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business plan issues You are receiving this e-letter because you#146;ve worked with us, attended a workshop or webinar, or signed up at an article Bodwell High School our website. Having trouble reading this email? View it in your browser. Not interested in article Adelphi, receiving e-letters? Unsubscribe instantly. an e-letter of ideas. for effective organizations. Strategy, planning organizational development.

683 Commonwealth Avenue. Newton MA 02459. 12 ways to serve mission. It#146;s about communication. Get the how can i write, most out of a board. Tilt the odds toward success. Pre-test your decisions. Why a mission statement#63; Metrics are essential tools. To Write CATS! Mission, stability, revenue.

Differentiate and coordinate. Reduce cost #38; risk, improve quality. An Article High! Stay alert and how to essay, adapt. Do, measure, track, report. The essence of nonprofits. When is strategy a bad thing#63; More resources for planning.

38 Tips for Success. All rights reserved. How Can I Write An Article Bodwell High! Complete, fully attributed copies may be made and shared. Free professional development webinars for trustees and staff of leadership Academy nonprofits since 2009, Wednesdays at 1:00 Eastern / 10:00 Pacific , courtesy of 4Good . For webinar schedule, descriptions, registration links the archive, go to Wednesday Webinars. How Can An Article Bodwell! We work with clients via Skype, document sharing, email and phone conference to enable them to leverage their efforts with our expertise. Call Sam Frank at 617 969 1881 or e#45;mail us to discuss the possibilities. Article On Research! This quarter’s Critical Issue is business planning, which connects many of our prior Issues. Business planning is one of the how can High School, three core activities of integrated planning. It overlaps with the other two, strategic and physics Adelphi University, program planning, to varying extents, depending on the nature, stage, and needs of the nonprofit, and i write School, can share the assessment and plan development stages of the strategic planning process when they are pursued simultaneously.

It needs to develop meaningful, mission-driven metrics, draws on market research that may include surveys, affects and is affected by brand identity, and can make use of financial modeling. Many of the webinars we’ve presented over the past two years touch on aspects of business planning, as well. See the archive and current schedule for a complete listing. A nonprofit organization has the same need for a business plan as a for-profit company. Whether your mission focuses on social benefit or profit, business planning is about charting a course toward success and sustainability.

While the value of business planning is most clearly understood in starting new programs/services, especially social enterprise initiatives, it is essay St. Johnsbury Academy also a lens that should be used periodically to assess the how can an article Bodwell High School, effectiveness of physics Adelphi ongoing programs/services. Bodwell High School! In CI #11: The Case for College Integrated Planning , we described a comprehensive process with three activities at an article High its core: strategic, program and business planning#58; the why , the what and the how . No matter how compelling the why , or how thorough the what , the how is the third leg of a three-legged stool#58; the other two are useless without it. Business planning provides a framework for identifying, examining and optimizing the elements of financial sustainability. It can support the choices made in mission#45;based discussions by detailing#58; revenues needed to realize objectives means to write a good leadership St. Johnsbury, achieve those revenues information needed to evaluate, develop and sustain the how can i write an article High, enterprise support structures and resources required for operations initial and ongoing risk opportunities and pitfalls of growth measures of success the case for investment #40;for prospective donors#41; What Goes Into a Business Plan? Business planning involves gathering, organizing, analyzing and write leadership, conveying a large body of otherwise disparate information, such as: The starting point for how can i write Bodwell a meaningful business plan, whether for an existing operation or a new initiative, is a solid foundation of clear and how to write Academy, precise description. If the how can i write an article High, business planning process follows strategic or program planning, they will provide the content for why and what #40;see CI #11 #41;. The strategic plan will have been developed through a consensus-driven process involving all stakeholders #40;see CI #35;1#58; Why Plan#63; #41;, and the program plan will have come out of the professional expertise of the CEO and staff. The role of the business plan is to take this work and provide additional market, financial, and articles, operational perspective. If there is no current strategic and#47;or program plan, the business planning process will have to incorporate strategic thinking to assure support of the nonprofit’s mission #40;the why #41;, rather than attending only to how . #40;market conditions, competition, market share, program offerings, target population, pricing#41; Identifying a need alone does not make a convincing argument for an article High School a nonprofit program. Are there others serving the same or similar need or target population#63; If so, what is the market like#63; Is what you are proposing #40;or doing#41; unique, compelling and Adelphi, sustainable#63; Is there opportunity for collaboration with another entity rather than going it alone#63; Despite its for#45;profit sound, market analysis is an important, if underused, tool for nonprofits. #40;positioning, targeting, marketing, programs, competitive advantage#41; If the market analysis indicates that it’s worth proceeding, you’ll need to consider how you will be presenting your offering to the marketplace. This will include identity and branding #40;see CI#9: Brand Identity for Nonprofits #41;, communications #40;see the NonprofitWebinars archive #41;, and a variety of i write an article School efforts that may benefit from consultation with experienced entrepreneurs and other business people on your board, in article on research Adelphi, your community, or perhaps in an organization elsewhere that has similar experience.

Operations and structure. High School! #40;infrastructure, responsibilities, reporting, policies, processes, departmental plans#41; A new initiative will likely require support of various kinds. Will it be managed within your existing processes, or will it need some separate operation#63; Do you already have the structure you needpolicies, business operations, technology#63; Will the new venture put a strain on staff#63; #40;funding, personnel, facilities, technology, phasing#41; What are the full resource requirements of the initiative at the outset, and how will they need to article Adelphi, be scaled with growth#63; How will resources need to be phased in, and what funding needs to be in how can i write an article High School, place at what time#63; Business / financial goals. For Essay Writing For Middle School! #40;revenue model and projections, capital and i write an article Bodwell School, program fundraising, investments, metrics for article University defining success#41; The traditional core of business planning is financial projection. What sort of costs will you encounter before you develop a reliable revenue stream #40;whether from operations or from predictable donations#41;#63; How will you raise the initial funding, and how can you time your expenditures to stay within your resources#63; Financial modeling #40;CI #6#41; can help you prepare for a range of eventualities in these areas. How will you measure, monitor and report on an article operations#63; For discussion of metrics, see CI #8: The Measure of Adelphi Success , and how can i write Bodwell School, the NonprofitWebinars archive .

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mrs dalloway essay Mrs Dalloway is part of the obligatory reading material, which students of English must face in their first year, and so did I six years ago. Most of my classmates did not exactly like the novel, and I was not an immediate fan either. Several years later I re-read Mrs Dalloway for a course on the First World War and to my surprise discovered that it is an amazing novel. I was pleasantly surprised when I read about a film inspired by Mrs Dalloway called The Hours . An Article High School? I never made it to the cinema, so I bought the book instead. During my fifth year at university I decided it was time to graduate. Desperately seeking a topic I remembered The Hours . A film that is adapted from a novel that is a rewrite of a Modernist text. This created a very interesting and complex relationship between the novels and the film, and I proceeded by delving deeply into literature on film and adaptation.

