is not only used for theory-building, but can also be combined with theory elaboration. Based on the lenses of the organizational knowledge literature, organizational routines literature, and heuristics literature, six technology-based ventures were chosen for write articles The Windsor School theoretical reasons. Several data sources were used, especially quantitative and qualitative data from what are the six stages Strathallan School semi-structured interviews, archival data, observations, e-mails, phone calls, and follow-up interviews. Within-case analysis revealed what each firm has learned from process experience. Cross-case analysis revealed emerging patterns from which tentative constructs and propositions were formed.

In replication logic constructs and propositions were refined across the cases. When mirroring the findings with the literature, both the emergences of the constructs were compared and unexpected types were considered. The iteration of theory and data as well as the consideration of related research sharpened the theoretical arguments, eventually leading to a theoretical framework. “Thus, we combined theory elaboration (Lee 1999 ) and theory generation (Eisenhardt 1989 )” (Bingham and Eisenhardt 2011 : 1448). 2.2 Case study research design 2: gaps and holes. Contrary to “No Theory First”, case study research design can also aim at specifying gaps or holes in existing theory with the ultimate goal of advancing theoretical explanations (Ridder 2016 ). A well-known template for this case study research design is the book by articles for websites, Yin ( 2014 ). It is a method-orientated handbook of how to design single and multiple case studies with regard to purchase argumentative The Knox, this purpose. Write Articles The Windsor? Such a case study research design includes: “A ‘how’ and ‘why’ question” (Yin 2014 : 14). Courses Lakefield College School? Research questions can be identified and shaped using literature to write, narrow the interest in a specific topic, looking for key studies and identifying questions in these studies. According to Yin’s design, existing theory is the starting point of case study research. In addition, propositions or frameworks provide direction, reflect the theoretical perspective, and guide the search for relevant evidence. There are different rationales for reflective essay School choosing a single case design (Yin 2014 : 51). Purposeful sampling is articles for websites The Windsor conducted if an extreme case or an unusual case is chosen and if rarely observable phenomena can be investigated with regard to unknown matters and their relationships.

Common cases allow conclusions for a broader class of cases. Revelatory cases provide the opportunity to investigate into a previously inaccessible inquiry, and the longitudinal study enables one to investigate a single case at of Manitoba/ International College of Manitoba, several points in time. A rationale for multiple case designs has its strength in replication logic (Yin 2014 : 56). In the case of literal replication, cases are selected to predict similar results. In the case of theoretical replication, cases are selected to predict contrasting results but for theoretical reasons. Yin provides several tactics to write, increase the reliability (protocol; data base) of the write an application for college of Manitoba/ College of Manitoba study. Yin ( 2014 : 103) emphasizes that interviews are one of the most important sources of data collection but considers other sources of qualitative data as well. Articles? Data triangulation is designed to narrow problems of html courses Lakefield School construct validity, as multiple sources of data provide multiple measures of the same phenomenon.

Yin ( 2014 : 133) offers a number of data analysis strategies (e.g., case description; examining rival explanations) and analytic techniques which are apt to compare the proposed relationships with empirical patterns. Pattern-matching logic compares empirically based patterns with predicted patterns, enabling further data analysis techniques (explanation building, time series analysis, logic models, and cross-case synthesis). In analytical generalization, the theory is compared with the empirical results, leading to the modification or extension of the theory. An appropriate model for this case study design can be identified in a paper by Ellonen et al. ( 2009 ). Articles School? The paper is based on the emerging dynamic capability theory. The four cases were chosen for theoretical reasons to deliver an empirical contribution to pay to essay Strathallan, the dynamic capability theory by investigating the relationship of dynamic capabilities and innovation outcomes. The authors followed a literal replication strategy and identified patterns between dynamic capabilities of the firms and write articles for websites The Windsor their innovation outcomes. Shane ( 2000 ) is an author who developed specific propositions from a framework and examined the propositions in eight entrepreneurial cases. Using several sources of essay The Knox School interviews and archival data, the author compared the data with the propositions using the pattern-matching logic, which concluded in developing entrepreneurship theory.

2.3 Case study research design 3: social construction of reality. So far, the outlined case study research designs are based on positivist roots, but there is richness and variety in case study research stemming from different philosophical realms. The case study research design by Stake ( 1995 , 2000 , 2005 ), for example, is based on constructivist assumptions and aims to investigate the social construction of reality and meaning (Schwandt 1994 : 125). According to write articles, this philosophical assumption, there is no unique “real world” that preexists independently of writing reflective essay MacDuffie School human mental activity and symbolic language. Write Articles For Websites? The world is a product of socially and html courses online Lakefield College historically related interchanges amongst people (social construction). The access to reality is given through social constructions, such as language and write for websites The Windsor shared meanings: “The meaning-making activities themselves are of central interest to social constructionists/constructivists, simply because it is the meaning-making/sense making attributional activities that shape action or (inaction)” (Guba and Lincoln 2005 : 197). Therefore, the write an application for college University International College researcher is not looking for objective “facts”, nor does he aim at identifying and measuring patterns which can be generalized. Contrarily, the constructivist is articles for websites The Windsor School researching into specific actions, in specific places, at specific times. The scientist tries to what six stages of critical thinking Strathallan, understand the articles for websites construction and the sharing of meaning (Schwandt 1994 ). According to Stake ( 2005 ), the direction of the case study is shaped by the interest in the case.

In an intrinsic case study, the School case itself is of interest. The purpose is not theory-building but curiosity in the case itself. In an instrumental case study, the case itself is of secondary interest. It plays a supportive role, as it facilitates the understanding of a research issue. Articles For Websites The Windsor? The case can be typical of other cases. Multiple or collective case study research designs extend the instrumental case study. It is essay MacDuffie School assumed that a number of cases will increase the understanding and support theorizing by comparison of the write articles cases.

The differentiation by Stake ( 1995 , 2005 ) into intrinsic and instrumental cases guides the purposive sampling strategy. In intrinsic case studies, the case is, by definition, already selected. Purchase School? The researcher looks for specific characteristics, aiming for thick descriptions with the The Windsor School opportunity to learn. Representativeness or generalization is not considered. Purchase Argumentative? In instrumental case study design, purposive sampling leads to the phenomenon under investigation. In multiple case study designs, the ability to compare cases enhances the opportunity to theorize. A case study requires an integrated, holistic comprehension of the case complexity. According to Stake ( 2005 ), the write for websites The Windsor School case study is University College of Manitoba - NAVITAS constructed by qualitative data, such as observations, interviews, and documents. Triangulation first serves as clarification of meaning. Second, the researcher is interested in the diversity of for websites School perceptions.

Two methods of html courses online Lakefield School data analysis are considered in such qualitative case study design: direct interpretation and categorical aggregation (Stake 1995 : 74). The primary task of an intrinsic case study is to understand the case. This interpretation is offered to the reader, but the researcher has to provide the material in a sufficient way (thick descriptions), so that the reader can learn from the write The Windsor case as well as draw his or her own conclusions. Readers can thus make some generalizations based on personal and what six stages of critical Strathallan vicarious experiences (“naturalistic generalization”). In instrumental case studies, the understanding of phenomena and relationships leads to categorical aggregation, and the focus is on how the phenomenon exists across several cases. Greenwood and Suddaby ( 2006 ), for for websites School example, used the instrumental case study design by Stake, combining network location theory and dialectical theory.

They identified new dynamics creating a process model of elite institutional entrepreneurship. Ituma et al. ( 2011 ) highlighted the social construction of reality in for college University of Manitoba/ College their study of career success. The majority of career studies have been conducted in for websites The Windsor School Western countries and findings have been acknowledged as universally applicable. Hillfield Strathallan College? The authors demonstrated that realities of managers in write for websites The Windsor other areas are constructed differently. As a result of their study, they provided a contextually sensitive frame for the analysis of career outcomes. 2.4 Case study research design 4: anomalies. Identifying anomalies as a basis for further research is common in management and organization research (Gilbert and Christensen 2005 ). In case study research, the extended case study method is used for this case study research design (Ridder 2016 ). Following Burawoy ( 1991 , 1998 , 2009 ), the research question derives from curiosity. Researchers normally look at what is how to write application St. John's-Ravenscourt “interesting” and what is School “surprising” in a social situation that existing theory cannot explain. Initially, it is not important whether the expectations develop from some popular belief, stereotype, or from an application essays St. John's-Ravenscourt academic theory.

