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L’application de la loi aux enfants et adolescents handicapés. Des sections locales ou spécialisées sont susceptibles d’être consti­tuées(18). Thinking Workbook Academy? Cette possibilité est à mettre en rapport avec une autre précision donnée dans le même article : Les modalités et règles de majorité de vote (. Help Ethelburga’s College? ) peuvent être spécifiques à chaque décision en fonction de sa nature (19). Thinking Workbook Mercersburg? Vue l’ampleur et la diversité des tâches attribuées à la commission des droits et de l’autonomie des personnes handicapées, on journal Harrow School peut supposer que les décrets d’application définiront de telles sections spécialisées, la commission générale étant probablement destinée à fonctionner surtout comme instance de recours. Mercersburg? Il faut en particulier s’attendre à voir définie une section spécifique pour les questions d’orientation scolaire, avec sa propre compo­sition et ses propres modalités de fonctionnement. In Writing An Essay College? On voit mal en effet, par exemple, ce que les représentants des organisations syndicales générales viendraient faire dans une telle section spécialisée. En ce qui concerne la scolarisation des enfants et adolescents handicapés, la principale innovation est le principe de l’ établissement de référence : Tout enfant, tout adolescent présentant un handicap ou un trouble invalidant de la santé est inscrit dans l’école ou dans [l’établissement secondaire], le plus proche de son domicile, qui constitue son établissement de référence. Thinking Mercersburg? (20) Il s’agit bien là d’un établissement de référence , et pas nécessairement d’un établissement d’accueil , comme le précise la suite de cet article. Journal Article Critique Harrow? C’est une décision à portée symbolique forte, pas une remise en cause de la palette de modalités diversifiées de scolarisation et de prises en charge, heureusement héritée de notre longue histoire en ce domaine : intégrations individuelles en classes ordinaires certes, mais aussi classes spécialisées en milieu scolaire ordinaire et scolarisation en établissements spécialisés.

Sa principale portée pratique, à mes yeux, sera de faciliter une circulation souple des enfants et adolescents handicapés entre ces différentes modalités de prise en charge, en fonction de l’évolution de leurs besoins. Workbook Academy? Cela devrait en particulier faciliter les scolarisations à temps partiel en établis­sement scolaire ordinaire d’enfants et adolescents accueillis princi­palement en établissement spécialisé. How To Write A Very Good Essay? Jusqu’à présent, cela relevait dans les faits d’accords de gré à gré reposant sur la bonne volonté des enseignants et établissements scolaires d’accueil, avec l’effet pervers de tendre à surcharger ces bonnes volontés, donc de finir par les user. Critical Thinking Mercersburg Academy? La nomination obligatoire d’un établissement de référence, en permettant une institutionnalisation de ces pratiques, devrait les faciliter, les apaiser et les répartir plus équitablement. Il est ensuite précisé que, si ses besoins nécessitent qu’il reçoive sa formation au sein de dispositifs adaptés , l’enfant ou l’adolescent handicapé peut être inscrit dans un autre établissement scolaire dans lequel existent ces dispositifs adaptés , sur proposition de son établissement de référence et avec l’accord de ses parents ou de son représentant légal . Critical Analysis St. Michaels University School? En ce cas, cette inscription n’exclut pas son retour à l’établissement de référence (21). Thinking Workbook Mercersburg Academy? La loi ne précise nulle part ce qu’il faut entendre par dispositifs adaptés . Write Essay Valley? On peut penser aux classes spécialisées, CLIS et UPI, mais l’orientation vers ces classes supposera une décision des commissions d’orientation(22), et non le seul accord de l’établissement de référence et des parents, comme le précise un autre article(23).

Il faut probablement aussi penser à des adaptations plus techniques, comme l’aménagement des locaux pour accueillir des élèves en fauteuil roulant, ou la présence de matériels spécifiques. Workbook Academy? D’ailleurs certains articles prévoient la prise en charge complète de frais de transports supplémentaires occasionnés par ce type de problèmes : Lorsqu’une scola­risation en milieu ordinaire a été décidée par la commission (. Write A Conclusion For An Essay? ) mais que les conditions d’accès à l’établisse­ment de référence la rendent impossible, les surcoûts imputables au transport de l’enfant ou de l’adolescent handicapé vers un établissement plus éloigné sont à la charge de la collectivité territo­riale compétente pour la mise en accessibilité des locaux (24). Critical? Faute d’un cadrage suffisamment précis par un décret d’application, ce passage de la loi est manifestement susceptible de favo­riser des frictions entre les familles et les autorités académiques. De même, lorsque l’enfant ou l’adolescent est pris en charge par un éta­blissement médico-éducatif ou médico-social, son établissement scolaire ordi­naire de référence peut être un établissement proche de cet établissement spécialisé, dans des conditions fixées par convention entre les autorités académiques et l’établissement de santé ou médico-social (25). Journal Article Critique School? On a bien affaire ici à une législation qui devrait faciliter l’articulation entre une solide prise en charge des besoins particuliers des enfants et adolescents handicapés dans un établissement spécialisé et leur intégration scolaire en milieu ordinaire autant que faire se peut. Hors de ce point, la loi n’apporte pas de changements fondamentaux par rapport aux évolutions progressivement impulsées par la loi de 1975(26).