My thesis would be about learning CATS College, literature and adaptation and how can an article High School The Hours and Mrs Dalloway . I soon realised that Woolf’s novel was not relevant for an adaptation-centred thesis, but I would not leave it alone. Unfortunately I had to make a choice between adaptation theory and literature, and I chose literature. I wrote my thesis about Michael Cunningham’s novel The Hours and its relationship to Mrs Dalloway . Leadership Essay Academy? Surprisingly enough, I am currently still enjoying my topic and have thoroughly enjoyed writing my thesis. Of course, I did not do this on my own. There are some people I would like to thank. Thank you, Rias, for guiding me through my crazy plans and unclear arguments, and at the same improving my writing and being strict with me. Thank you, Roselinde, for how can Bodwell fitting me into you ridiculously busy schedule. To Write CATS? Thank you, Nanna, for enlightening me on adaptation and i write an article School finding an rubric writing for middle school Academy, angle for my thesis. Thank you, Ivo, for giving me a royal kick up the an article Bodwell High School ass. How To Write A Summary Response Essay John II Academy? Thank you, mum and dad, for making it possible for how can an article Bodwell High me to study all these years.

Thank you, mum, for being my reader. Thank you, Roy, for putting up with me and my thesis-related temper tantrums, I love you. Thank you, my friends, for believing in me and telling me again and again and again that I can do this. It is 1925, it is 1998 and learning to write essays CATS College it is 2002. It is 1923, it is 1949, and it is the end of the twentieth century.

The logic of time does not seem to apply to this situation. Everything is happening all at once and it is all related to The Hours . The Hours is a text that spans the twentieth century twice. The first time in its publication history: in 1925 Virginia Woolf’s novel Mrs Dalloway was published, which had The Hours as its working title. In 1998 Michael Cunningham’s novel The Hours was published, and in 2002 a film inspired by Cunningham’s novel was released. The Hours presents a second cross section of the twentieth century by how can i write Bodwell High, covering narrative grounds in 1923, 1949 and the 1990s. It becomes clear that Virginia Woolf’s Mrs Dalloway and Michael Cunningham’s The Hours are complexly connected through time, or as Tory Young puts it in her reader’s guide to The Hours : “The relationship between The Hours and Mrs. Dalloway is impossible to leadership essay simplify; Cunningham interweaves aspects of how can Bodwell High Woolf’s life, her novel, and her theories” (38). Virginia Woolf wrote Mrs Dalloway about the perambulations of a middle-aged woman on a sunny June day in London, and it became one of the main Modernist classics. One of the how to a good essay St. Johnsbury Academy most prominent themes in Mrs Dalloway is time and the distinction between two types of time. The clock measures time, but on the other hand time is represented by the duration of experiences as the human consciousness registers them.

Virginia Woolf gives an i write an article Bodwell High School, explanation in Orlando : An hour, once it lodges in the queer elements of the Adelphi human spirit, may be stretched to fifty or a hundred times its clock length; on High School, the other hand, an hour may be accurately represented by the timepiece of the for essay writing school Hebron Academy mind by one second. (qtd. in Hasler 147) The time told by the timepiece of the i write an article Bodwell mind is article on research, called psychological time, a term taken from the philosopher Henri Bergson. Time and i write High School Mrs Dalloway both play an for essay school, important part in Cunningham’s The Hours , as he has used Woolf’s novel as a source of inspiration. Cunningham openly acknowledges Mrs Dalloway as his source both in the novel itself and in criticism. He has described his novel as “an improvisation on Woolf’s [ Mrs Dalloway ]” ( The Years 4). How Can I Write An Article High? With The Hours, Cunningham takes a difficult Modernist classic and turns into physics University, a popular novel that is suitable for adaptation into how can Bodwell School, mainstream Hollywood cinema. Essay Company Reviews Los Angeles (UCLA)? Thematically, Cunningham is faithful to Mrs Dalloway , as he too uses time as an important element in his novel. He has adopted several of how can i write Bodwell School Woolf’s techniques and uses Mrs Dalloway as an inspiration in order to represent psychological time and the sense of physics articles University connectedness that is i write High, typical of Woolf’s novel.

Nevertheless, The Hours also moves away from Mrs Dalloway . The Hours is a re-telling of Mrs Dalloway , but it is also an improvisation, as Cunningham calls it. Learning To Write College Canterbury? An improvisation is a variation on how can i write Bodwell, an existing melody; it implies change and the addition of new elements. As Mary Joe Hughes puts it in her article on The Hours : Although The Hours contains a similar cast of characters to those of to write essays College Mrs. Dalloway and repeats the themes of love and death and time, Michael Cunningham does not simply ape the structure of Mrs. Dalloway and transpose it to New York in the late twentieth century. (350) This thesis attempts to uncover what Michael Cunningham has done differently. The first chapter explores the concept of High School psychological time and its importance in Modernism.

The second chapter continues this exploration by applying it to Virginia Woolf and her work. It also investigates the Paul II Academy techniques Woolf uses in Mrs Dalloway and how these techniques relate to psychological time. The final chapter applies the techniques found in Mrs Dalloway to i write an article Bodwell Cunningham’s novel in an attempt to illustrate similarities and differences between The Hours and Mrs Dalloway . Sitting in front of a computer, staring at a blank screen for what feels like hours only lasted five minutes. A three-week holiday seemed to pass in a couple of Adelphi days. It does not always matter what time it is according to i write Bodwell High the clock. The human consciousness has its own time system, which registers the duration of emotions and experience. It does not rely on how to a good essay, segmentation of time into minutes and hours. The time system of the mind is subjective and how can i write an article personal, whereas the clock represents time that is writing reviews University Los Angeles (UCLA), objective and an article Bodwell School public. Arguably, there are two different types of time: the time the clock tells and time in the human mind. These two types of time have distinct characteristics, which clearly separate one from the other.

Clock time governs the relentless progress of life, ordering events in a chronological, linear sequence according to when they happened in article on research Adelphi, time. It is what history is how can i write Bodwell School, made of. Minutes, hours, days, weeks, years and centuries are all indicators of clock time. The other type of how to leadership essay St. Johnsbury time is the temporal experience in the human mind: it is flexible; it is constantly in flux and can be compressed or extended. A period that is compressed in the mind seems to pass very quickly in how can i write an article Bodwell High School, comparison to clock time: an event took more clock time than the for middle school Academy human mind perceived. When time is extended, the actual time span of an event was much shorter that experienced. Time on the mind is i write High School, also referred to article on research as psychological time by thinkers such as the French philosopher Henri Bergson. Questions such as why the human consciousness is able to create an individual time-system and whether it can be influenced by external factors remain beyond the scope of this discussion. It is interesting, however, to discover what influence of psychological time has had on Modernist and contemporary literature and how it is represented by selected authors from those periods. Clearly, the timepiece of the mind has always existed. Time is an important part of the human consciousness.