The extended case study research design is guided by anomalies that the previous theory was not able to explain through internal contradictions of theory, theoretical gaps, or silences. An anomaly does not reject theory, but rather demonstrates that the theory is incomplete. Write For Websites The Windsor? Theory is aimed to be improved by “… turning anomalies into exemplars” (Burawoy 1991 : 10). The theoretical sampling strategy in this case study research design stems from the essays St. John's-Ravenscourt School theoretical failure in confrontation with the site. According to the reflexive design, such cases do not favour individuals or isolated phenomena, but social situations in which a comparative strategy allows the tracing of differences across the cases to external forces. In the extended case study, the researcher deals with qualitative data, but also considers the broader complex social situation. The researcher engages into a dialogue with the respondents (Burawoy ( 1991 , 1998 , 2009 ). An interview is an intervention into the life of articles for websites a respondent. By means of mutual interaction it is possible to discover the social order under investigation. The observer has to unpack those situational experiences by means of participant observation and mutual interpretation. Write Essay Hillfield? This situational comprehension aims at understanding divergent “voices”, reflecting the variety of respondents’ understandings of the articles social situation. As in other sciences, these voices have to be aggregated.

This aggregation of multiple readings of six stages thinking Strathallan a single case is conducted by turning the aggregation into social processes: “The move from situation to process is accomplished differently in different reflexive methods, but it is write The Windsor always reliant on existing theory” (Burawoy 2009 : 41). Social processes are now traced to the external field as the what of critical thinking Strathallan conditions of the social processes. Consequently, this leads to the question concerning “… how those micro situations are shaped by wider structures” (Burawoy 1991 : 282). Write The Windsor? “Reflexive science insists, therefore, on argumentative essay School studying the everyday world from the The Windsor standpoint of its structuration, that is, by regarding it as simultaneously shaped by and shaping an external field of essay College forces” (Burawoy 2009 : 42). Such social fields cannot be held constant, which undermines the write School idea of replication. The external field is in continuous flux. Accordingly, social forces that influence the social processes are identified, shaping the phenomenon under investigation.

Extension of theory does not target representativeness as a relationship of sample and population. Generality in reflexive science is to reconstruct an existing theory: “We begin with our favorite theory but seek not confirmations but refutations that inspire us to deepen that theory. Instead of reflective essay MacDuffie discovering grounded theory, we elaborate existing theory. We do not worry about the uniqueness of our case, since we are not as interested in its representativeness as its contribution to articles for websites School, reconstructing theory. Our theoretical point of departure can range from the folk theory of writing School participants to any abstract law. We consider only that the scientist consider it worth developing” (Burawoy 2009 : 43). Such elaboration stems from the identification of anomalies and offers new predictions with regard to the theory. It is somewhat surprising that the extended case study design has been neglected in the management literature so far, and it appears that critical reflexive principles have to be resurrected as they have been in other disciplines (see the write articles The Windsor overview at Wadham and Warren 2014 ). Examples in the management and organization literature are rare.

Danneels ( 2011 ) used the extended case study design to extend the dynamic capabilities theory. Pay To Write College? In his famous Smith Corona case, Danneels shows how a company tried to change its resource base. Based on detailed data, the Smith Corona case provides insights into the resource alteration processes and how dynamic capabilities operate. Write For Websites The Windsor School? As a result, the paper fills a process gap in dynamic capability theory. Iterating between data collection and write an application essay for college University of Manitoba/ International College analysis, Danneels revealed resource cognition as an element not considered so far in write articles The Windsor dynamic capability theory. The use of the extended case study method is limited to the iteration of data and theory. First, there is “running exchange” (Burawoy 1991 : 10) between field notes and write application essays analysis. Second, there is iteration between analysis and existing theory. The Windsor School? Unlike Burawoy, who aims to reconstruct existing theory on the basis of “emergent anomalies” (Burawoy 1991 : 11) considering social processes and external forces, Danneels confronts the dynamic capabilities literature with the Smith Corona case to extend the theory of purchase argumentative essay School dynamic capabilities. 2.5 A comparison of articles School case study research processes. Portfolio of case study research design: differences in underlying elements.

Case study research designs. No theory first. Social construction of reality. A priori constructs, variables; No assumed relationships. Curiosity in the case;

Understanding of research issues. Qualitative data as the primary choice. Qualitative data as the primary choice. Dialogue of observer and participants; Emerging constructs and relationships.

Pattern-matching as a primary choice; Learning from the case; Reconstruction of theory. There is an html Lakefield extensive range between the different designs regarding the research processes. In “no theory first”, there is a broad and tentative research question with some preliminary variables at the outset. The research question may be modified during the study as well as the variables. This design avoids any propositions regarding relationships. On the contrary, the research question in articles for websites The Windsor “gaps and what six stages thinking School holes” is strongly related to existing theory, focusing on “how and why” questions.

The existing theory contains research gaps which, once identified within the existing theory, lead accordingly to assumed relationships which are the basis for framework and propositions to be matched by empirical data. This broad difference is even more elaborated by a design that aims the “social construction of reality”. There is write for websites no research question at the outset, but a curiosity in the case or the case is a facilitator to Hillfield College, understand a research issue. This is far away from curiosity in the “anomaly approach”. Here, the research question is inspired by questioning why an anomaly cannot be explained by the existing theory. Articles For Websites The Windsor? What kind of gaps, silences, or internal contradictions demonstrates the insufficiency of the existing theory?

Various sampling strategies are used across these case study research designs, including theoretical sampling and purposeful sampling, which serve different objectives. Theoretical sampling in online Lakefield College “no theory first” aims at selecting a case or cases that are appropriate to highlight new or extend preliminary constructs and reveal new relationships. There is a distinct difference from theoretical sampling in for websites The Windsor School the “anomalies” approach. Such a sampling strategy aims to choose a case that is a demonstration of the failure of the theory. In “gaps and holes” sampling is highly focused on the purpose of the case study. Extreme and unusual cases have other purposes compared to common cases or revelatory cases. A single case may be chosen to investigate deeply into new phenomena. A multiple case study may serve a replication logic by which the findings have relevance beyond the cases under investigation. In “social construction of reality”, the sampling is what thinking Strathallan School purposeful as well, but for different reasons.

Either the case is of interest per se or the case represents a good opportunity to understand a theoretical issue. Although qualitative data are preferred in all of the designs, quantitative data are seen as a possible opportunity to strengthen cases by such data. Nevertheless, in “social construction of reality”, there is a strong emphasis on thick descriptions and a holistic understanding of the case. This is in contrast to a more construct- and variable- oriented collection of data in “no theory first” and “gaps and holes”. In addition, in contrast to that, the “anomaly” approach is the The Windsor School only design that receives data from dialogue between observer and participants and participant observation. Finally, data analysis lies within a wide range.

In “no theory first”, the research process is finalized by inspecting the emerging constructs within the how to write essay for college College - NAVITAS case or across cases. Based on a priory constructs, systematic comparisons reveal patterns and relationships resulting in articles The Windsor a tentative theory. On the contrary, in “gaps and holes”, a tentative theory exists. How To Write An Application Essay For College Of Manitoba/ Of Manitoba? The final analysis concentrates on the matching of the for websites The Windsor framework or propositions with patterns from the data. While both of argumentative essay The Knox these approaches condense data, the approach of “social construction of reality” ends the research process with thick descriptions of the case to learn from the case or with categorical comparisons. In the “anomaly” approach, the data analysis is aggregation of articles The Windsor School data, but these aggregated data are related to its external field and their pressures and influences by structuration to reconstruct the theory. As a result, it is unlikely that the specified case study designs contribute to what six stages of critical Strathallan School, theory in write The Windsor School a homogeneous manner.

This result will be discussed in light of the what six stages thinking question regarding how these case study designs can inform theory at several points of a continuum of theory. Write Articles The Windsor? This analysis will be outlined in the following sections. In a first step, I review the main elements of a theory continuum. In a second step, I discuss the respective contribution of the previously identified case study research designs to the theory continuum. What a theory is and what a theory is not is a classic debate (Sutton and Staw 1995 ; Weick 1995 ). Often, theories are described in terms of understanding relationships between phenomena which have not been or were not well understood before (Chiles 2003 ; Edmondson and McManus 2007 ; Shah and College Corley 2006 ), but there is no overall acceptance as to what constitutes a theory. Theory can be seen as a final product or as a continuum, and there is an ongoing effort to define different stages of this continuum (Andersen and Kragh 2010 ; Colquitt and Zapata-Phelan 2007 ; Edmondson and McManus 2007 ; Snow 2004 ; Swedberg 2012 ). In the following section, basic elements of the write articles The Windsor School theory and the construction of the theory continuum are outlined. “It is a collection of assertions, both verbal and symbolic, that identifies what variables are important for what reasons, specifies how they are interrelated and argumentative why, and identifies the conditions under which they should be related or not related” (Campbell 1990 : 65).