Le parcours de formation de l’enfant et de l’adolescent devra faire l’objet d’un projet personnalisé de scolarisation assorti des ajustements néces­saires en favorisant, chaque fois que possible, la formation en milieu scolaire ordinaire (27). Critical Workbook? Il s’agit là d’une inscription législative de pratiques inscrites de longue date dans les réglementations. How To Write Essay? La notion de projet était certes absente de la loi de 1975, comme de ses circulaires d’application(28). Critical Workbook? Cependant, dès 1982, une circulaire(29) conjointe des ministères de la Santé et de l’Éducation Nationale évoque déjà un projet d’intégration scolaire qui doit comporter des dimensions à la fois médicale, psychologique et sociale . Critical St. Michaels University School? Une circulaire de 1983(30) reprend cette orientation en imposant que l’intervention des SESSAD se fasse dans le cadre d’un projet englobant à la fois les dimensions scolaire, éducative et thérapeutique . Critical Thinking Workbook Mercersburg Academy? La réforme des annexes XXIV des années 1988 et 1989 impose une généralisation du projet individuel pédago­gique, éducatif et thérapeutique à tout enfant ou adolescent pris en charge dans les établissements médico-éducatifs régis par ces textes. Journal Critique Harrow? Une circulaire de 1991(31) charge les commissions de l’éducation spéciale de suivre la mise en œuvre des projets d’intégration qui concrétisent leurs décisions . Critical Workbook? Depuis lors, c’est toute la politique de prise en charge des enfants et adolescents handica­pés, scolarisation comprise bien entendu, qui obéit à cette logique de projets individuels, supervisés ou décidés par les commissions d’orientation. On notera également que la formation en milieu scolaire ordi­naire (31a) n’est pas posée comme un droit absolu, mais seulement comme une modalité à privilégier chaque fois que possible (31b) . Write A Conclusion Essay College Du Leman? On reste très proche des formu­lations prudentes de la loi de 1975, qui posait comme principe général que l’action poursuivie assure, chaque fois que les aptitudes des personnes handicapées et de leur milieu familial le permettent, l’accès du mineur et de l’adulte handica­pés aux institutions ouvertes à l’ensemble de la population et leur maintien dans un cadre ordinaire de travail et de vie (32). Critical Thinking Workbook? On est en particulier très en retrait par rapport à une circulaire incendiaire de Ségolène Royal qui affirmait en 1999, très largement au-delà des principes législatifs alors en vigueur : Tous les jeunes, quels que soient les besoins éducatifs qu’ils présentent, doivent trouver dans le milieu scolaire ordinaire la possibilité d’apprendre et de grandir avec les autres pour préparer leur avenir d’hommes et de femmes libres et de citoyens. Harrow? (33) La nouveauté, relative, est l’inscription de ce projet de formation dans le cadre global du plan personnalisé de compensation du handicap imposé par la loi(34). Critical Thinking Mercersburg Academy? Ce plan est élaboré, dans le cadre de la Maison départementale des personnes handicapées, par une équipe pluridisciplinaire , dont la composition (. Research Independent? ) peut varier en fonction de la nature du ou des handicaps de la personne handicapée dont elle évalue les besoins de compensation ou l’incapacité permanente (35). Critical Thinking Workbook Mercersburg Academy? Cette équipe doit entendre les parents, ou leur représentant, comme cela était déjà le cas pour les commissions de l’éducation spéciale(36), mais il est aussi prévu désormais, explicitement, d’entendre l’enfant lui-même : Dès lors qu’il est capable de discernement, l’enfant handicapé lui-même est entendu par l’équipe pluridisciplinaire . Help Queen Ethelburga’s? Cette inno­vation mérite d’être soulignée : jusqu’à présent, l’enfant, handicapé ou non, était systématiquement exclu de tous les projets, pédagogiques ou autres, le concernant.

Même après la loi de 1989 le plaçant au cœur du système éducatif ! Bien sûr, le discours de l’enfant peut faire l’objet de toutes sortes de manipula­tions. Critical Thinking Mercersburg Academy? Il n’en reste pas moins que, bien comprise et bien conduite, cette pratique de la consultation de l’enfant sur le projet de formation le concernant pourrait contribuer à humaniser les procédures d’orientation, voire les modali­tés des prises en charge. La commission chargée de piloter la réalisation de ce parcours de formation sera donc la commission des droits et de l’autonomie des personnes handicapées, ou plus probablement sa section spécialisée en ce domaine. How To Write Essay College? Le remplacement de la CDES par cette nouvelle commission est susceptible de changer assez nettement la donne. Critical Workbook Academy? D’abord, la présence des représentants des personnes handicapées et de leurs familles est considé­rablement renforcée : au moins un tiers des membres dans la nouvelle commission ou ses sections spécialisées, contre un seul représentant dans la CDES, sur une douzaine de membres. Journal Critique? Ensuite, cette nouvelle commission comptera des représentants des élus du département, dans des proportions qui restent à déterminer, alors que la CDES, commission préfectorale instituée avant les lois de décentralisation, était organisée autour de représentants de l’État.

Cette présence nouvelle des élus locaux, ou de leurs représentants, dans les commissions d’orientation devrait peser en faveur d’une meilleure prise en compte des souhaits des familles concernées. Critical Workbook Mercersburg? Dans une certaine mesure au moins : les élus seront susceptibles d’être sensibles également à leurs responsabilités budgétaires, comme aux réactions possibles des familles non touchées par le handicap. Bosworth? Lors des débats parlementaires, le Sénat avait adopté une modification condition­nant l’intégration d’un enfant handicapé en milieu ordinaire à l’absence de mise en danger des autres enfants. Workbook? Les associations de personnes handicapées et de parents d’enfants handicapés, bien relayées par certains députés, ont obtenu la suppression de cet amendement lors du vote final de l’Assemblée Nationale. Journal Article School? Cette victoire douteuse est peut-être mal assurée : le Sénat est une émanation des élus locaux, et l’influence de ces élus dans les commissions risque fort de jouer dans le même sens que ce qu’aurait formalisé l’amendement voté par le Sénat. Surtout, les décisions de la CDES s’imposaient aux établissements concernés, mais on Mercersburg Academy considérait généralement qu’elles restaient soumises à l’accord final des parents. Of Journal Articles St. Michaels University? La nouvelle commission a peut-être plus nettement le pouvoir d’imposer ses décisions aux parents. Workbook Mercersburg? Elle doit certes donner le choix entre plusieurs solutions adaptées, comme c’était déjà spécifié dans la loi de 1975(37). Article? Elle doit également intégrer la préférence des familles pour un établissement ou un service à ses propositions, mais seulement lorsque cet éta­blissement ou ce service entrent dans la catégorie de ceux vers lesquels la commission a décidé [d’orienter l’enfant] (38), toujours dans une logique très proche de la loi de 1975. Critical Mercersburg? Mais aucune des procédures de recours prévues(39) ne débouche sur une validation finale du choix des parents. Write A Very? À vrai dire, la loi de 1975 ne prévoyait pas non plus explicitement une telle disposition. Critical? C’est seulement la circulaire d’application de 1976 qui précisait : à l’égard des parents ou des personnes responsables de l’enfant : le pouvoir de décision des commissions est seulement relatif (40).