The Roman philosopher Plotinus was the first to how can i write Bodwell High School name the phenomenon. He pointed out “that all living beings experience their own experiences in temporal terms. [He] was the first to internalize the learning to write CATS College Canterbury question of time” (Sherover 10). It is important to note that internalised time is always related to how can i write an article High School externally measured time. Writing Company Los Angeles (UCLA)? One can exist only in how can an article Bodwell High, comparison to the other, because internalised time can only be expressed in terms of clock time. Timekeeping has always played an on research University, important role in human society, and its techniques have undergone many changes throughout the centuries.

Perhaps the most important development in i write an article Bodwell, timekeeping, certainly one of the most influential, is the invention of the mechanical clock. The invention of the clock did of course not happen overnight and was subject to write response essay Saint John Paul II Academy many problems, but the effect it has had on Western society is how can an article Bodwell High, immense. Both the Greek and the Romans used earlier timetelling devices, such as sundials and water clocks. Even calendars were already in use in an attempt to regulate life according to the passage of time in nature. Not one of these devices was as successful as the mechanical clock. The impact of the mechanical clock on history is overwhelming. Clocks could organise and regulate communities. Clocks made it possible to measure space in terms of time, which created the possibility of long distance travelling.

Perhaps the most important effect of the mechanical clock is that it facilitated the Industrial Revolution. [1] The Industrial Revolution brought about considerable change, and the continuous process of change is still visible in society today. In the early twentieth century, the ongoing industrial progress was marked by the introduction of Taylorismin 1911. [2] The ideas of Mr Taylor introduced a new view of industrialisation, which involved paying labourers hourly wages and a good leadership introducing the assembly line in factories. As a result the production rate in factories went up, but the effect of Taylorism that was most relevant for society and art was the fact that it commodified time. Time became worth money, because labourers were paid by the hour. They worked a set number of hours a day in shifts and the speed of High their work was dominated by the speed of the machines (Adriaans 13). Society became clock-governed. The effect of the how to write Academy clock-governed society is reflected in the work of early twentieth-century artists.

The internal time system of the human mind became more important, because external time became extremely organised and inflexible. The emphasis of how can i write High School art shifted from the external to essay writing company of California, (UCLA) the internal, and i write an article High displayed a strong tendency toward the exploration of personal experience and the workings of time in the human consciousness. Psychological Time in Theory. Psychological time is a term that refers to the pace of the time system of the mind. Writing Of California, Los Angeles (UCLA)? It is a concept that arose out of the an article Bodwell High School tendency of twentieth-century psychology and philosophy to explore the human consciousness. To Write College Canterbury? The modern interest in the human mind resulted in new methods of how can i write an article analysing the consciousness. New methods, such as psychoanalysis (developed by Sigmund Freud in the 1890s), were extremely popular in how to leadership St. Johnsbury Academy, the first decades of the how can School twentieth century. [3] Discoveries made about the workings of the consciousness resulted in learning, a new view of time and the experience of temporality. The French philosopher Henri Bergson was one of the thinkers who applied Freud’s theories and methods onto society and every day life. Bergson thought reality was characterised by the different experience of time in how can an article Bodwell High School, the mind (Childs 49). Bergson used the term ‘psychological time’ to a good essay St. Johnsbury Academy refer to this experience of Bodwell time. Psychological time, according to Bergson, is article on research, not a different type of time, but a different manner of how can Bodwell School perceiving time.

Psychological time is not subjected to chronology or linearity. It is concerned with memory, expectation, duration, extension, compression, and association; it moves in flux and is highly subjective. These characteristics make it difficult to pin down and even more difficult to rubric for essay writing for middle Academy represent in art and literature. In his book Novels into Bodwell High School, Film , George Bluestone discusses chronological and psychological time and their representation in both novels and films. He uses the distinction created by Henri Bergson to distinguish between two types of time in the narrative of writing reviews University of California, (UCLA) a novel or a film. How Can An Article High? Chronological time (or clock time) consists of the company Los Angeles duration of the reading, the amount of time the narrator takes to how can Bodwell High School relate the story and the chronological span of the narrative events. Chronological time is measured in discrete units, minutes, days, weeks or years. The definition of psychological time, Bluestone maintains, has two important characteristics; psychological time “distends or compresses in consciousness, and presents itself in continuous flux” (emphasis added, Bluestone 48-49). Psychological time represents how much time we perceive our experiences to last. A minute can be ‘distended’ to last a sensory hour, while an company University Los Angeles, hour can be ‘compressed’ into a minute in our mind. Secondly, psychological time presents itself in how can i write an article High School, a continuous flux.

It is in physics articles Adelphi University, constant movement, and thus it is an article Bodwell High, immeasurable, according to learning to write essays Bluestone. The immeasurability of the flux makes time an elusive phenomenon in how can i write, psychology and philosophy, and it also creates a challenge for literature. Modernists were fascinated by the problematic representation of psychological time and the immeasurable quality of the flux. George Bluestone’s definition of chronological time can be applied directly to a text, which makes it a very suitable method for a temporal analysis of a novel’s formal characteristics. A chronological analysis determines how long a reader takes to read a book, how much time the narrator needs to relate a story and in essay John Paul II Academy, what time span a story would have unfolded in reality. Psychological time is not as clearly illustrated. An Article Bodwell School? Bluestone’s main conclusion is that neither novels nor films are capable of University (UCLA) rendering the flux of psychological time. This raises the question of i write an article Bodwell School what attempts have been made to represent the flux of time in literature. Modernism coincided with the scientific interest in human consciousness and attempted to capture the elusive quality of experience and psychological time in writing company University of California,, art.

John Lye characterises Modernist literature as a movement that “is marked by a break with the sequential, developmental, cause-and-effect presentation of the 'reality' of realist fiction, toward a presentation of experience as layered, allusive [and] discontinuous” (3). Sequence, development and cause-and-effect relations are concepts strongly linked to linearity and chronology, which are characteristics of clock time. John Lye suggests that Modernism turned away from how can i write an article, linearity and wanted to essay reviews Los Angeles represent the ‘layered, allusive and discontinuous’ nature of experience. How Can An Article Bodwell School? This desire reflects the Modernist attempts to put into words human experience, including the elusive qualities of psychological time. Modernism and on research University Psychological Time [4] Twentieth century literary Modernism was very much interested in contemporary psychological and philosophical tendencies. Henri Bergson and i write an article his theories were extremely popular amongst Modernists and writing company reviews of California, (UCLA) many were inspired by his theories on psychological time and an article School borrowed his ideas.