“… a system of constructs and variables in which the constructs are related to each other by propositions and the variables are related to each other by hypotheses” (Bacharach 1989 : 498). “Theory is about the connections among phenomena, a story about why acts, events, structure, and thoughts occur. Theory emphasizes the nature of write articles for websites School causal relationships, identifying what comes first as well as the timing of argumentative School such events” (Sutton and Staw 1995 : 378). “… theory is a statement of concepts and their interrelationships that shows how and/or why a phenomenon occurs” (Corley and Gioia 2011 : 12). The terms “constructs” and write for websites “concepts” are either used interchangeably or with different meanings. Positivists use “constructs” as a lens for the observation of a phenomenon (Suddaby 2010 ). Such constructs have to be operationalized and measured. Non-positivists often use the term “concept” as a more value neutral term in place of the term construct (Gioia et al. 2013 ; Suddaby 2010 : 354). Non-positivists aim at developing concepts on the basis of data that contain richness and complexity of the observed phenomenon instead of narrow definitions and operationalizations of constructs.

Gioia et al. ( 2013 : 16) clarify the demarcation line between constructs and concepts as follows: “By ‘concept,’ we mean a more general, less well-specified notion capturing qualities that describe or explain a phenomenon of theoretical interest. Put simply, in our way of thinking, concepts are precursors to constructs in making sense of organizational worlds—whether as practitioners living in essay MacDuffie those worlds, researchers trying to investigate them, or theorists working to write articles for websites, model them”. In sum, theories are a systematic combination of components and their relationships within boundaries. The use of the terms constructs and concepts is related to different philosophical assumptions reflected in different types of case study designs. Weick ( 1995 ) makes an important point that theory is more a continuum than a product. In his view, theorizing is a process containing assumptions, accepted principles, and rules of procedures to explain or predict the behavior of a specified set of phenomena.

In similar vein, Gilbert and Christensen ( 2005 ) demonstrate the process character of theory. In their view, a first step of argumentative theory building is a careful description of the phenomena. Having already observed and described the phenomena, researchers then classify the phenomena into similar categories. In this phase a framework defines categories and write The Windsor School relationships amongst phenomena. In the third phase, researchers build theories to understand (causal) relationships, and in how to write application essays St. John's-Ravenscourt School this phase, a model or theory asserts what factors drive the phenomena and under what circumstances. The categorization scheme enables the researchers to predict what they will observe. The “test” offers a confirmation under which circumstances the theory is useful. The early drafts of a theory may be vague in terms of the number and adequateness of for websites School factors and their relationships. At the end of the continuum, there may be more precise variables and predicted relationships. These theories have to how to an application University International College of Manitoba - NAVITAS, be extended by boundaries considering time and The Windsor School space. Across that continuum, different research strategies have various strengths.

Several classifications in writing reflective essay MacDuffie School the literature intend to match research strategies to the different phases of a theory continuum (Andersen and Kragh 2010 ; Colquitt and Zapata-Phelan 2007 ; Edmondson and McManus 2007 ; Snow 2004 ; Swedberg 2012 ). These classifications, although there are differences in terms, comprise three phases with distinguishable characteristics. Here, the careful description of the write articles for websites The Windsor phenomena is the starting point of theorizing. Argumentative Essay The Knox School? For example, Snow ( 2004 ) puts this phase as theory discovery, where analytic understandings are generated by means of detailed examination of data. Edmondson and McManus ( 2007 ) state the starting phase of a theory as nascent theory providing answers to The Windsor, new questions revealing new connections among phenomena. Therefore, research questions are open and researchers avoid hypotheses predicting relationships between variables. Swedberg ( 2012 ) highlights the Hillfield necessity of observation and articles The Windsor School extensive involvement with the pay to write essay College phenomenon at the early stage of theory-building. It is an write for websites The Windsor School attempt to understand something of writing reflective essay MacDuffie School interest by observing and interpreting social facts.

Creativity and inspiration are necessary conditions to put observations into concepts and outline a tentative theory. This tentative theory exists in the second phase of the write articles for websites School continuum and write essay Hillfield College has to be developed. Several possibilities exist. In theory extension, the preexisting constructs are extended to other groups or other contexts. In theoretical refinement, a modification of existing theoretical perspectives is conducted (Edmondson and McManus ( 2007 ). New antecedents, moderators, mediators, and outcomes are investigated, enhancing the explanation power of the for websites The Windsor School tentative theory. Constructs and relationships are well developed to a mature state; measures are precise and operationalized. Such theories are empirically tested with elaborate methods, and research questions are more precise. In the what of critical thinking School quantitative realm, testing of hypotheses is conducted and statistical analysis is the usual methodological foundation. Recently, researchers criticize that testing theories has become the major focus of scientists today (Delbridge and Fiss 2013 ); testing theories does not only happen to mature theory but to intermediate theory as well.

The boundary between theory development and theory testing is not always so clear. While theory development is adding new components to a theory and elaborating the measures, testing a theory implies precise measures, variables, and predicted relationships considering time and write space (Gilbert and Christensen ( 2005 ). It will be of interest whether case studies are eligible to test theories as well. To summarize: there is a conversation as to write application essays St. John's-Ravenscourt School, where on a continuum of theory development, various methods are required to target different contributions to theory (methodological fit). In this discussion, case study research designs have been discussed as a homogeneous set that mostly contributes to theory-building in an exploratory manner. Hence, what is missing is a more differentiated analysis of how case study methodology fits into this conversation, particularly how case study research methodologically fits theory development and theory testing beyond its widely assumed explorative role. In the articles for websites The Windsor School following section, the above types of case study research designs will be discussed with regard to their positions across the how to write application theory continuum. This distinction adds to write, existing literature by demonstrating that case study research does not only contribute to theory-building, but also to the development of tentative theories and to the testing of theories. Essay MacDuffie School? This distinction leads to the next question: is there any interplay between case study research designs and their contributions to the theory continuum?

This paper aims at reconciling this interplay with regard to case study design by mirroring phases of a theory continuum with specific types of case study research designs as outlined above. The importance of the interplay between theory and method lies in the capacity to generate and shape theory, while theory can generate and shape method. “In this long march, theory and method surely matter, for they are the tools with which we build both our representations and understandings of organizational life and our reputations” (van Maanen et al. 2007 : 1145). Articles For Websites The Windsor School? Theory is not the St. John's-Ravenscourt same as methods, but a relationship of write for websites The Windsor this interplay can broaden or restrict both parts of the equation (Swedberg 2012 : 7). In the following, I discuss how the above-delineated case study research designs unfold their capacities and contribute differently to the theory continuum to build, develop, and test theory. 4 Discussion of the contribution of online Lakefield College School case study research to a theory continuum.

Specific contributions of write articles School case study designs to how to write an application essay of Manitoba/ of Manitoba - NAVITAS, the theory continuum. Social construction of reality (intrinsic) No theory first. New or interesting phenomenon; trends; outside theory. New or interesting phenomenon; outside theory. Phenomenon is partially understood; inside theory.

Phenomenon is understood; inside theory. Phenomenon is understood; inside theory. Status of theory. Observation and description of a case; understanding by researcher and reader. Constructivist ( instrumental ) description, aggregation, and interpretation. Positivist developing new constructs and new relationships out of real-life cases by replication logic.

Pattern-matching; literal replication; analytical generalization; search for mechanisms. Contradicting established theory with critical case; confronting tentative theories with theoretical replications; discarding rival explanations. Identifying anomalies as failures of existing theory; reconstructing theory, related to historical sources, societal circumstances, external forces. New constructs and relationships are revealed out of case descriptions; interviews; documents, and observations. Existing theoretical-based constructs and relationships (propositions) are confronted with case descriptions; interviews; documents, and observations. Case descriptions; interviews; documents, and observations are confronted with established theory; tentative theories are confronted with new cases. Observation, Interviews, dialogue of articles The Windsor observer and participants. Location on the theory continuum.

In the following, I outline how these specific contributions of case study designs provide better opportunities to enhance the rigor of building theory, developing theory, testing, and reconstructing theory. In building theory, the phenomenon is new or not understood so far. There is no theory which explains the phenomenon. At the very beginning of the theory continuum, there is curiosity in the phenomenon itself. I focus on the intrinsic case study design which is located in the social construction of reality approach on writing the very early phase of the theory continuum, as intrinsic case study research design is not theory-building per se but curiosity in the case itself.

It is write for websites The Windsor not the purpose of the intrinsic case study to how to write application essays St. John's-Ravenscourt School, identify abstract concepts and articles The Windsor relationships; the essay specific research strategy lies in write for websites The Windsor the observation and write application essays St. John's-Ravenscourt description of a case and the primary method is observation, enabling understanding from personal and vicarious experience. This meets long lasting complaints concerning the lack of (new) theory in management and articles for websites organization research and signals that the gap between research and management practice is growing. How To Write University? It is write articles The Windsor School argued that the complexity of the reality is not adequately captured (Suddaby et al. 2011 ). It is claimed that management and organization research systematically neglect the dialogue with practice and, as a result, miss new trends or recognize important trends with delay (Corley and Gioia 2011 ). The specific case study research design’s contribution to theory is in building concrete, context-dependent knowledge with regard to the identification of new phenomena and trends. Openness with regard to the new phenomena, avoiding theoretical preconceptions but building insights out of data, enables the elaboration of meanings and the construction of realities in intrinsic case studies.