Sans que cette relativisation débouche d’ailleurs sur une validation explicite du choix des parents en cas de conflit avec les commissions. Write A Conclusion For An College? Le poids des choix parentaux était assuré par le fait que leur recours face aux décisions de la commission avait un effet suspensif par rapport à ces décisions(41). Critical Workbook Mercersburg? C’est toujours le cas dans cette nouvelle loi, dans des termes pratiquement similaires(42). Analysis University? Le plus probable est que, faute de choix clair par rapport aux limites de la prise en compte des vœux des familles, cette loi débouchera sur les mêmes situations de conflit que l’on a vues se multiplier ces dernières années. Critical Workbook Mercersburg Academy? Il est cependant vraisemblable que l’implication directe des politiques dans les commissions d’orientation leur donnera plus de poids et plus de légitimité que les commissions administratives que nous avons connues jusqu’à présent. La dernière nouveauté notoire dans le domaine de la scolarisation des enfants et adolescents handicapés est la création dans chaque département d’ équipes de suivi de la scolarisation (43). How To Write A Thesis For An Essay Fountain Valley School Of Colorado? Chargées de suivre l’application des décisions de la commission d’orientation, ou avec l’accord de ses parents ou de son représentant légal, proposer à la commission (. Critical Workbook? ) toute révision de l’orientation d’un enfant ou d’un adolescent qu’elles jugeraient utile (44).

Leur composition est très peu précisée par le texte qui les institue, hormis par l’implication évidente de l’enseignant ou des enseignants qui ont en charge l’enfant ou l’adolescent . How To A Thesis Fountain Valley Of Colorado? Il faudra attendre un probable décret d’application pour que cette innovation prenne vraiment forme. Critical Mercersburg Academy? Équipes définies par un article du Code de l’éducation, chargées du suivi de la seule scolarisation, elles devraient être strictement internes à l’Éducation Nationale. How To Write A Thesis For An Essay Fountain? Cela devrait en faire une structure très différente des actuelles commissions de circonscription, CCPE et CCSD, qui, étant des émanations de la CDES, sont des structures de type médico-éducatif, à pouvoir décisionnel. Critical Mercersburg Academy? Ces équipes devraient plutôt se rapprocher des innovations locales qui se sont répandues ces dernières années, hors de tout cadre réglementaire clair, comme les maîtres itinérants ou les maîtres d’aide à l’intégration . How To A Thesis Statement For An Essay Fountain Valley? Je suis a priori assez sceptique quant à la pertinence de cette création institutionnelle. Thinking Mercersburg? Il existait déjà des structures vouées au suivi et à l’appui de la scolarisation des élèves handicapés. Journal Article Critique Harrow? Ce sont les SESSAD(45), nullement remis en cause par ailleurs par la nouvelle loi. Thinking Workbook Academy? Là où ils avaient été créés, les maîtres itinérants ou les maîtres d’aide à l’intégra­tion avaient des relations pour le moins mal clarifiées avec les SESSAD. Argumentative College? Services médico-éducatifs, les SESSAD ont l’avantage évident de comporter un panel complet de professionnels, dont des enseignants spécialisés, et il me semble que le suivi de la scolarisation des élèves handicapés appelle des intervenants plus diversifiés que les ressources internes de la seule Éducation Nationale. Thinking Workbook? Les actions des nouvelles équipes départementales de suivi de la scolarisation des élèves handicapés devront nécessairement s’articuler avec les actions des SESSAD. Analysis Of Journal Articles St. Michaels University School? Elles risquent fort de les chevaucher. Workbook Mercersburg? Il aurait certaine­ment été préférable de renforcer les SESSAD, en particulier l’implication d’enseignants spécialisés dans ces structures.

Droit à compensation, guichet unique, renforcement de la représen­tation des personnes handicapées dans les institutions les concernant, inscription systématique dans un établissement scolaire de référence, la loi de 2005 comporte manifestement des avancées significatives en faveur des personnes handicapées. Of Journal University? Mais les espoirs qu’elle suscite, parfois sur la base d’une lecture hâtive ou partielle, risquent fort de se heurter à ses limites, comme à ses implications politiques. Critical? Le financement d’un droit à compensa­tion, ouvert à l’extrême en principe, est fort loin d’être assuré, comme le montre déjà la tournure ubuesque qu’a pris la suppression d’un jour férié destiné pour une part à alimenter cette solidarité nationale vis-à-vis des personnes handi­capées. In Writing An Essay Ethelburga’s College? Quant au domaine de la scolarisation des enfants et adolescents handicapés, hors de la symbolique de l’établissement de réfé­rence, la nouvelle loi ne fait guère qu’entériner les évolutions de ces der­nières décennies, sans apporter de transformations décisives. Critical Thinking? Ce n’est pas nécessai­rement à regretter : l’immer­sion de tous les enfants et adolescents handicapés dans les classes ordinaires est une idée certes sympathique, mais ce n’est certainement pas la panacée. Critical School? La longue expérience des résultats d’une telle immersion pour les élèves socialement ou culturellement défavo­risés devrait inciter à considérer avec circonspection les avantages et les inconvénients des pratiques intégratives, comme cette nouvelle loi continue à nous y inviter. Professeur de philosophie chargé d’enseignement à l’IUFM de Paris. Formateur d’enseignants spécialisés.

Décembre 2005-Avril 2006. (1) Le texte intégral de cette loi est disponible sur le site Légifrance. Critical Workbook Academy? Il est également disponible sur mon site personnel, avec un sommaire dynamique complet : (4) En particulier dans les nouvelles certifications des enseignants spécialisés : le SH du CAPA-SH et du 2CA-SH évoque la scolarisation des élèves en situation de handicap . Help In Writing? Décrétées en janvier 2004, ces appellations sont d’ores et déjà hors la loi ! (5) Patrick Declerck , Les naufragés (Avec les clochards de Paris) , Col. Thinking Workbook Mercersburg Academy? Terre Humaine, Plon, 2001, Page 293. (12) Article 16 de la loi, et articles modifiés L. How To A Thesis? 821-1 et suivants du Code de la sécurité sociale. (13) Article 68 de la loi, et articles modifiés L. Thinking Workbook Mercersburg Academy? 541-1 et suivants du Code de la sécurité sociale. (22) En l’occurrence, la commissions des droits et de l’autonomie des personnes handicapées décrite plus haut, ou une de ses sections . (28) En particulier la circulaire n 76-156 et n 31 du 22 avril 1976 sur la composition et le fonctionnement des commissions de l’Éducation spéciale et des commissions de circonscription . (30) Circulaire n os 83-082, 83-4 et 3/83/S du 29 janvier 1983 sur la mise en place d’actions de soutien et de soins spécialisés en vue de l’intégration dans les établissements scolaires ordinaires des enfants et adolescents handicapés, ou en difficulté en raison d’une maladie, de troubles de la personnalité ou de troubles graves du comportement . (40) Circulaire n 76-156 et n 31 du 22 avril 1976 sur la composition et le fonctionnement des commissions de l’Éducation spéciale et des commissions de circonscription , point 12.130.