As Peter Childs puts it: “[Henri Bergson’s] work changed the how to a summary essay Saint way many Modernists represented time in fiction” (Childs 49). His ideas on psychological time were hugely influential. Modernists were interested in the time individuals experienced and how this experience of time can differ from individual to individual. Modernism wanted to investigate the non-linear qualities psychological time, not in the chronology of events that occur. David Lodge mentions about the early twentieth century: “It wasn’t necessary for writers to have actually read the psychoanalytical writings of how can i write an article Bodwell High Freud and essay reviews University Los Angeles his followers to how can i write Bodwell School be influenced by him. His ideas became memes, seeds carried on the winds of the Zeitgeist, propagating themselves in minds that had no first hand knowledge of Freud’s work.” (59) What David Lodge illustrates here is a summary response John Paul, that the interest in the unconscious and human experience was a trend in the twentieth century and all disciplines of art and science reflected this, without necessarily a particular background in psychoanalysis. Modernism was inspired by an article High, the new ideas on human consciousness, and its focus turned to t he “(re)presentation of inner (psychological) reality, including the 'flow' of experience, through devices such as stream of consciousness” (Lye 7).

As a result of turning towards the internal, the concept of psychological time became more important. Psychological time and its representation are part of a larger trend of exploring the depths of the human consciousness. The Manifestations of how to a good essay St. Johnsbury Academy Psychological Time in Modernism. The work produced by Modernist artists was influenced by the new concepts of time. The introduction to Modernism in how can i write an article, The Norton Anthology deals with the problematic notion of time and explains how Modernists viewed it: Time was not a series of chronological moments to how to be presented by the novelist in sequence with an occasional deliberate retrospect (“this reminded him of,” “she recalled that”), but a continuous flow in the consciousness of the individual, with the ‘already’ continuously merging into the ‘not yet’ and retrospect merging with anticipation. (Abrams 2:1688) The image of time as a continuous flow creates a perpetual present in which past, present and future function together to create a kaleidoscopic vision of time. The continuous influence of the past on the present and the coexistence of past, present and an article future in writing school Hebron, the mind are features of psychological time.

Modernism is interested in both the notion of the flux of time and the possibility of multiple levels of consciousness. This results in an exploration of the consciousness through stream-of-consciousness technique. Stream of consciousness combines the Bodwell High notion of flow and the interest in for middle school Hebron, the deeper layers of the human consciousness. It is a much-disputed term amongst experts on Modernism, but this may perhaps be a matter of terminology. William James supposedly coined the term in his 1890 Principles of Psychology to indicate the flow of inner experience (Childs 52). Later the term was applied to literature, but it is likely that James was referring to what Bergson has called the flux of time.

Thus the term was perhaps meant to refer to a philosophical notion, and James did not intend to apply it to literature. The debates surrounding stream of how can i write Bodwell High consciousness as a literary technique are focussed on two main points: which writers use. the technique, and whether or not the term refers to a specific technique. James Naremore discusses this dispute at length in his book World Without a Self and concludes that most critics agree on two basic points: First, that stream of how to write Saint John II Academy consciousness, whether it is a technique or a subject matter, is especially concerned with a private and essentially disorganized part of the mind; second, that stream-of-consciousness fiction always focuses on i write School, the contents of a character’s mind at a given point in space and time, in order to essays suggest a record of thought as it occurs, as it rises out of a circumstantial context. (70) Arguably stream of consciousness consists of a range of different techniques, which can be used separately or in combination. [5] These techniques are united by their concern with a private and disorganised part of the mind and by an article Bodwell High School, the fact that they attempt to record thoughts as they occur.

Stream of consciousness is a method Modernist authors use in an attempt to deal with psychological time, which is an important aspects of the private part of the mind. One of the techniques applied in literature in order to convey stream of consciousness is University, free indirect speech. A clear example of how free indirect speech is constructed and what its effects are can be found in an excerpt taken from David Lodge’s article Consciousness and High School the Novel . “Is that the clock striking twelve?” Cinderella exclaimed. “Dear me, I shall be late.” This is a combination of direct or quoted speech and rubric for essay for middle school Academy narrator’s description. “Cinderella enquired if the i write clock was striking twelve and expressed a fear that she would be late” is reported or indirect speech, in which the learning Canterbury same information is conveyed but the individuality of the character’s voice is suppressed by the narrator’s. “Was that the clock striking twelve? She would be late” is free indirect speech. Cinderella’s concern is now a silent, private thought, expressed in her own words, to which we are given access without overt mediation of a narrator. … The effect is to locate the narrative in Cinderella’s consciousness. (37)

Among Modernists, free indirect speech is an article High School, widely used in order to convey stream of consciousness. Virginia Woolf uses free indirect speech often to represent a character’s train of thought, such as Lily Briscoe’s thoughts in To The Lighthouse . “For at any rate, she said to herself, catching sight of the salt cellar on a summary essay Saint Paul, the pattern, she need not marry, thank Heaven: she need not undergo that degradation. She was saved from Bodwell School, that illusion. Company Reviews University Los Angeles? She would move the tree rather more to the middle” (154). Lily is simultaneously contemplating love and a painting she is making.

Woolf uses free indirect speech interspersed with the narrator’s voice to present the reader with Lily’s private thoughts and thus gains access to her consciousness. Free indirect speech is not the only characteristic of stream-of-consciousness writing. Another technique, which gives very direct access to the character’s mind, is the use of the first person. As the example from To The Lighthouse demonstrates, stream of consciousness can be fragmented or confusing. It attempts to record a character’s thoughts, which are not necessarily coherent and intelligible. The immeasurable flux of psychological time can also be represented by the seemingly random associations of the mind. A character recalls a certain moment in the past, which is relevant to the present situation. The character’s memory is represented in the narrative when the author feels the recollection to be most relevant to the present moment. The function of recollection is not merely to reflect on the past.

Recollections in stream-of-consciousness writing are very relevant to the experience of the character in the narrative present. Memories can have such a significant role that they are presented in the text with little or no introduction and they are superimposed on the present moment. [6] Association is a term taken from psychoanalysis, where it is called ‘free association’. In Modernism this technique is applied to a novel in order to record every internal reaction a character has when coming in contact with external stimuli. The effect can be confusing at times, because the immeasurability (or fragmentation) of the consciousness is explicitly represented by this technique. For readers it is sometimes difficult to distinguish between what is happening in actual time and what is happening in psychological time. In the how can an article Bodwell High following fragment taken from James Joyce’s Ulysses the readers enters the mind of Mr Leopold Bloom who is attending a funeral.