Intrinsic case studies will enhance the understanding by researcher and reader concerning new phenomena. The “No Theory First” case study research design is a classic and how to write application St. John's-Ravenscourt School often cited candidate for building theory. As the phenomenon is articles for websites The Windsor School new and in the absence of a theory, qualitative data are inspected for aggregation and interpretation. In instrumental case study design, a number of cases will increase the understanding and support building theories by application School, description, aggregation, and interpretation (Stake 2000 ). Write Articles? New themes and concepts are revealed by are the School, case descriptions, interviews, documents, and observations, and the analysis of the for websites data enables the specific contribution of the case study design through a constructivist perspective in theory-building. Although the design by how to, Eisenhardt ( 1989 ) stems from other philosophical assumptions and there are variations and articles for websites The Windsor School developments in this design, there is still an overwhelming tendency to argumentative essay School, quote and to write articles, stick to html School, her research strategy which aims developing new constructs and new relationships out of real-life cases. Data are collected mainly by interviews, documents, and observations. From within-site analysis and cross-case analysis, themes, concepts, and articles for websites relationships emerge. Shaping hypotheses comprises: “… refining the definition of the construct and (…) building evidence which measures the construct in each case” (Eisenhardt 1989 : 541). Having identified the emerged constructs, the emergent relationships between constructs are verified in each case.

The underlying logic is validation by replication. Cases are treated as experiments in write application School which the hypotheses are replicated case by case. Write Articles For Websites School? In replication logic cases that confirm the emergent relationships enhance confidence in the validity of the relationships. Disconfirmation of the how to essay University of Manitoba/ - NAVITAS relationships leads to refinement of the write The Windsor theory. This is similar to Yin’s replication logic, but targets the precision and measurement of constructs and the emerging relationships with regard to how to application St. John's-Ravenscourt School, the emerging theory. The building of a theory concludes in an understanding of the dynamics underlying the relationship; the primary theoretical reasons for why the relationships exist (Huy 2012 ). Finally, a visual theory with “boxes and arrows” (Eisenhardt and Graebner 2007 ) may visually demonstrate the emerged theory. The theory-building process is finalized by iterating case data, emerging theory, and extant literature. The “No Theory First” and “Social Construction of articles School Reality” case study research designs, although they represent different philosophical assumptions, adequately fit the theory-building phase concerning new phenomena.

The main contribution of case study designs in this phase of the theory continuum lies in how to an application essay for college University of Manitoba/ International the generation of School tentative theories. Case studies at this point of the theory continuum, therefore, have to courses Lakefield, demonstrate: why the phenomenon is new or of interest; that no previous theory that explains the phenomenon exists; how and why detailed descriptions enhance the understanding of the phenomenon; and how and write articles for websites The Windsor School why new concepts (constructs) and new relationships will enhance our understanding of the phenomenon. As a result, it has to be demonstrated that the research strategy is in sync with an investigation of a new phenomenon, building a tentative theory. In the “Gaps and Holes” case study research design, the phenomenon is partially understood. There is a tentative theory and the research strategy is theory driven. Compared to the theory-building phase, the existence and writing reflective School not the development of propositions differentiate this design along the continuum. The prediction comes first, out of an existing theory. The research strategy and the data have to be confronted by pattern-matching.

Pattern-matching is for websites The Windsor School a means to compare the theoretically based predictions with the data in the site: “For case study analysis, one of the most preferred techniques is to use a pattern-matching logic. Such a logic (…) compares an empirically based pattern–that is, one based on the findings from your case study–with a predicted one made before you collected your data (….)” (Yin 2014 : 143). The comparison of how to write an application - NAVITAS propositions and the rich case material is the ground for new elements or relationships within the tentative theory. Such findings aim to enhance the School scientific usefulness of the theory (Corley and Gioia 2011 ). To enhance the validity of the new elements or relationships of the tentative theory, literal replication is a means to confirm the new findings. By that, the writing reflective MacDuffie theory is developed by new antecedents, moderators, mediators, or outcomes. This modification or extension of the theory contributes to the analytical generalization of the theory. If new cases provide similar results, the search for regularities is write for websites School based on more solid ground. Therefore, the strength of case study research in “Gaps and Holes” lies in search for mechanisms in their specific context which can reveal causes and effects more precisely. The “Gaps and Holes” case study research design is an adequate candidate for this phase of the theory continuum.

Case studies at this point of the reflective essay theory continuum, therefore, have to for websites The Windsor School, outline the tentative theory; to demonstrate the lacks and gaps of the tentative theory; to specify how and why the write Hillfield Strathallan tentative theory is write School aimed to be extended and/or modified; to develop theoretically based propositions which guide the write essays School investigation; and to evaluate new elements, relationships, and mechanisms related to the previous theory (analytical generalization). As a result and compared to theory-building, a different research strategy exists. While in theory building the research strategy is based on the eliciting of concepts (constructs) and relationships out of data, in write for websites School theory development, it has to be demonstrated that the research strategy aims to html online School, identify new elements and relationships within a tentative theory, identifying mechanisms which explain the phenomenon more precisely. In “Gaps and Holes” and “Anomalies”, an write articles for websites School extended theory exists. The phenomenon is understood. There is no search for additional components or relationships. Mechanisms seem to explain the are the six stages of critical School functioning or processes of the phenomenon.

The research strategy is focused on for websites The Windsor School testing whether the theory holds under different circumstances or under different conditions. How To Essay For College University College Of Manitoba - NAVITAS? Such a test of theories is mainly the domain of experimental and quantitative studies. School? It is based on previously developed constructs and variables which are the how to write University International College foundation for stating specific testable hypotheses and write The Windsor testing the relations on the basis of quantitative data sets. As a result, highly sophisticated statistical tools enable falsification of the reflective theory. Therefore, testing theory in “Gaps and Holes” is for websites School restricted on specific events.

Single case can serve as a test. There is a debate in case study research whether the test of theories is html online Lakefield College related to the falsification logic of Karl Popper (Flyvbjerg 2006 ; Tsang 2013 ). Another stream of the debate is related to theoretical generalizability (Hillebrand et al. For Websites? 2001 ; Welch et al. What Are The Of Critical? 2011 ). More specifically, test in” Gaps and Holes” is write The Windsor School analogous to argumentative essay The Knox School, a single experiment if a single case represents a critical case. If the theory has specified a clear set of propositions and defines the exact conditions within which the theory might explain the phenomena under investigation, a single case study, testing the theory, can confirm or challenge the theory. Articles? In sum Yin states: “Overall, the single-case design is eminently justifiable under certain conditions—where the how to write an application essay for college University of Manitoba/ College - NAVITAS case represents (a) a critical test of existing theory, …” (Yin 2014 : 56). In their survey in the field of International Business, Welch et al. conclude: “In addition, the for websites widespread assumption that the role of the case study lies only in the exploratory, theory-building phase of research downplays its potential to propose causal mechanisms and linkages, and Lakefield School test existing theories” (Welch et al. 2011 : 755). In multiple case studies, a theoretical replication is a test of theory by comparing the findings with new cases.

If a series of write articles The Windsor School cases have revealed pattern-matching between propositions and the data, theoretical replication can be revealed by new waves of cases with contrasting propositions. How To Essay University Of Manitoba/ Of Manitoba - NAVITAS? If the contrasting propositions reveal contrasting results, the findings of the for websites The Windsor School first wave are confirmed. Several possibilities exist to test the initial findings of multiple case studies using different lenses from inside and outside the how to write application essays School management realm (Corley and Gioia 2011 ; LePine and Wilcox-King 2010 ; Okhuysen and The Windsor Bonardi 2011 ; Zahra and Newey 2009 ), but have not become a standard in case study research. In rival explanations, rival theoretical propositions are developed as a test of the School previous theory. Articles The Windsor? This can be distinguished from theoretical replication where contrasting propositions aim to confirm the initial findings. Html Courses Online College? This can, as well, be distinguished from developing theory where rival explanations might develop theory by the elimination of possible influences (interventions, implementations).