(45) Service d’Éducation Spéciale et de Soins À Domicile. Cet article est donné en référence dans un article de Pierre Baligand, Inspecteur honoraire de l’éducation nationale, initialement publié dans la Revue Médecine thérapeutique Pédiatrie , n 4, consacré au thème Handicap de l’enfant : quelles prises en charge ? , juillet-août 2006, pages 211-221 et repris sur le site Intégration scolaire partenariat.

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5 Cover Letter Techniques = Spellbound Hiring Managers. #1 Thing Recruiters Want You To Know About Getting A Job AppDynamics. Critical Thinking Workbook Mercersburg Academy? How To Land A Job At Northside Hospital. Argumentative Research Bosworth? 3 Tips For Getting A Job At Medidata Solutions. Critical Workbook Academy? The Secret To Networking When You Don#039;t Have Any Time. 3 Ways Emotionally Intelligent Leaders Make The Most Of Online Collaboration. The bottom-line is, the purpose of a cover letter is to lure the reader to, well, read your resume and call you for an interview. Now, you may be dying to ask me, #8220;Then, why can’t I only submit my resume?#8221; My answer is, you can—but how do you know your competition didn#8217;t submit a persuasive cover letter that just about nudged you off the top spot? Worst-case scenario, they can set your cover letter aside, but it’s available if they need more convincing. Argumentative Research? So, how do you create cover letter that is not tossed? I’m glad you asked#8230; Cover Letter Techniques That Work. Thinking Workbook Academy? Here are five cover letter techniques that will get you noticed by hiring managers.

1. Break A Leg With Your Opening Act. Don’t begin cover letters with an ordinary and boring statement. You really want to #8220;have them at help in writing Queen Ethelburga’s hello.#8221; (Sorry. Couldn’t help it.) Really, captivate with the very first sentence. Exude sincerity, offer specific value, spin it, and critical workbook Mercersburg Academy, make sure it’s employer-oriented. Here is one of my favorite openings: Dear Mr. Bradley, Offering to argumentative Independent College, drive pharmaceutical sales growth by thinking workbook generating qualified leads, penetrating territories, and closing the toughest sales, consistently! Please allow me to introduce myself#8230; You can tell a personal story that further positions you as the best candidate. You can provide statistical insight, reinforcing your industry knowledge. Research Bosworth College? You may opt to walk your employer through your process. In other words, you can communicate more personally than you would on critical Mercersburg Academy, your resume and leverage that #8220;ace in your pocket.#8221; See an research College example I used in a cover letter:

I am an avid golfer (with a pretty good handicap) and golf at workbook least twice per week—I have closed many sales on write for an Valley of Colorado, the golf course over a weekend. Clients consider me a trusted friend and have even helped me form golf teams for charity events, which is an excellent way to network and gain new business#8230; Do you think I would have been able to add this golf example in the resume for my client – no. Now, let’s say candidate #1 is a stellar sales person and candidate #2 (my client) is also an outstanding revenue producer this example is helping my client promote an added value. Thinking Workbook Academy? This #8220;sign-on benefit#8221; clues the hiring manager my client initiates and develops fruitful relationships through personal networking strategies that will be advantageous to the company. Besides, it’s memorable. In a pile of hundreds of resumes and research Bosworth Independent College, cover letters, memorable is a winner! Foreshadow what will be listed on the resume and what they will discover when they read your resume but don’t repeat. Pique interest! Save some fresh content for workbook Mercersburg your cover letter. This is argumentative Bosworth Independent, a strategic career marketing plan.

Example: Please refer to my resume, which summarizes more than 15 years of experience increasing revenue for top corporations such as IBM. I have aggressively launched unique sales strategies that have produced up to thinking, $8M annually. You will find a full account of my projected sales plans and exceeded goals by percentage per year. Now, we have asked the hiring manager to help an essay Ethelburga’s College, review the resume and we have provided a bit of information to spark interest. It is important to add quantifiable information and be specific, as you don’t want to critical, seem vague. However, there is no need to provide all the details in the cover letter, especially if it will be on the resume. While I urge you to tease the how to write a thesis statement for an Valley of Colorado teasing must be done with actual facts and specific references not generalities that mean nothing. There is a physiological connection that goes on when you get a person to think or say yes. Academy? So, when you craft your cover letter try to envision the article reader nodding their head in agreement with your statements.

In order to do this, you must validate their needs. You can cast this spell through reinforcing statements or questions. Take it easy on critical workbook, the questions, though—you don’t want to come across too sales-driven. (The art of argumentative Bosworth Independent, career marketing is a delicate balance.) In sales, they always direct you to ask for the sale. Well, ask for the interview. Just ask for it! The point here is that your cover letter is a supporting influencing tool. It must be unique, inviting, compelling a prelude to a well crafted resume in order to provoke action. Your cover letter is part of a marketing package and critical thinking workbook Mercersburg, so merely writing it as you would any other communication letter is not going to generate the interviews you seek. True story: I had a client tell me that, when he was interviewed, he was told the argumentative Bosworth Independent cover letter clinched the critical thinking Mercersburg Academy interview and the resume was used as a guide for an interesting interview. Here is an essay, a beginning part of that cover letter: Music and entertainment is my passion.

I am lucky to have realized so early what I was born to do! I have known I wanted to work in critical workbook Mercersburg the entertainment industry since I was 11 years old. At age four, I already had an argumentative Bosworth Independent College affinity for music and entertainment#8230; I loved to thinking workbook Mercersburg Academy, perform, watch all the award shows on TV, memorize the choreography to music videos, and a thesis statement Fountain Valley School, I always wanted to know how it all worked behind the scenes. Client landed a job with Universal Music Distribution. Critical Thinking Workbook Mercersburg? There you have it. Journal Article Critique Harrow School? Market yourself as the critical thinking workbook Mercersburg ideal candidate via a purposefully created cover letter.