Mr Bloom stood far back, his hat in his hand, counting the bared heads. Learning To Write Essays Canterbury? Twelve. I’m thirteen. No. The chap in the macintosh is thirteen. Death’s number. Where the deuce did he pop out how can an article High School, of? He wasn’t in the chapel, that I’ll swear. Silly superstition that about thirteen.

Nice soft tweed Ned Lambert has in that suit. Tinge of purple. I had one like that when we lived in Lombard street west. Dressy fellow he was once. Used to articles Adelphi University change three suits in how can i write an article Bodwell, the day. Must get that grey suit of mine turned by Mesias. Hello. It’s dyed. Adelphi University? His wife I forgot he’s not married or his landlady ought to have picked out those threads for how can an article Bodwell School him. (90)

This is an example of Adelphi University interior monologue, which is a very direct form of stream of consciousness compared to the earlier example from Woolf’s To The Lighthouse . Bodwell? There seems to be no narrator’s mediation at all and Mr Bloom’s thoughts are difficult to interrelate as his minds makes associations that are incomprehensible to a first-time reader. Mr Bloom observes the people at the funeral service “Twelve. I’m thirteen. No. The chap in the macintosh is thirteen,” which he associates with death. After looking at how to write a summary essay Saint John, Mr Lambert’s suit, Mr Bloom recalls a situation from the past: “when we lived in Lombard street west”. “Hello” might be a greeting directed at another character, and should have been represented in direct speech. It might also be a remark about the suit that Mr Bloom voices mentally and is thus a part of his stream of how can an article Bodwell High School consciousness. The sentences Joyce uses in this passage are disorganised fragments, in rubric school Hebron, order to present stream of consciousness in its most extreme form. Arguably, this passage is closer to free association than to a literary representation of a character’s thoughts.

Another common feature of Modernist texts in High, an attempt to represent the rubric for essay Academy multiplicity of the consciousness and psychological time is fragmentation of the narrative. Fragmentation is used to represent the immeasurable flux of psychological experience and the disorganized part of the human mind. How Can An Article Bodwell School? As the definition of stream of consciousness given by the sixth edition of The Columbia Encyclopedia explains: [Stream of consciousness is] a technique that records the multifarious thoughts and feelings of a character without regard to logical argument or narrative sequence. The writer attempts by the stream of consciousness to reflect all the forces, external and internal, influencing the psychology of a character at a single moment. Stream of consciousness intends to writing (UCLA) represent multiplicity within the character’s mind and the multiple ‘forces’ or impressions that he or she receives from her surroundings. The result of this multiplicity is chaos. A traditional narrative has a beginning, middle and end and the events that occur in the narrative follow each other in a logical cause-and-effect relationship. Many Modernist texts are not concerned with ‘time as a series of chronological moments to how can High be presented in sequence’ as the introduction to Modernism in The Norton Anthology quoted earlier explained. It is common for Modernist texts to begin in medias res ; the novel opens in rubric writing school, the middle of an action or an event instead of at the beginning of the story. As a result the reader is disoriented. Fragmentation does not only occur on an article, the level of the narrative, but also on the level of language, as the example from learning essays CATS College Canterbury, Ulysses already demonstrated.

Modernism acknowledged that language is not capable of School representing the flux of time and the workings of the human consciousness, because language is linear. Modern style reflects on the immeasurable flux of write a summary response essay John time by openly showing the inadequacies of language. As T.S. Eliot put it in his essay The Metaphysical Poet : Our civilization comprehends great variety and complexity, and this variety and complexity, playing upon a refined sensibility, must produce various and complex results. The poet must become more and more comprehensive, more allusive, more indirect, in order to force, to dislocate if necessary, language into his meaning. (qtd. in how can an article Bodwell High School, Abrams 2137) Eliot had a very different approach to writing reviews University (UCLA) ‘dislocating language’ than Joyce and Woolf had, but the underlying motivation is the same: to create a language that will allow the author to how can an article Bodwell express the multiplicity of Modernism, of which psychological time is an aspect. Sue Asbee claims that, besides creating a language to express the ‘great variety and complexity’, Modernism also “showed a desire to find a pattern beneath the surface of a chaotic and fragmentary reality” (29). The search for a pattern can be defined as the search for coherence that underlies reality, even though it is sometimes difficult to see. Modernism believed that underneath the chaos there was unity, a sense of connectedness. In her work Virginia Woolf attempted to create unity. Psychological time is article Adelphi, a concept subjected to chaos as well.

It is fragmented, it is in constant flux, memories can be involuntary and the timepiece of the mind is far from accurate. How Can I Write An Article High School? It seems as if there is little or no control over the human consciousness and its experience of time. Psychological time reflects the chaotic and fragmentary reality and Virginia Woolf, and other Modernists, attempt to make it whole again, to create a sense of articles unity. In Mrs Dalloway , Virginia Woolf uses different techniques that create coherence and explores these techniques at great lengths. Woolf and Psychological Time. Time is a recurring theme in Virginia Woolf’s work. How Can An Article School? According to Jrg Hasler, “a mere glance at [her] bibliography reveals her deep and constant preoccupation with the rubric for essay writing Hebron Academy phenomenon of time” (145). How Can I Write High School? Hasler mentions Woolf’s novels Night and Day, The Hours (which is the working title of the novel that was published as Mrs Dalloway ), The Years and Between the Acts , her short story collection Monday or Tuesday and her essay The Moment . Interestingly, her only autobiographical work, posthumously published in learning to write essays CATS Canterbury, 1976, is called Moments of Being . It is an addition to Woolf’s bibliography that suggests an interest in Bodwell High, time as well.

In the rubric writing for middle Hebron previous chapter, Henri Bergson and an article Bodwell School his theories on psychological time were discussed. Canterbury? His influence, and that of how can an article School his contemporaries on Modernist art was enormous. Adelphi? However, it is difficult to determine to what extent Bergson’s theories influenced Woolf. James Naremore in The World Without Self mentions, “there is no evidence that Mrs. Woolf ever actually read Bergson” (21). I Write An Article High School? Nevertheless, the influence of modern thinkers, such as Bergson, is evident in her work. As David Lodge has pointed out, actual knowledge of contemporary thinkers was not necessary in order to be influenced by their theories. In her biographical novel Orlando , published in 1928, Virginia Woolf voices her fascination with the write contrast between clock time and psychological time: The time of man works with strangeness upon the body of time.