The rich data enable one to identify internal and external interventions that might be responsible for the findings. Articles? Alternative explanations in a new series of cases enable to test, whether a theory “different from the original theory explains the results better (…)” (Yin 2014 : 141). As a result, it astonishes that theoretical replication and rival explanations, being one of the strengths of University of Manitoba case study research, are rarely used. Although the general debate about articles for websites The Windsor School “lenses” has informed the discussion about theory contributions, this paper demonstrates that there is a wide range of possible integration of vertical or horizontal lenses in case study research design. Case study research designs aiming to test theories have to outline modes of purchase The Knox School replication and School the elimination of rival explanations. The “anomaly approach” is placed in how to essay of Manitoba the final phase of the theory testing, as well. In this approach, a theory exists, but the write articles theory fails to explain anomalies.

Burawoy goes a step further. While Yin ( 2014 ) sees a critical case as a test that challenges or contradicts a well formulated theory, in Burawoy’s approach, in contrast to falsification logic (Popper 2002 ), the theory is not rejected but reconstructed. Burawoy relates extended case study design to society and reflective School history. Existing theory is challenged by intervention into the social field. Identifying processes of historical roots and social circumstances and write considering external forces by structuration lead to the reconstruction of the theory. It is essay MacDuffie School surprising that this design has been neglected so far in management research. Is there no need to reflect social tensions and distortions in management research?

While case study research has, per for websites The Windsor definition, to investigate phenomena in its natural environment, it is hard to understand why this design has widely been ignored in management and organization research. As a result, testing theory in case study research has to how to write essays St. John's-Ravenscourt, demonstrate that an extended theory exists; a critical case or an anomaly can challenge the theory; theoretical replication and rival explanations will be means to contradict or confirm the articles theory; and societal circumstances and external forces explain the anomaly. Compared to theory-building (new concepts/constructs and relationships out of data) and theory development (new elements and relationships within a tentative theory), testing theory challenges extended theory by empirical investigations into failures and anomalies that the current theory cannot explain. Case studies provide a better understanding of six stages Strathallan School phenomena regarding concrete context-dependent knowledge (Andersen and for websites The Windsor Kragh 2010 ; Flyvbjerg 2006 : 224), but as literature reviews indicate, there is still confusion regarding the adequate utilization of case study methodology (Welch et al. 2011 ). Write Essays St. John's-Ravenscourt School? This can be interpreted in for websites a way that authors and even reviewers are not always aware of the methodological fit in case study research.

Case study research is an application essay University of Manitoba/ of Manitoba - NAVITAS mainly narrowed to its “explorative” function, neglecting the scope of possibilities that case study research provides. Write Articles For Websites? The claim for more homogeneity of specified rules in case study research misses the important aspect that a method is not a means in itself, but aims at providing improved theories (van Maanen et al. 2007 ). This paper contributes to an application University International of Manitoba - NAVITAS, the fit of case study research designs and the theory continuum regarding the following issues. 5.1 Heterogeneity of case study designs. Although case study research, overall, has similar characteristics, it incorporates various case study research designs that have heterogeneous theoretical goals and articles for websites The Windsor use various elements to reach these goals. The analysis revealed that the classical understanding, whereby case study research is adequate for the “exploration” of a theory and quantitative research is adequate for “testing” theory, is what are the oversimplified. Therefore, the write articles School theoretical goals of case study research have to be outlined precisely. This study demonstrates that there is variety of case study research designs that have thus far been largely neglected.

Case study researchers can utilize the write essay Hillfield Strathallan entire spectrum, but have to consider how the phenomenon is The Windsor School related to the theory continuum. Case study researchers have to demonstrate how they describe new or surprising phenomena, develop new constructs and relationships, add constructs (variables), antecedents, outcomes, moderators, or mediators to argumentative The Knox School, a tentative theory, challenge a theory by a critical case, theoretical replication or discarding rival explanations, and The Windsor reconstruct a theory by tracking failures and anomalies to external circumstances. The rigor of the case study can be enhanced by considering the specific contribution of various case study research designs in each phase of the essay MacDuffie theory continuum. This paper provides a portfolio of case study research designs that enables researchers and reviewers to evaluate whether the case study arsenal has been adequately located: At an early phase of the theory continuum, case studies have their strengths in rich descriptions and investigations into write, new or surprising empirical phenomena and The Knox School trends. Researchers and readers can benefit from such rich descriptions in understanding and analyzing these phenomena. Next, on the theory continuum, there is the well-known contribution of case study research in building tentative theory by eliciting constructs or concepts and their relationships out of data. Third, development of theories is strongly related to literal replication. Strict comparisons, on the one hand, and controlled theoretical advancement, on the other hand, enable the identification of mechanisms, strengthen the notions of causality, and provide generalizable statements. Fourth, there are specific circumstances under which case study approaches enable one to test theories.

This is to confront the theory with a critical case, to test findings of write articles School pattern-matching by theoretical replication and discarding rival explanations. Therefore, “Gaps and Holes” provide the opportunity for developing and testing theories through case study design on the theory continuum. Finally, testing and contradicting theory are not the final rejection of a theory, but is the basis for reconstructing theory by means of case study design. Anomalies can be traced to historical sources, social processes, and external forces. This paper demonstrates that the essay MacDuffie School precise interplay of case study research designs and theory contributions on the theory continuum is a prerequisite for the contribution of case study research to better theories. Write Articles For Websites The Windsor? If case study research design is differentiated from qualitative research, the intended contribution to theory is stated and designs that fit the aimed contribution to theory are outlined and substantiated; this will critically enhance the rigor of case study research. Open Access This article is pay to essay Hillfield distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License ( ), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to write articles School, the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made. Hans-Gerd Ridder 1 Email author 1. Institute of purchase essay School Human Resource Management Leibniz University of Hannover Hannover Germany.

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Decorating the articles for websites Christmas tree These tree shaped creative writing templates can be used for many of the reflective essay MacDuffie December writing prompts that are found on this page. Click on the link below to view the write for websites page where these tree templates can be found: Winter Tree Creative Writing Templates If you were a Christmas tree, how would you want to be decorated? What do you enjoying doing during your winter holiday? We should have the Christmas spirit all year round. You go to the mailbox and find that Santa has written you a letter.

Write a letter from Santa to purchase argumentative essay, yourself. Rudolph's nose was green! My vacation at the North Pole These winter wonderland creative writing worksheets can be used for many of the December writing prompts that are found on this page. Click on write articles for websites, the link below to view the page where these winter printable worksheets can be found: Winter Wonderland Printable Worksheets Draw a map from the North Pole to your house. Then, write the html online College School directions in articles for websites School, a paragraph. Essay MacDuffie School? Describe your new job as an elf at the North Pole. Write a paragraph describing what this holiday phrase means to you: Peace on Earth, Goodwill to articles for websites The Windsor School, Men.

What are your wishes for the world this holiday season? Write an are the School, unselfish letter to Santa, asking him to bring a needed item to a friend or family member. The best gifts are gifts from the heart. What does this phrase mean to you? These 3D Box creative writing templates can be used for many of the write articles for websites The Windsor December writing prompts that are found on reflective essay, this page. Click on the link below to write articles School, view the how to write essays St. John's-Ravenscourt page where these gift box templates can be found: 3 Dimensional Present Project: A Gift From the Heart If I could give a Christmas gift to write articles for websites The Windsor School, the world, it would be . How to what thinking School, wrap a Christmas present. For Websites? The best present that I ever gave to someone . Presents should not be important on Christmas Day.

It is better to give than to receive. Describe a time when you did something thoughtful for someone or gave a person a thoughtful gift. Argumentative The Knox? This holiday season I plan to do something helpful to others. My plan is . Pretend that you are a penguin who loves to tweet. Write 5 tweets describing what it is like to live Antarctica. Write Articles? These penguin creative writing worksheets can be used for many of the December writing prompts that are found on this page. Click on the link below to view the page where these winter printable worksheets can be found: Penguin Printable Worksheets The adventures of pay to Hillfield College, having a penguin as our family pet The day Frosty the Snowman met Rudolph These snowman creative writing worksheets can be used for many of the December writing prompts that are found on this page. Click on the link below to view the page where these winter printable worksheets can be found: Snowman Printable Worksheets The Abominable Snowman is an ape-like creature said to inhabit the Himalayan regions of for websites The Windsor School, Nepal and Tibet. Write a story about writing essay seeing the The Windsor School Abominable Snowman.

School has been cancelled for the day because of a snow storm. What would you like to what six stages School, do during this unexpected day off from school? The gingerbread man jumped out of the oven and. Pick three New Year's Resolutions. Write For Websites The Windsor? Describe why you picked them and how to School how you will accomplish them. Write School? Design your own Christmas, Hanukkah, Kwanzaa, or New Years card. Specific December Writing Prompts: Celebrations, Events, Holidays, and Dates in History: Scroll through this page, or click on the links below, to six stages of critical Strathallan, read. about each of articles The Windsor, these December writing prompts and holidays.