The cover letter techniques above will help augment the resume, convincing the how to write a thesis essay School of Colorado employer you#8217;ve got what they need#8230; in a very special way.

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Essay: Privacy issues in workplace monitoring. In the past era, many workplaces have changed with the new technology revolution. Thinking Workbook Academy? Therefore, it has changed the traditional way of the work and the way of the employee management. Misusing of Company property, low productivity, attacks, robberies, violence, workplace mishaps are the main reasons for this Monitoring case. According to this, the increased risks and enhanced tools have caused in increased use of surveillance and monitoring and an increase in the pressure between employee privacy and employer’s management rights. Both employers and employees are concerned with privacy issues of continuous monitoring. Therefore, the privacy issues of monitoring employees are explored and current practices are discussed. Queen College? My report further provides suggestions, arguments and discusses different perceptions given by other researchers and writers for thinking workbook Academy, ethical, legal, social and professional issues.

And my report includes with actual examples of employees monitoring effected by these issues. Table of Contents. Executive Summary 3. 1. Critical Analysis Of Journal Articles St. Michaels University? Introduction 5. 2. Privacy at critical thinking workbook Mercersburg, the workplace 7. 3. Reasons for Monitoring and Surveillance 8. a. Employee or Customer Safety 8. b. Workplace Liability and Investigations 8. c. Network and Systems Performance 9. d. Employee Productivity 9. 4. Employee monitoring 10. a. Video surveillance 10. b. Computer monitoring 11.

d. Eavesdropping and wiretapping 11. e. Undercover operatives 12. f. E- Mail monitoring. 12. g. Active badge systems 13. h. For An Essay College? Social media monitoring 13. 5. Mercersburg? Ethical analyzing 14. 6. Discussion 15. a. Help An Essay College? Legal issues 15. b. Social issue 17. 7. Critical Thinking Mercersburg? Conclusion 18.

8. Recommendations 19. 9. References 21. With the modern technology evolution, employee monitoring has become a controversial in the world in last era. After this development, it has changed the traditional way of the work and the way of the employee management. Misusing of Company property, low productivity, attacks, robberies, violence, workplace mishaps are the main reasons for this Monitoring case. According to this, the increased risks and enhanced tools have caused in increased use of surveillance and monitoring and an increase in write a conclusion essay College du Leman, the pressure between the employee privacy and management rights of the employers. Every employer of thinking Academy, a company or an how to write a very essay Clifton College, organization monitors the activities and behavior of their employees in their workplace. And every employee should accept this monitoring case about critical Professional, Ethical and a very good College, Privacy issues in workbook, their workplace.

The privacy of the employee has become a debatable issue of Human Resource management field as the employer has more technologies. Computer terminals, GPS tracking, voice mail and monitor telephones are some of the available technologies. In Office of Technology Assessment, 1987, p. A Very Good? 27, Electronic monitoring defines as “the computerized collection, storage, analysis, and reporting of information about thinking Mercersburg Academy employees’ productive activities”. Through the use of this employee monitoring technologies, the St. Michaels company management is able to know whether their employees are given their work hours for the company or whether they are doing something else. This technology includes the use of software that will allow the employers to know the websites being accessed by the employee too.

And it may include use of the cameras also. So the employer may be able to observe the every activity of their employees. Mostly, the employees dislike to be monitoring and thinking workbook Academy, consider this as a hateful act that they even consider as a violation of their most precious rights and liberties. Employees don’t want their company to know what they are actually doing in help Ethelburga’s, all the time. They feel it like less freedom at the workplace and the employers are involving their lives much more it is violates their right to privacy. However, employee monitoring in workplace is not simply a restriction of the liberties and rights of the employees. But its purpose is to ensure that the interest of the employer is protected against any and all behaviors of the thinking workbook Academy employee during their work hours.

Cause they have a right to know it. 2. Privacy at the workplace. Privacy, yes it is very important to every human being. Let’s see what is critical of journal St. Michaels School, ‘Ability of an individual or group to keep their lives and personal affairs out of public view or to control the flow of information about them’, this is called as Privacy. The Article 8 of the critical Mercersburg European Convention on Human Rights :”Everyone has the right to critical analysis articles University, respect for critical thinking workbook, his private and family life, his home and his correspondence.” The Article 17 of the International Covenant on Civil and help, Political Rights of the United Nations of 1966: “No one shall be subjected to workbook Academy, arbitrary or unlawful interference with his privacy, family, home or correspondence, nor to unlawful attacks on his honor and reputation.

Everyone has the right to the protection of the law against journal article such interference or attacks.’ The use of critical thinking Academy, E-mail, Internet, Telephones and policies of journal critique Harrow School, privacy at the workplace are become the part and parcel elements now. Basically, those policies are acts as a firewall that protecting the company’s resources being relevant to the Internet, Communication and Information technology. According to the requirements of the employers are develops their policies for employees. It is always depends on their requirements of their business, Information type and Communication methods etc. Those privacy issues are highly giving complete exactitude than other things where the critical workbook Academy core operations of the business are directly related to the personal information of employees and customers. In the workplace, implemented the uses of Communication and Information technologies and privacy issues and in practice are organizational oriented and research, highly restricted that tightened the employees to use all the resources only for official use. To make those privacy issues in practical, there are highly dedicated server in place that strictly keep monitors each and every activity that does on the workplaces, that server has the highly dedicated and updated firewall that only give access to those websites and applications that are approved by the information security personnel.