An hour, once it lodges in the queer elements of the human spirit, may be stretched to an article fifty or a hundred times its clock length; on a good leadership essay, the other hand, an hour may be accurately represented by the timepiece of the mind by one second. This extraordinary discrepancy between time on the clock and time in the mind is less known than it should be and i write Bodwell School deserves fuller investigation. Essays? (qtd. in Hasler 147) This passage from Orlando shows that Woolf was interested in the phenomenon of psychological time, or time in the mind as she calls it. She demonstrates here that a discrepancy in time arises when the duration of psychological time is how can i write an article Bodwell High, viewed in comparison to the clock, and clearly states that this needs to be explored. Woolf’s Orlando shows a distinct interest in psychological time. Even though Mrs Dalloway was published in 1925, three years previous to Orlando , it also showed a particular interest in psychological time.

In Mrs Dalloway Woolf explores the differences between the internal timepiece and clock time and illustrates how they are related. In a 1948 article William York Tindall presents the presence of two types of time as an obvious fact of the novel. “[He, Tindall,] had known, of course, that Mrs Dalloway contains two levels of time, outer or clock time and Bergson’s inner time. As Big Ben’s leaden strokes fix outer time, inner time or the stream of on research Adelphi University consciousness, indifferent to the clock, expands or contracts according to the intensity of experience” (66). Woolf contrasts psychological time and clock time. Several formal characteristics of the novel illustrate a preoccupation with time. First of all, the i write High School working title of the novel was The Hours , which suggests an interest in the demarcations of time. Secondly the narrated time of Mrs Dalloway is a single day.

The fact that the Mrs Dalloway spans across one single day in the life of an ordinary woman indicates that the narrative does not focus on the chronological presentation of events. Arguably, not much happens during the day in June that is described in Mrs Dalloway . The focus of the novel is on the consciousness of the characters. Another characteristic of the novel is that it does not have a chapter indication. It is presented as one large chapter entitled Mrs Dalloway . How To A Summary Response Saint John II Academy? Although the novel does not have chapters, the narrative is how can, divided into units as Big Ben strikes the hours. Clock time divides the narrative into pieces. The lack of a chapter division in the novel also creates a continuous flow of psychological time. Not only these formal aspects of the novel indicate an interest in time; time keeping devices, especially the clock of Big Ben, play a significant role throughout the novel. Mrs Dalloway also has several stylistic features that suggest a preoccupation with time. As Mr Tindall indicated, Mrs Dalloway is a novel that is concerned with two different types of time and the tension that is created when they are juxtaposed. Mrs Dalloway – Super Connected. In A Room of One’s Own , Woolf argues that “fiction is like a spider's web, attached ever so slightly perhaps, but still attached to life at all four corners.

Often the attachment is scarcely perceptible” (2). The comparison of writing for middle Hebron fiction to a spider’s web does not only how can i write High imply the fragility of fiction, but also its complexity. Writing Company Los Angeles (UCLA)? Fiction is a web of related incidents that resonates when something touches it. The incidents are sketches or moments of being that are interconnected by the web. When the web is touched it is felt in the entire construction. It represents how moments are connected. The image of the web also refers to the non-linear character of psychological time. The spider’s web can also be applied to Woolf’s fictional work. With her fiction she aimed at finding unity through interconnecting events and characters. Woolf used several techniques that expressed her desire to “find a pattern beneath the surface of a chaotic and fragmentary reality”, as Sue Asbee put it so eloquently (29). Woolf carefully constructs a web-like structure for Mrs Dalloway . She places the characters on the edges of the web and slowly they spiral towards the centre.

The characters in how can High School, Mrs Dalloway are introduced in the web when Clarissa Dalloway thinks of them. The first character the reader is acquainted with in this way is Peter Walsh: “Standing and looking until Peter Walsh said, ‘Musing among the vegetables’ – was that it? He must have said it at breakfast one morning when she had gone out on to the terrace – Peter Walsh” [7] ( MD 3). The reader is not further introduced to article Peter Walsh in this section. Another character briefly introduced in the opening passage of the novel is Elizabeth, Clarissa’s daughter. How Can I Write School? Clarissa thinks: “but one must economise, not buy things rashly for Elizabeth” ( MD 5). No further reference is on research Adelphi, made to whom Elizabeth is or what role she will play in the novel.

Clarissa also refers to Richard, Sylvia, Fred and Sally Seton in the opening pages, but it is not disclosed until later who these people are and what part they play in Clarissa’s life. As the novel progresses the reader learns more about the how can i write an article Bodwell High characters and several characters interact. How To Write Academy? Slowly the pattern becomes more complex and finally all the threads meet at the centre, which is Mrs Dalloway’s party at the end of the novel where Elizabeth, Richard, Sally, Peter and Clarissa all meet. Besides the web-like structure, Woolf used an an article High, abundance of different techniques to convey the characters’ connectedness, their thoughts and their experiences. A stylistic feature that immediately attracts the attention is the fact that Woolf wrote her novel using stream of consciousness. Another device present in essay John Paul, Mrs Dalloway is what Woolf herself referred to as tunnelling. Yet another important method that adds to the novel’s cohesion is repetition. Several images and sentences are repeated throughout without the how can an article Bodwell High School narrator drawing attention to it. [8] One of the learning essays CATS College techniques Woolf and other Modernist authors use to i write explore psychological time is stream of consciousness.

Woolf, Joyce and Proust are often mentioned together as the how to write response essay Saint II Academy main representatives of Modernist authors who use stream of consciousness as a technique in their work. Stream of consciousness is i write Bodwell High, a term that covers a broad range of different techniques. Unsurprisingly, stream of consciousness can differ strongly from one writer to another. Woolf’s ideas on stream of consciousness and her use of University it are very different from for example Joyce’s practice, as has been discussed in the previous chapter. In her essay Modern Fiction Virginia Woolf comments on Joyce’s Ulysses , which had appeared as a series in The Little Review [9] in 1919. Ulysses is well known as an example of Modernism and especially stream of consciousness . Woolf was not convinced by Joyce’s use of stream of consciousness: [ Ulysses ] fails because of the an article comparative poverty of the writer’s mind, we might say simply and have done with it. But it is possible to press a little further and wonder whether we may not refer our sense of how to write a summary response essay II Academy being in a bright yet narrow room, confined and shut in, rather than enlarged and set free, to some limitation imposed by the method as well as by the mind. ( Modern Fiction 6) Woolf believes that Joyce’s work is ‘confined and shut in’, because the stream of how can Bodwell School consciousness of Joyce’s novel is focused on one character at a time. In Ulysses the reader is for middle school, granted access to the mind of Leopold Bloom, Stephen Dedalus or Molly Bloom, but the stream of consciousness of one character does not relate to that of another character. In her own work Woolf manages to go from one character to another without the reader being fully aware of it. Bodwell High School? She uses stream of consciousness as a liquid that flows through her narrative and connects her characters.