Late November to Late December - Hanukkah. Hanukkah is what six stages of critical thinking School a Jewish holiday that is celebrated for eight days and nights . The first day of write articles for websites School, Hanukkah falls on a different day each year because the Jewish calendar is lunar based. This holiday usually occurs between the end of writing MacDuffie School, November and the end of December. The Menorah , or candle holder, is an important part of the tradition of Hanukkah and it is why this holiday is write articles The Windsor School often referred to what are the six stages thinking School, as the Festival of Lights . Hanukkah is celebrated with the lighting of the menorah , spinning the dreidel , and eating traditional foods such as latkes (potato pancakes). Research Hanukkah and write about articles for websites School why it is how to write an application for college University International - NAVITAS often referred to as The Festival of the articles for websites The Windsor Lights.

Have the students create a poster about Hanukkah and how the holiday is celebrated. Create a venn diagram highlighting the differences and similarities between Hanukkah and Christmas. Html Courses? What are the write for websites The Windsor School rituals surrounding each holiday? Visit Wikipedia's Hanukkah Page to learn more information about this holiday. On Chanukah you will find information about the history of Hanakkah, the essay for college College menorah, recipes, and write articles for websites The Windsor School craft ideas for this holiday. December 1 - Rosa Parks. On December 1, 1955 in Montgomery, Alabama, Rosa Parks refused to obey a bus driver's order that she give up her seat to make room for a white passenger. Rosa Park's quiet and courageous act of defiance became an important symbol of the Civil Rights Movement and the resistance to html Lakefield, racial segregation. She has been nationally recognized as the for websites The Windsor mother of the modern day civil rights movement in America. How did Rosa Parks show that she was courageous? Have your students respond to this quote from Rosa Parks: I have learned over the years that when one's mind is writing reflective essay School made up, this diminishes fear; knowing what must be done does away with fear.

What is the The Windsor School bravest thing you have ever done? Include details about the event and why you think you were brave. Courses Lakefield College? Visit Wikipedia's Rosa Parks Page to The Windsor School, learn more information about her. Students can read a biography and watch a video of Rosa Parks on argumentative essay, the Rosa Parks Biography Page. Students can complete an articles for websites School, individual or group project about Rosa Parks using my Character Body Book Report Templates or my Biography Book Report Newspaper Templates. My School Bus Book Report Templates could easily be adapted to write a report about html online Rosa Parks.

Your students will enjoy designing a project about Rosa Parks using these unique templates. Show your students The Rosa Parks Story starring Angela Bassett . Below is a trailor for this movie. Below is a short video about the life of Rosa Parks from the Biography Channel . December 5 - Mozart's Birthday. Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart was born on December 5, 1756 in Salzburg, Austria. He began composing his own music at articles The Windsor, the age of how to application essays, five and articles The Windsor School toured Europe as a concert pianist at how to write International College of Manitoba, age six . What would it be like to write articles for websites, be famous at an early age? If you could be proficient at playing any one instrument, what instrument would you choose? Explain why. Writing School? What is the most beautiful piece of music that you have ever listened to?

Show your students the for websites The Windsor School movie Amadeus . Reality shows such as American Idol , America's Got Talent , and argumentative The Knox The X Factor have inspired many people to audition for these music shows. Write a story in which you go to audition for one of these shows. Write Articles The Windsor? Visit Wikipedia's Mozart Page to learn more information about this famous composer. Play a piece of Mozart's music for your students and have them write about how it makes them feel and the images this piece of music creates in their minds. Below is a You Tube video where students can listen to Mozart's Piano Concerto No. 21 . December 5 - Walt Disney's Birthday. Walter Elias Disney was born on December 5 , 1901 in write Hillfield Strathallan, Chicago, Illinois. Walt Disney is a famous American film producer , director, screenwriter, voice actor, animator, and theme park creator . Walt Disney is The Windsor School best known as the creator of essay School, Mickey Mouse and write for websites School the founder of Disneyland and write essay Strathallan Walt Disney World . In the late 1940s, Disney first drew sketches of his ideas for an amusement park where he envisioned his employees spending time with their children. His original idea expanded in concept and eventually became Disneyland , which first opened in 1955.

Share these quotes by Walt Disney with your students and The Windsor School have them choose one to respond to essay, in writing: All our dreams can come true, if we have the write School courage to pursue them. If you can dream it, you can do it. It's kind of fun to do the impossible. Write Application Essays St. John's-Ravenscourt School? The more you like yourself, the less you are like anyone else, which makes you unique. The way to get started is to quit talking and begin doing. There is articles The Windsor more treasure in books than in all the pirate's loot on Treasure Island. When you're curious, you find lots of interesting things to do. I have been up against how to write for college University of Manitoba/ tough competition all my life. For Websites School? I wouldn't know how to get along without it. Html Courses Online School? What would it be like if Walt Disney was your father or grandfather?

When the Disneyland first opened, it consisted of five themed areas: Main Street, U.S.A. For Websites? (an early 20th century Midwest town based on writing reflective essay MacDuffie, Walt Disney's childhood) Adventureland (featuring jungle themed adventures) Frontierland (illustrating the western frontier) Fantasyland (bringing fantasy into a reality) Tomorrowland (looking into the future) Pretend that you worked for Walt Disney in 1955 and write an idea for a 6th themed area for Disneyland. Describe the write School theme for essay Hillfield Strathallan this area and write articles the rides and buildings that would be included in how to an application for college of Manitoba/ International College of Manitoba, this new area of Disneyland. Visit Wikipedia's Walt Disney Page to learn more information about write articles for websites School this famous man. On Just Disney students can read a biography and view photographs of Walt Disney. December 7 - Letter Writing Day. December 7 is are the six stages of critical Strathallan Letter Writing Day . Letter writing is fast becoming an almost lost skill . Most letters that are written today are e-mails and now even shorter messages (called instant messages ) have become a very popular form of for websites The Windsor School, communication. Do you think that handwriting should still be taught in school now that most correspondence is courses done on a computer? Write an write articles for websites The Windsor School, essay supporting your opinion.

Hand-write a letter that you will actually mail to purchase essay The Knox School, a friend or relative. Articles The Windsor? Bring this letter home tonight and argumentative mail your letter to The Windsor School, this person. Html Online College? Thanks to articles for websites School, innovation (from the Pony Express to School, auto-trucks to write articles School, airmail to email) the speed with which the mail is delivered has improved year after year for the past two and a half centuries. In your opinion, what are the pros and cons of these improvements? Interview a parent or grandparent and essays School ask them how the practice of writing handwritten letters has changed from when they were a child to now. December 10 - Nobel Peace Prize Award Ceremony. The Nobel Peace Prize Award Ceremony takes place on articles The Windsor, December 10 in Oslo, Norway each year. The Nobel Peace Prize is awarded each year on this day to people who have made the most valuable contributions to the good of humanity . The Chairman of the Norwegian Nobel Committee presents the Nobel Peace Prize in the presence of the King of how to write an application essay for college University College of Manitoba - NAVITAS, Norway on for websites School, December 10 each year, which is the anniversary of Nobel's death . You have been selected to receive this year's Nobel Peace Prize. Reflective School? Why have you been selected as this year's recipient? If you could award this prize to someone that you know, who would you select and why?

Research a past winner of The Nobel Peace Prize and write for websites The Windsor write a short summary about this person and his or her achievements. Visit Wikipedia's Nobel Peace Prize Page to learn more information about the history of the Nobel Peace Prize. More information about the Nobel Peace Prize can be found on this page: Nobel Visit Video Lectures from Nobel Peace Prize Laureates to watch videos of past winners of the Nobel Peace Prize. December 21 or 22 - Winter Solstice/First Day of Winter. The winter solstice usually occurs on December 21 or 22 each year in the Northern Hemisphere and on June 20 or 21 in the Southern Hemisphere. The winter solstice occurs on the shortest day and the longest night of the year. What Are The Six Stages Strathallan? This is articles The Windsor School when the sun's daily maximum elevation in the sky is the lowest. What is your favorite winter activity that involves snow and why? What would it be like if it was winter all year long? On Understanding the Winter Solstice For Kids you can learn more information about the first day of winter.

December 25 - Christmas. Christmas is a Christian holiday that is celebrated on December 25 by people around the world to The Knox School, commemorate the birth of write for websites The Windsor School, Jesus Christ . The word Christmas originated as a compound meaning Christ's Mass . This holiday is now celebrated by an increasing amount of non-Christians and Christmas symbols now include Santa Claus , reindeer, and stockings. Christmas Day is celebrated as a major festival and public holiday in many countries around the world. On Christmas Celebrations Around The World or North Pole Christmas Around The World research how another country celebrates Christmas and write a short report about what you learned. Visit Wikipedia's Christmas Page to learn more information about the history of this holiday. Pay To Essay Hillfield Strathallan College? You can find a large list of Christmas and articles for websites The Windsor School December writing prompts at the top of this page. I've created a variety of templates and lesson plans for Christmas and winter.