Therefore, employees are bound to workbook Mercersburg Academy, use only company’s intranet and authorized websites. So they are not able to use public emails and internet for personal use such as social networks; Facebook, twitter. Let’s see how this privacy issues are protecting by the employees, in their workplaces and essay College, what the employee monitoring one by thinking Mercersburg, one is. 3. Reasons for Monitoring and Surveillance. a. Employee or Customer Safety. Increasingly, attacks, robberies, violence, workplace mishaps, other workplace safety issues, and associated liabilities and damages provide motivation for employers to monitor the workplace. Remote worker monitoring systems are being used to how to a very good essay, monitor employees working alone or in isolation by using simple telephone and/or wireless technology with a standard computer workstation. Such systems can identify emergencies and guide response teams through a step-by-step emergency response. Deterrence, responsiveness and enhancing the critical thinking workbook Mercersburg ability to investigate are common objectives for use of monitoring measures.

b. Workplace Liability and Investigations. Potential legal liability resulting from for an, employee computer misuse or misconduct is critical workbook Mercersburg, often a motive for employee monitoring. Incidents of harassment, safety and theft may trigger an essay College du Leman, investigation into such misconduct that may use monitoring or surveillance. Racial and sexual harassment claims arising from racist or pornographic Web browsing or e-mails is not an uncommon occurrence. Critical Thinking Workbook Academy? One law journal paper cited the following high-profile cases. Good Clifton? Morgan Stanley, the Wall Street brokerage, was sued for US$70 million by thinking workbook, employees because of racist jokes that were distributed on its e-mail system and allegedly created a hostile work environment. Chevron Corporation settled a $2.2 million lawsuit with employees who took offense to an e-mail about, ’25 Reasons Why Beer is Better than Women.’ Xerox Corporation dismissed 40 employees for sending or storing pornographic e-mail or looking at inappropriate web sites – some for up to how to a thesis Valley School of Colorado, eight hours a day – during working hours. Thinking Mercersburg? The New York Times dismissed 22 people at a pension office in a very essay College, Virginia, for passing around potentially offensive e-mails, including some that allegedly included sex jokes and pornographic images. Dow Chemical Company dismissed 50 employees and critical workbook Mercersburg, disciplined 200 others for abuse of for an essay School, e-mail at critical thinking Academy, one of its Michigan plants, which included off-color jokes, pictures of naked women, depiction of write a conclusion du Leman, sex acts and thinking workbook Mercersburg Academy, violent images.

Months later, Dow dismissed 24 workers and write College du Leman, disciplined an additional 235 employees for thinking Mercersburg Academy, the same misconduct at how to Valley, one of thinking Academy, its Texas plants. In 2001, Ontario’s Ministry of Natural Resources disciplined 66 employees, six of whom were dismissed for viewing, transmitting and storing pornography and write essay, other objectionable material. In 2003, the Yukon Government’s investigation into the same kind of misconduct implicated 542 employees and resulted in disciplinary action against 96 people. c. Network and Systems Performance. Network performance is an important issue for businesses as a downed system can cost hours in lost productivity across the workforce, loss customers and workbook Mercersburg, revenue, and untold damage to reputation. Efficiency of the computer network is also an important factor in business productivity and write essay, performance.

A major concern for employers is network bandwidth traffic, including slowdowns related to thinking Mercersburg Academy, employees downloading, sharing and Independent College, using large audio and video files, Internet surfing and high volumes of workbook Mercersburg Academy, personal e-mail. These activities can also introduce viruses that may attack and disable a network. d. Employee Productivity. As companies invest heavily in sophisticated PDAs, computers and statement essay Fountain School, software for employees, concerns over employee use of employer computer resources is critical Mercersburg, a major motivation for employee monitoring. In 2000, the Angus Reid Group reported that Canadian employees spent about 800 million work hours each year on personal Internet use. The survey found that Canadian employees with Internet access at work averaged eight hours online per week, of which at least two hours were for personal reasons. Another survey has claimed that 25 percent of employees admitted spending 10 to 30 minutes each workday surfing non-related work sites. Help Queen Ethelburga’s? A further 22 percent admitted spending 30 to 60 minutes each workday surfing nonrelated work sites. Astonishingly, 12 percent admitted spending one to two hours and thinking Mercersburg, 13 percent admitted spending more than two hours each workday surfing Internet sites unrelated to their jobs.

Each of the above concerns can form a legitimate basis to monitor employees. Weighed against help an essay College these concerns, however, are the privacy rights an employee may have. 4. Employee monitoring. Employee monitoring has become a major part to the employees in critical Mercersburg Academy, these days. In every workplace every employer should develop their company, gain their targets, profits through their way to argumentative Independent College, success is must. So they should know whether their employees are working or not in their working hours. Employers are wishing to critical workbook Mercersburg, monitor the behaviors of the employees, performances, actually are they working, personal activities and restroom break etc. Electronic monitoring is for an College, intrinsically no more invasive than traditional supervision.

It is although never in origin. In today’s digital world, numerous employers are implementing employee monitoring software. On occasion, managers inform their staff that they are being monitored. Employers use many methods to monitor their employees; Video surveillance, Computer monitoring, Spying, Investigators, Eavesdropping, Undercover operatives, Wiretapping, E- mail and Active badge systems are some of critical workbook Mercersburg Academy, them. Now let’s see what types of employee monitoring that currently being are conducting in the workplaces one by one.

a. Video surveillance. In the workplace employer use the video surveillance to monitor their employees’ activities, performances and behaviors through the cameras. These cameras are placed in a conclusion essay College du Leman, open and critical thinking Mercersburg, noticeable areas, while others may be installed secretly hidden. Mostly, employers are use tiny fish eye cameras because they will unnoticed after few days of the installation so employees are monitored by secretly, they do not know that they are present. College? But they provide very important surveillance information for the employers about their employees. b. Computer monitoring. Computer monitoring is a system that monitors every work is gain with the critical thinking Mercersburg computer by the employees. In Writing An Essay? This system can check performance of the employee, spending time particular for those employees are involved in word processing and data entry, used to track the amount of time employees spend away from their computer or are idle at the terminal or to see what is stored in thinking Mercersburg Academy, employees’ computer terminals and hard disks, Accessed websites as well as date, time, duration and frequency of visit, Online searches, File downloads and uploads, Software installations, The use of portable hard drives and other external media, Document printing, creation, reading, modification, copying, moving and deletion, Keyboard strokes, Sent and received email correspondence and attached documents, The transcripts of conversations that occur via chat or instant messaging applications, Usernames, passwords and account IDs, Launched applications, Screenshots of images displayed on computer screen. This system allows management of the company to keep records of how to write for an essay Valley of Colorado, every employee performances, professional behaviors, aids in the appraisal review process and provides the information requirements to implement standards for performances of thinking Mercersburg Academy, employees.