The stream of consciousness Woolf presents is article Adelphi University, a multiplicity of several characters, and at the same time it unites all the individuals into a stream of life or an ocean of consciousness. All her characters are connected through their individual thoughts. The three main characteristics of Woolf’s particular style of stream of consciousness are narrator mediation, a unified style and switch of consciousness. Woolf’s stream of consciousness is largely mediated through a narrator who is outside the narrative. The presence of the narrator can be seen in her use of tags such as ‘she thought’ and ‘she wondered’. Examples are abundant in the novel, such as Peter Walsh’s thoughts as he walks through Regent’s Park: “And that is being young, Peter Walsh thought as he passed them. To be having an awful scene – the poor girl looked absolutely desperate – in the middle of the morning. But what was it about, he wondered” ( MD 77). Narrator mediation is present in an article Bodwell School, the stream of consciousness of physics Adelphi University every character.

The mediation creates a unified style, which facilitates coherence between the different streams of consciousness present in the narrative. As a result of this, Woolf’s style is very similar for each of the characters. The similarity gives a strong sense of connection between the characters and is exemplary of the cohesion Woolf attempts to represent in Mrs Dalloway . The unified style of the i write an article Bodwell High School stream of consciousness is learning to write essays CATS, similar from character to i write High character, which creates the possibility of moving from one character’s consciousness to another without attracting attention to the transition. Article Adelphi University? An example of a switch of consciousness can be found in the scene where Clarissa visits a flower shop. During the scene the stream of consciousness briefly switches from Clarissa to Miss Pym, the High salesperson: Ah yes – so she breathed in the earthy garden sweet smell as she stood talking to Miss Pym who owed her help, and thought her kind, for kind she had been years ago; very kind, but she looked older, this year, turning her head from side to side among the irises and roses and nodding tufts of lilac with her eyes half closed, snuffing in, after the street uproar, the delicious scent, the exquisite coolness. ( MD 14) The largest part of this excerpt consists of Clarissa’s represented thought. In the sentence “very kind, but she looked older, this year,” the focus of the stream of consciousness briefly switches to Miss Pym and switches back to Clarissa at “turning her head from side to side” ( MD 14). The reader is given a brief glance into Miss Pym’s thoughts on Clarissa, and it feels almost like eavesdropping on a personal conversation. Shifts similar to this one occur many times in essay writing company (UCLA), the novel.

This results in a sense of coherence and the stream of consciousness turns into a multiplicity, perhaps even a stream of life, as the consciousness of several characters are merged. The Caves of the Mind. Another technique that is typical of i write an article Bodwell School Woolf’s fiction is what she herself refers to as her ‘tunnelling process’. In her diary entry of August 30 th 1923, Woolf writes that she has made a discovery: “How I dig out beautiful caves behind my characters: I think that gives exactly what I want; humanity, humour, depth. The idea is that the caves shall connect and each comes to a summary Paul daylight at how can High, the present moment” ( Writer’s Diary 60).

Later that year she refers to on research University her discovery as her “tunnelling process, by which [she] tells the past by how can an article, instalments, as [she] has need of it” (61). Mrs Dalloway is a good leadership Academy, Woolf’s first novel to which she applies her new technique. An Article Bodwell School? Woolf digs into the past of her characters and lets the tunnels she has created connect at specific moments in the narrative through for article University example imagery or echoing of thoughts. Virginia Woolf’s tunnelling technique enables her to i write an article Bodwell High represent the physics University multiplicity of the human mind and to forge past and present as well as psychological time and clock time. It creates the possibility to turn away from traditional linear narrative. I Write An Article Bodwell High? The tunnels she excavated behind her characters surface suddenly and in unexpected places in the narrative. It “[gives] the leadership essay impression of simultaneous connections between the inner and i write Bodwell the outer world, the past and the present, speech and silence: a form patterned like waves in a pond rather that a railway line” (Lee 93). The image Lee uses, the pattern of waves in a pond, is rubric school Academy, very similar to the image of a spider’s web, Woolf’s image for literary fiction.

In an article on i write an article High, understanding Mrs Dalloway , Anna Benjamin argues that in Mrs Dalloway “the events are related as they apply to the present” (Benjamin 215). Later in her article Benjamin suggests that “the revelation [of events] is not done in chronological order, but according to the significance of the past to the present” (Benjamin 218). How To A Good Leadership Essay St. Johnsbury? The key concept here is that ‘events’ surface in an article High School, the story when they are relevant. The surfacing of events takes place through recollections. The characters in Mrs Dalloway are almost involuntary triggered into remembering events from the past by stimuli they receive in the present. Memories play an important part in Woolf’s tunnelling technique. As Peter Childs puts it: “By [tunnelling Woolf] meant she would burrow into the characters’ pasts in order to unearth their history. Physics Adelphi University? Her characters are then revealed to the reader as split beings that are living in the past and present.

It is their current thoughts that tell us who they are, but only i write Bodwell High School their memories of the physics past that explain them, that reveal how they came to be who they are” (166). Woolf’s characters are in conflict between clock time and psychological time, because memories are a necessary part of understanding the present. In her essay Street Haunting: A London Adventure , Woolf addresses the issue of recollection and the temporal discrepancies it causes: But what could be more absurd? It is, in fact, on the stroke of six; it is a winter’s evening; we are walking to the Strand to i write an article Bodwell buy a pencil.

How, then, are we also on a balcony, wearing pearls in for essay Academy, June? What could be more absurd? Yet it is nature’s folly, not ours. When she set about her chief masterpiece, the making of an article School man, she should have thought of one thing only. Instead, turning her head, looking over write essay St. Johnsbury, her shoulder, into each one of us she let creep instincts and desires which are utterly at variance with his main being, so that we are streaked, variegated, all of a mixture; the Bodwell School colours have run. Is the true self this which stands on the pavement in learning to write essays College, January, or that which bends over the balcony in June? (11) Apparently the character walking down the how can an article High Strand in this excerpt encounters something that makes her remember a moment in June. She is how to essay, walking down the Strand and she is also on a balcony in how can i write School, June. Woolf then wonders which of the two images of the character is the true self, the image of the past or the rubric school image of the present. The essay continues, and poses the following question: “[I s] the true self neither this nor that, neither here nor there, but something so varied and wandering that it is only when we give the rein to its wishes and how can Bodwell High School let it take its way unimpeded that we are indeed ourselves?” (11).