You can view them here: Winter Teaching Resources. December 26 - January 1 - Kwanzaa. Kwanzaa is a week long celebration which honors African-American heritage and culture . This holiday was started in 1966 by Dr. Maulana Karenga, a professor at pay to Strathallan, the California State University and it is observed from December 26 to January 1 . The name Kwanzaa comes from the write articles School Swahili phrase matunda ya kwanza , meaning first fruits of the html courses harvest. Kwanzaa features activities such as lighting a candle holder with seven candles and ends with a feast and gift giving. There are seven principles of Kwanzaa , one for write School each of the 7 days of Kwanzaa: unity, self-determination, collective work and responsibility, cooperative economics, purpose, creativity, and purchase The Knox faith. Research the The Windsor Seven Principles of Kwanzaa and argumentative essay The Knox School design a card or poster that features one of the principles. A mkeka is a special place mat used during Kwanzaa ceremonies and it has three colors: black, red, and green.

The stripes represent tradition, history, and write the future. Have your students design a mkeka and write about what each stripe symbolizes to them. On Kwanzaa you will find information about the application School 7 Principles and write for websites School Symbols of Kwanzaa, as well as recipes and craft ideas for this holiday. Visit Wikipedia's Kwanzaa Page to learn more information about online Lakefield College School this holiday. December Calendar Set (Christmas Theme) My free December calendar set is for websites designed to fit inside monthly calendar pocket charts that many teachers use. The calendar pieces can also be displayed on a classroom bulletin board. This December calendar set contains the following printable worksheets: Above: The large December calendar title is a 2 page banner . Above: This printable calendar set for December includes large days of the week templates for the 7 days of the week.

Above: This free December calendar set includes smaller pieces for what six stages of critical the 7 days of the week that will fit inside your calendar pocket chart. There are 31 square calendar number dates in this teaching resources set. There are squares for you to print and write your students' names and birthdays on. There are 11 printable worksheets in this free teaching resources set. Click the link below to download this free December calendar set. Click Here === 12 Free Printable Classroom Calendars. Note : On the above page, you will find links to download all.

12 of my FREE classroom calendar sets for January - December! December Calendar Set (Winter Tree Theme) Below is School a second December calendar set. I have designed this calendar with a winter theme . Click the link below to download this free December calendar set. Click Here === 12 Free Printable Classroom Calendars. Note : On the above page, you will find links to download all. 12 of my FREE classroom calendar sets for January - December!

Below are some ideas and examples of teaching resources. that can be used for write essays St. John's-Ravenscourt some of the Christmas and articles for websites December. writing prompts that are found on argumentative essay School, this page: How The Grinch Stole Christmas - by Dr. Seuss. Dr.

Seuss is write School one of the most popular children's authors of all time and his Christmas story featuring The Grinch is a favorite of both kids and adults. His message that Maybe Christmas, he thought doesn't come from a store. Maybe Christmas, perhaps, means a little bit more. is timeless . After you have read your students this story, they will enjoy completing a fun activity related to how to of Manitoba/ of Manitoba - NAVITAS, Dr. Seuss' book. For Websites School? I have created a flip booklet and I designed the write an application essay templates for this unique project in the shape of the Grinch's head . Your students will enjoy creating their own Grinch flip books using these fun and articles for websites School unique Grinch templates. This set of resources includes first draft worksheets, Grinch flip book templates (shown above), a 5 page bulletin board display banner (shown above), a crossword puzzle, rhyming word puzzle, and writing reflective School maze worksheet. Click below for more information about: A Christmas Carol. by Charles Dickens. 6 Wreath Templates.

There are 6 wreath templates in this resource set: Jacob Marley's Visit, Christmas Past, Christmas Present, Christmas Yet To Come, Scrooge Before, and Scrooge After. Click below for more information about: A Christmas Carol. by Charles Dickens. Character Body Project. For this group or individual project, students design a character body for Scrooge . Students choose colorful adjects that describe Scrooge and write a character description for him. Click below for more information about: Your students will discover that writing is snow much fun with these unique snowman templates. These creative writing templates will make a brilliant winter bulletin board display! Click below for more information about:

December Writing Prompts. Your students will write about gifts from their hearts and create 3 dimensional gift boxes using these unique 3D projects. December is an for websites School, ideal time to use this activity. Click below for more information about: December Writing Prompts. Your students will enjoy writing winter stories inside these wreath templates. These unique oval shaped project templates will help you design an eye catching winter bulletin board display! Click below for more information about: December Writing Prompts. This S.N.O.W. acrostic poem is pay to write Hillfield Strathallan designed inside a snow globe template.

There are separate templates for girls (shown here) and boys. Your students will enjoy these fun winter poetry lesson plans. Click below for more information about: December Writing Prompts. These snowman language arts worksheets are ideal for a wide range of creative writing topics and will make a colorful winter bulletin board display. Click below for more information about: December Writing Prompts. You can use these worksheets for write articles The Windsor School a science unit about penguins, a reading response to a story with penguins in it, or as a winter writing assignment. Click below for more information about: December Writing Prompts.

These winter tree creative writing templates are ideal for a wide range of creative writing topics and The Knox School will make a dynamic winter bulletin board display. Click below for The Windsor School more information about: December Writing Prompts. These winter wonderland language arts worksheets are ideal for a wide range of creative writing topics and will make a colorful winter bulletin board display. Click below for pay to write essay more information about: December Writing Prompts.

Reading Sticker Charts - Winter Themes. This Reading is articles The Windsor SNOW Much Fun! is a unique reading sticker chart set that contains a winter theme. This set contains 2 snow globe templates: one for boys and another for girls (above). This set encourages students to read 16 books during the winter months of the school year. Click below for more information about:

December Writing Prompts. Encourage your students to Chill Out With a Good Book with these cute penguin reading sticker charts. These penguin shaped reading sticker charts are a fun teaching resource to use to motivate your students to chill out and read during the winter months of the school year. Click below for more information about: December Writing Prompts. This Stuff Your Stocking With Stickers incentive chart is how to write for college University of Manitoba/ College - NAVITAS ideal to use with your students before Christmas. These uniquely shaped Christmas sticker charts can be used for a variety of different purposes during the month of December: homework, reading, math, spelling, or good citizenship. Click below for more information about: December Writing Prompts. Encourage your students to work towards achieving a goal by write for websites using these colorful Christmas tree sticker charts. There are 17 places for stickers on this colorful sticker chart template.

These incentive charts will help you to motivate your students to Decorate Their Christmas Trees with stickers this winter. Click below for more information about: December Writing Prompts. This Christmas Wreath of Fortune Game is purchase essay The Knox named after Wheel of Fortune. School? Your students will love playing this fun powerpoint game while reviewing homophones! Click below for html courses online Lakefield School more information about: December Writing Prompts. This Christmas Wreath of write, Fortune Game is named after Wheel of Fortune. Your students will love playing this fun powerpoint game while reviewing present and write essay Hillfield past tense verbs. Click below for articles for websites more information about:

December Writing Prompts. Your students will love playing this Christmas Who Wants To Be A Millionaire game while reviewing these 4 parts of argumentative essay The Knox, speech : nouns, verbs, adjectives, and articles The Windsor adverbs. Click below for more information about: Students use addition and multiplication to how to write for college University of Manitoba/ of Manitoba, solve these Christmas word problems. This activity involves money, so students are reviewing decimal points and place value as well. Click below for more information about: Students have to solve addition, subtraction, and multiplication equations, using a fun Christmas puzzle style format.

There are 5 puzzles in this set of resources. Click below for write articles The Windsor School more information about: Multiplication Incentive Charts and html courses online College Classroom Displays. This unique multiplication chart grows in height as your students learn their multiplication facts. As students learn a new times table, they place an ice cream scoop on top of their cones. When students have learned all of their times tables, they will have 10 (or 12) scoops on top of their cones.

Click below for more information about: There are 12 multiplication displays in this resource set for the 1 - 12 times tables. The ice cream cones stack on each other to create tall vertical displays . The cone displays come in a variety of different bright colors and they will create an eye catching math display in your classroom. Click below for more information about: This ice cream classroom display set highlights the key words used for solving addition (shown above), subtraction, multiplication, and write The Windsor School division word problems . These brightly colored ice cream bulletin board sets will make an are the thinking Strathallan, eye catching word problem display in your classroom. Click below for more information about: Christmas and Winter Teaching Resources that are available on my website: Christmas, and Winter Resources: Click on the graphics below to view each resource. Above: Grinch Flip Book Templates. How the Grinch Stole Christmas Lesson by Dr.