Not only do this system allows employers to a conclusion College du Leman, keep closer tabs on employees they also give employees access to information about their own performance, which they can then use to critical thinking workbook Academy, improve. Spying is the next type of write essay College du Leman, employee monitoring. This done when management or someone assigned by critical workbook Academy, the management secretly observes other employees. Usually, other employees under investigation do not know what is going on. d. Eavesdropping and wiretapping. Employers use eavesdropping and wiretapping as a common method in workplaces. Mostly, employees are using company telephone for help in writing an essay College, make their personal calls. In this act employers may monitor calls with clients or customers for reasons of critical Mercersburg Academy, quality control. Employee, who answer telephone calls, all day are monitored in detail, which the exact number and duration of each call, and the idle time between calls, can go into how to write a thesis Fountain Valley of Colorado an automatic log for analysis. Employers may also use the monitoring of calls with clients to improve quality. The results of this method may assist employers and employees to serve customers better by determining when an Mercersburg Academy, employee needs additional training.

It may also detect if any employee is giving critical information about the company to outsiders. Not every business is aware of this requirement, so employees’ calls might still be monitored without a warning. e. How To Clifton? Undercover operatives. In a workplace the communication, understanding and trustworthy between employer and employee is must. So employer should know about their employees, to gather information of the employees, they are using undercover operatives. f. E- Mail monitoring. Email has become the workbook Academy main communication method in the modern world because it’s simply and really private. But in the workplace which uses an email system, is not private, when the employees are using the how to statement for an Valley School mail system employer allowed to critical Mercersburg Academy, review all the activities. In this system Messages have sent, to where, the time and date, subject, content and everything can monitor by good Clifton College, the employer. This includes web-based email accounts such as Gmail and Yahoo as well as instant messages. Critical Mercersburg Academy? The same holds true for voice mail systems.

In general, employees should not assume that these activities are not being monitored and write good essay Clifton, are private. E-mail systems retain messages in memory even after they have been deleted. Although it appears they are erased, they are often permanently “backed up” on magnetic tape, along with other important data from the computer system. Critical Thinking Workbook Academy? If employee have deleted them from the terminal, but they are still in the system. Many e-mail systems have marking as ‘Private’ option, but it does not guarantee the messages are kept confidential. Research Bosworth Independent College? An exception is when an critical workbook, employer’s written electronic mail policy states that messages marked “private” are kept confidential.

Even in this situation, however, there may be exceptions. g. Active badge systems. Active badges are given to the employees from their workplace that is a credit card sized badge that an employee wears on write essay, the outside of his or her clothing so movement can be monitored in a building using his or her unique ID. This badge is made with a small transmitting device and operating by a small lithium battery. This transmitting device sensor distributes the workplace, pick up the signals from them and receives via a small network to located server. This server converts the workbook Mercersburg Academy transmitting signals to information that can access through the how to Clifton College LAN. Infrared sensors need to be placed in every room and corridor to track active badges as they move through a building.

So employers can monitor their employees are available in the workplace or not. Through this system reduces telephone traffic, saves time, wasted journeys and saves cost of phone calls. h. Social media monitoring. Many employers have social media policies that limit what employees can and cannot post on social networking sites about their employer. A website called Compliance Building has a database of social media policies for hundreds of companies. Employees should ask their supervisor or HR department what the policy is for their employer. 5. Ethical analyzing. When considering this workplace monitoring in ethically, we should discuss is thinking Mercersburg, this monitoring case good or bad? By the help of the ethical principles and theories analyze this.

Kantianism states that peoples’ actions must to be guided by moral laws, and that these moral laws are universal. Kant’ places a substantial importance on research Bosworth College, intention and states, ‘the only thing in the world that can be called good, without qualification is a good will.’ Kant established two categorical imperative expressions: (1) Act only from critical thinking Mercersburg Academy, moral rules that you can at College, the same time will to thinking workbook Academy, be universal moral laws. (2) Act so that you always treat both yourself and other people as ends in themselves, and never as a means to research College, an end. According to the 1st expression, computer monitoring is unethical because if monitoring employees were ethical, then the proposed universal rule would be: ‘A person should spy on others to ensure his or her benefit.’ Furthermore, this universal rule would promote greediness and selfishness, which conquests Kantianism’s essential value of good will. According to the 2nd expression, computer monitoring is wrong because employers are monitoring their subordinates as a means to earning a higher profit not as ends in themselves. Through this all types of monitoring, employee’s privacy has been affected by employer in the workplace. Thinking Mercersburg? But as a workplace employer should keep some regulations and privacy policies to maintain their company. An employer should monitor the activities of his employees that practicality demands. Employer believes that employee who knows that he is being watched and monitored by his employee is more likely to complete his work. Commonly employees do not devote the full 8 hours a day for company-related work, so employees are conducted to the task by their employer.

Let’s discuss what are the legal, ethical, professional and social issues of the article Harrow workplace privacy? As technologies advance, employees are seeing an increasing tendency for employers to take actions that limit their privacy. Laws governing and protecting privacy in the workplace are evolving, but they aren’t keeping stride with technology. Protect from unreasonable publicity given to employee’s private life, prevent and detect crime, establish the existence of thinking workbook Mercersburg Academy, facts, avoiding indiscrimination and e-harassment, protect from of journal articles, unreasonable intrusion upon employee’s isolation and protect from appropriation of thinking workbook Mercersburg, employee’s personal accounts/social networks/telephone conversation/voicemail are the situations that made a need to help an essay Queen College, arise of these legislations. When we are talking about the legal issues of workplace privacy, there are three main legislations. They are Electronic Communications and critical thinking workbook Mercersburg Academy, Privacy Act 1986, The Data Protection Act 1998 and Human Rights Act 1998.

Electronic Communications and Privacy Act 1986(ECPA)was enacted to extend government restrictions on article Harrow, wire taps from telephone calls to include transmissions of electronic data by critical, computer by the United States congress. Title I of the ECPA protects wire, oral, and electronic communications while in transit. It sets down requirements for help in writing Queen, search warrants that are more stringent than in other settings. Title II of the ECPA protects communications held in electronic storage, most notably messages stored on thinking workbook Academy, computers. Title III prohibits the use of help in writing Queen College, pen register and/or traps and trace devices to record dialing, routing, addressing, and signaling information used in the process of critical thinking Mercersburg Academy, transmitting wire or electronic communications without a court order. ECPA prohibits employers from how to write, intercepting e-mails, telephone calls, and faxes. But despite the general prohibitions of the ECPA, employers may generally monitor email and internet usage if the critical thinking Academy employee has consented to how to write Fountain of Colorado, the monitoring. Consent is usually obtained by having the employee execute an acknowledgment of a computer and internet usage policy which makes clear that searches may occur, and that the employee has no reasonable expectation of workbook Mercersburg, privacy in the data stored on the office computer, or in any other communication medium.

The policy should also make it clear that computers are to be used only for business purposes, and it should strictly prohibit unauthorized use of email or the research Bosworth internet for any other purpose, including but not limited to, downloading pornographic, offensive, or harassing communications, copyrighted or trade secret information, or any other non-business related information. The Data Protection Act 1998(DPA) was enacted by United Kingdom law on the processing of critical thinking Academy, data on identifiable living people. This is mainly legislation that governs the protection of help an essay Queen Ethelburga’s College, personal data. When the employers are accessing the thinking personal information of employee they should follow some data protection principles with this act. The act contains eight ‘Data Protection Principles’.

These specify that personal data must be: 1. Processed fairly and lawfully. 2. Journal Critique? Obtained for specified and lawful purposes. 3. Adequate, relevant and not excessive. 4. Accurate and up to date. 5. Not kept any longer than necessary. 6. Processed in critical thinking workbook Mercersburg Academy, accordance with the how to essay Clifton ‘data subject’s’ (the individual’s) rights. 7. Securely kept. 8. Not transferred to any other country without adequate protection in thinking workbook, situ.

Human Rights Act 1998 article 1 says, ‘All human beings are born free and equal in dignity and critical analysis School, rights. They are endowed with reason and conscience and should act towards one another in critical thinking workbook Mercersburg, a spirit of brotherhood.’ And article 3 says, ‘Everyone has the right to life, liberty and security of person.’ So while employers are monitoring their employees first they should treat them as human. According to this workplace privacy legislations, when employers are monitoring they should tell their employees about the monitoring areas and should avoid some places as restrooms and try to give the employees a little bit privacy when they needed. In the how to write a thesis for an essay School workplace there is no any execution for employee’s privacy. In this monitoring case employee’s privacy has been affected in the workplace because the employer is watching their employees every moment. So the employee feels less freedom at the workplace.

And electronic monitoring systems are always giving pressure to perform for employee. These ranges of stressful working situations those related to monitoring such as heavy workload, repetitive task, employees have no time to critical Mercersburg, relaxation.This is highly violates Privacy Rights of the employee. Employers are monitoring employees without his or her permission in this act violates Rights and freedom of expression. Within this issues employee can suffer physically and mentally disorders because of the tension. So some employees going addict of using drugs for release their tension. Help An Essay Ethelburga’s? Finally it may cause for having problems with their family and society also.

Employee monitoring in the workplace is not a random and illegal act of the employer. Because the employers are considered liable for failure to thinking Mercersburg, enact policies that will prevent the employees from article School, engaging in unethical and illegal act it is only rightful and just for the employers to be allowed to monitor the activities of thinking, their employees to restrict them from violating existing company policy. In the same manner, employers pay the employees for help Queen Ethelburga’s College, the entire work hours. As such, it is the workbook Mercersburg right of the employees to determine whether the employees are devoting their time for the company. Employees might also think that management just focus on article critique Harrow, the revenue generation than to provide proper relaxation that is inevitable for mental health and that mental health is the catalyst for quality production. These assumption and perceptions adversely affect on the employees’ performance and privacy that they are bound to act as robot and they even has not any room to have friendly discussion on general issues etc., the highly restrict policy might disturb the employee confidence in the level that even might think in the rest room and locker they will also be vigilance. In this report, I have discussed about this issue in professionally, ethically, socially and critical thinking workbook Mercersburg Academy, legally. Finally I should say the both parties, who employee and employer must be honest to each other. Commonly we know employees are not devoting their full working hours for the official work, this is a critical issue. So employers should monitor their employees to Queen Ethelburga’s College, gain success in the business world, it is really competitive and hard.

Every employer should implement company regulations and policies for the employees for Academy, handle them in good manner. I have given some recommendations for handle this issue in good manner and make the workplace a better one. 1. To ensure the workplace technologies are being used correctly the employer should implement privacy policies and signed in the employees for College, an agreement. Critical Workbook Mercersburg Academy? When the employers are monitoring email and internet, the employees should be informed that their individual Internet activities might be automatically logged by a network surveillance system and later reviewed by the employer for legitimate business purposes. Furthermore, when monitoring the system employers should notice that they may access e-mail system also. 2. Employers should remind employees that when they surf the Internet or use e-mail it’s holding the workplace’s domain address, they are representing their workplace not only Ethelburga’s themselves in a public medium. Critical Thinking Mercersburg Academy? So employers can implement privacy concerns and legislations about this issue and furthermore, the employer has the right to install monitoring and filtering software to block out or limit access to help an essay Ethelburga’s College, specific websites. 3. Prevent misuse of official telephone employer can provide a separate phone for employees private usage same time the employer should limit the usage with conditions.

Such as emergency calls only. Then the misusing will be decreased and thinking workbook Mercersburg, it may be improve the relationship between employer and employee. 4. How To Write A Thesis For An Essay Fountain School Of Colorado? Employees should understand that anyone who uses e-mail inappropriately or who visits inappropriate websites is subject to discipline. When they are using workplace technology resources, they should use them only for the official use. 5. Employee should not misuse official telephones for their personal usage, if they want to ensure the privacy, their personal calls should made by their own mobile phone or a separate phone designated by their employer for personal calls. ‘ Privacy Rights Clearinghouse. Mercersburg Academy? (1997). Employee monitoring: Is there privacy in the workplace? Available Internet: http://www.privacyrights.org.Accessed 15th June 2015] ‘ “Workplace Privacy and Independent, Employee Monitoring. Fact Sheet 7.” Privacy Rights Clearinghouse | Empowering Consumers. Protecting Privacy. Web… …[Accessed 15th June 2015] ‘ Employee monitoring ‘ Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia.[ Accessed 15th June 2015] ‘ Workplace ethics ‘ Professional ethics Buzzle .com .[ Accessed 15th June 2015]

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