Seuss. Above: Ebenezer Scrooge Character Body and Wreath Projects. A Christmas Carol by Charles Dickens. Above: Free December Classroom Calendar Display Set. Above: Free January Classroom Calendar Display Set. Above: Writing Prompts for December and Christmas. Above: Writing Prompts for write articles for websites The Windsor January and Winter. below to go to a specific page. of monthly writing prompts: that pertain to each month's themes , holidays , and events . Thank you for what are the of critical Strathallan visiting my December writing prompts page. Please be sure to check out the other pages on write for websites, Unique.

Teaching Resources for a large variety of reflective School, fun lesson plan activities. that will engage your students in learning and save you valuable time. Creator and for websites The Windsor Website Manager. Unique Teaching Resources. 28 Book Reports. Report Projects Tips For Using. of over 118,000 teachers , click the pay to Strathallan College Like button below. Teachers Have Class! Newsletter. Click on the book titles.

below to view each project. Click on the book titles. below to articles for websites The Windsor, view each project. More Book Report Projects: 28 Book Report Projects. Copyright Unique Teaching Resources 2009 - 2017.

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President Obama's farewell speech - live updates. Last Updated Jan 10, 2017 9:57 PM EST. CBS News’ Emily Schultheis, Jillian Hughes and Charlie Brooks contributed to this live blog. 9:55 p.m. ET Mr. Obama concluded by quoting the slogan for his first campaign, “Yes We Can.” “I am asking you to hold fast to write, that faith written into our founding documents, that idea whispered by slaves and abolitionists, that spirit sung by immigrants and homesteaders and those who marched for justice, that creed reaffirmed by write essays St. John's-Ravenscourt School, those who planted flags from foreign battlefields to The Windsor School, the surface of the moon, a creed at the core of every American whose story is html College School, not yet written,” he said. “Yes we can. Articles! Yes we did.

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9:26 p.m. ET Another threat to American democracy, Mr. Obama said, is people’s collective retreat into their own “bubbles.” “The rise of naked partisanship, increasing economic and regional stratification, the pay to write Hillfield, splintering of write The Windsor School, our media into how to application a channel for every taste all this makes this great sorting seem natural, even inevitable,” he said. “And increasingly, we become so secure in our bubbles that we accept only information, whether true or not, that fits our opinions, instead of basing our opinions on write articles School, the evidence that’s out there.” 9:23 p.m. ET Mr. Obama also spoke about the racial tensions still plaguing the country, which have been put on purchase, display in recent months with clashes between the police and write articles for websites The Windsor, the African American community. “After my election, there was talk of for college University International College of Manitoba, a post-racial America,” he said. For Websites School! “Such a vision, however well-intended, was never realistic.

For race remains a potent and often divisive force in what are the of critical Strathallan, our society.” While progress has been made, he continued, “we’re not where we need to write articles School, be.” “All of us have more work to do,” Mr. Obama said. “After all, if every economic issue is framed as a struggle between a hardworking white middle class and undeserving minorities, then workers of all shades will be left fighting for html School scraps while the wealthy withdraw further into their private enclaves.” 9:21 p.m. ET As congressional Republicans debate their options for repealing and replacing the Affordable Care Act, Mr.

Obama noted the progress that’s been made on health care -- and challenged Republicans to come up with something better. “Health care costs are rising at the slowest rate in fifty years,” he said. “And if anyone can put together a plan that is demonstrably better than the improvements we’ve made to our health care system that covers as many people at less cost I will publicly support it.” 9:19 p.m. ET Mr. Obama framed his remarks as a look at the “state of our democracy,” outlining the challenges the country will face going forward. “A shrinking world, growing inequality; demographic change and the specter of terrorism these forces haven’t just tested our security and prosperity, but they’re testing our democracy as well,” he said. “And how we meet these challenges to our democracy will determine our ability to educate our kids, and create good jobs, and protect our homeland.” 9:14 p.m. Write School! ET Acknowledging the tradition of a peaceful transition of power, Mr.

Obama said he had assured President-elect Donald Trump that there would be a smooth transition. “In ten days, the what are the of critical thinking Strathallan School, world will witness a hallmark of our democracy: the articles The Windsor, peaceful transfer of power from one freely-elected president to the next,” he said, to boos from the write an application for college University International College of Manitoba, audience. For Websites The Windsor! “I committed to President-Elect Trump that my administration would ensure the smoothest possible transition, just as President Bush did for write an application of Manitoba - NAVITAS me.” 9:13 p.m. ET In a nod to his legacy, Mr. School! Obama said the U.S. is “a better, stronger place” than it was when he took office. “If I had told you eight years ago that America would reverse a great recession, reboot our auto industry, and unleash the longest stretch of write an application for college University of Manitoba/ of Manitoba, job creation in our historyif I had told you that we would open up a new chapter with the Cuban people, shut down Iran’s nuclear weapons program without firing a shot, and take out the write School, mastermind of 9/11if I had told you that we would win marriage equality, and secure the right to health insurance for another 20 million of our fellow citizens you might have said our sights were set a little too high,” he said. “But that’s what we did. That’s what you did.”

9:09 p.m. Reflective Essay School! ET Mr. Obama acknowledged democracy is not always easy, and said progress is sometimes “uneven.” “Yes, our progress has been uneven,” he said. “The work of democracy has always been hard, contentious and sometimes bloody. For Websites! For every two steps forward, it often feels we take one step back. But the long sweep of America has been defined by forward motion, a constant widening of our founding creed to embrace all, and not just some.” 9:04 p.m ET Mr. Obama was met with loud, sustained cheers when he took the stage. What Six Stages Strathallan School! After telling the crowd to quiet down -- “we’re on live TV here, I’ve got to move,” he said -- Mr. Obama quipped: “You can tell that I’m a lame duck because nobody’s following instructions.” 9:02 p.m.

ET President Obama takes the stage at write articles, McCormack Place in Chicago. How To Essays! “Hello Chicago,” he said. “It’s good to be home.” 6:35 p.m. ET When he takes the write, stage tonight, President Obama will talk about how his youth in Chicago helped show him the way to effect real change in the United States, according to of critical School, speech excerpts released by The Windsor School, the White House. “I first came to Chicago when I was in my early twenties, still trying to MacDuffie, figure out who I was; still searching for a purpose to my life,” he will say. “It was in neighborhoods not far from here where I began working with church groups in The Windsor School, the shadows of closed steel mills. It was on these streets where I witnessed the power of essay School, faith, and the quiet dignity of working people in the face of struggle and loss.

“This is where I learned that change only happens when ordinary people get involved, get engaged, and come together to demand it,” Mr. Obama will continue. “After eight years as your President, I still believe that. And it’s not just my belief. It’s the beating heart of our American idea our bold experiment in self-government.” 1 p.m. ET Beginning with George Washington in 1796, it is a time-honored tradition for the President of the United States to give a farewell address. Write School! President Obama will continue that tradition on how to write essay for college College of Manitoba - NAVITAS, Tuesday when he speaks in Chicago at McCormack Place at write articles for websites The Windsor School, 9 p.m. ET. CBSN coverage of Obama’s farewell speech begins at 7 p.m. ET.

According to Mr. Obama’s chief of purchase argumentative, staff, Dennis McDonough, he chose Chicago because “this is a place where working on the South Side of Chicago and the neighborhoods in the shadows of the abandoned steel mills, as a community organizer with people who had been knocked out of for websites The Windsor School, jobs that theretofore had been real paths to the middle class, that he recognized that he had a gift for organizing.” His message to Americans, McDonough told CBS News’ Charlie Rose, is to keep fighting for what you believe in. “He had a gift for getting people working together towards the same goal. And I think that’s what you’ll hear a lot about are the six stages thinking School, from the president tomorrow, the importance of sticking together, working together, standing up for write for websites The Windsor School what you believe in, and then fighting like hell for it.” In his eight years in office, President Obama left his mark on pay to Hillfield, many different aspects of American life. Vice President Joe Biden and Chicago Mayor Rahm Emanuel, who was Mr. Obama’s first White House chief of staff, are among the write articles The Windsor School, Democratic officials who plan to attend. Mr. Obama’s address also has some heavyweight musical talent in the lineup -- Pearl Jam lead singer Eddie Vedder will be be performing with Voice of Chicago, according to a tweet.

You can watch the speech at 9 p.m. on CBSN and pay to write essay Hillfield Strathallan College, CBS, among other broadcast and cable news channels. Bannon: McConnell told Trump to back off Drain the write School, Swamp talk. Steve Bannon tells 60 Minutes that Majority Leader Mitch McConnell told Trump to back off his Drain the Swamp talk -- and says the GOP establishment is trying to nullify Trump's win. A look at what Melania Trump has done since her husband became president.