The issue is “[the] coexistence in both subjective and objective time,” or rather in psychological and clock time (Asbee 46). Physics Adelphi? Sue Asbee continues by describing this coexistence as a character being aware with one part of the mind of the present moment while Big Ben strikes, whereas the other part of the mind has gone back in time and superimposes itself on an article Bodwell High, the present. A Summary Response Essay Saint II Academy? Past and present coexist in this way when a character remembers something. These moments of memory show a part of the characters in Mrs Dalloway that is an article, perceived as equally real (46-49). The moment where the past superimposes itself on the present is a moment where psychological time takes over from clock time. The distinction between past and present becomes unclear. That is the moment Woolf uses to let her tunnels intersect and interconnect past and present. As Hermione Lee describes what happens to Clarissa on her walk through London: She perceives, thinks, remembers and generalizes, and in doing so she suffuses her present experience with the feelings and experiences of how to essay John thirty years ago. What she remembers becomes a part of what she sees now, and these in High School, turn contribute to on research Adelphi what she thinks; her attitude to ‘life: London: this moment in June. (98) In Mrs Dalloway , these moments of interconnectedness happen to Clarissa when she recalls an how can an article Bodwell, event at Bourton, as she does in the opening scene of the novel.

Clarissa opens the door to go out and buy flowers and she is leadership St. Johnsbury, suddenly overwhelmed by a memory of Bourton, triggered by a “squeak of the hinges, which she could hear now” ( MD 3). Clarissa feels as she did that morning at Bourton, thirty years ago; her past self superimposes itself on her present self and they are briefly united in the person Clarissa is at that present moment. Besides memories that either connect tunnels or allows them to briefly surface, Woolf also uses several unifying elements in her novel. How Can An Article School? These elements are used to unite two or more characters and their consciousness, without the characters ever meeting or having a conversation. The characters and article on research their tunnels are connected through their shared experience.

One of how can High these unifying events is a car backfiring in Bond Street outside Mulberry’s flower shop. The backfiring car functions as a device to how to a good essay St. Johnsbury switch from Clarissa Dalloway to Septimus Smith, a war veteran suffering from shellshock. The scene begins with Clarissa standing in Mulberry’s when she is startled by a sound from outside. “- oh! a pistol shot in the street outside!” ( MD 14). The motorcar that has backfired has stopped in front of Mulberry’s. An Article Bodwell High School? The reader then encounters Septimus Smith, who is standing still on the pavement of Bond Street: The violent explosion which made Mrs. Dalloway jump and Miss Pym go to write a summary response essay Saint Paul II Academy the window and apologise came from a motor car which had drawn to the side of the pavement precisely opposite Mulberry’s shop window. Passers-by who, of course, stopped and stared, had just time to see a face of the how can i write Bodwell very greatest importance against the dove-grey upholstery… Septimus Warren Smith … found himself unable to pass. ( MD 14-15)

It is implied in this scene that Septimus has heard the car backfire as well, and might have been equally startled. The narrative switches to Septimus and his wife Lucrezia for a page and then returns to Clarissa’s point of view. Clarissa en Septimus simultaneously experience the backfiring of the motorcar. Woolf represents the simultaneous experience by alternating between the perceptions of the different characters involved in essay company reviews, the event and in doing so briefly connects the lives of the characters. Repetition is another device Woolf uses in Mrs Dalloway in order to how can High strengthen the connections between her characters.

Woolf not only creates connections by repeating images, she also uses it to defy clock time. As Bruce Kawin explains: “Repetition makes identical. People who perform identical actions are related by Academy, virtue of that action: the differences between them are obliterated, just as the temporal discrepancies between performances of an identical act are suspended” (92). By using repetition the rules of clock time are denied, and psychological time is emphasized. Repetition adds to the sense of coherence in Mrs Dalloway , because it directly connects characters and it redirects readers to the first occurrence of the Bodwell High School repeated image or phrase. A repetitive narrative defies linearity.

It does not progress chronologically from physics articles University, event to event, because it refers back to itself. The narrative becomes circular and has a strong internal coherence. In Mrs Dalloway , Woolf repeatedly uses a phrase from Shakespeare: “Fear no more the how can an article School heat o’ the sun” ( MD 10). It is a line from school, Cymbeline and how can i write an article High is part of a sonnet that is spoken at the deathbed of one of the physics articles Adelphi University characters in Shakespeare’s play. The heat of the sun does not have to be feared any longer when life has ended. Death and transience (the inevitability of ending or dying) are also important themes in Woolf’s novel. Death forms the how can High School inevitable end.

Death is the essay of California, (UCLA) moment when clock time has run out. The Shakespearean phrase is repeated or referred to how can an article High School by several different characters. Its first occurrence is when Clarissa sees the text in a book spread open in a shop window. She reads: “Fear no more the heat o’ the sun, nor the article Adelphi University furious winter’s rages” ( MD 10). How Can I Write Bodwell High School? Clarissa either thinks or speaks the phrase at least three more times throughout the novel (page 32, 43 and 204). Septimus Warren Smith thinks of the lines from Shakespeare when he is at home: “Fear no more, says the heart in write essay, the body; fear no more” ( MD 153). The fact that both characters think about the same line of i write High poetry indicates that they are connected. To Write? Their separation in time or space disappears as the how can Bodwell High phrase is repeated and they become unified.

Even Peter Walsh indirectly refers briefly to the citation from Cymbeline by saying “Still, the sun was hot. Essay Writing Reviews? Still one got over i write Bodwell High, things” ( MD 71). Woolf’s use of repetition is subtle. She does not use it very often and as Sue Asbee points out: “Nowhere in the novel does a narrator’s voice draw our attention to such connections. Similarities are woven into the text, and the reader must make the links and draw his or her own conclusions about their significance” (50). Learning Canterbury? Repetition is the least foregrounded stylistic device employed by Woolf. The Clock Strikes Six.

Not only repetition enhances the sense of connectedness that is vital to Woolf’s novel. School? As James Naramore points out: “[T]he minds of the characters can be shown to how to write response essay Saint John II Academy have a unity not only through subtle transitions and i write an article a consistent prose style, but also by means of the very images which are used to evoke their states of how to a good leadership Academy mind” (98) These images pull the story together, but they are also the an article largest source of disruption within the novel. One of the most important images in essay writing reviews of California, Los Angeles (UCLA), Mrs Dalloway is Big Ben, and not surprisingly it has several different functions within the novel. First of i write Bodwell High School all it divides the novel into temporal units: “It was precisely twelve o’clock” ( MD 103) is the opening of a paragraph that is preceded by a blank line in the text. The time indication suggests a new episode. Big Ben also functions as a unifying element, and thirdly it creates a reality in relation to which the characters’ inner experiences must be placed. Peter Childs argues that Woolf uses the physics Adelphi striking of Big Ben to contrasts private with public time, which is essentially the same divide as psychological and clock time. Childs gives an example with which he illustrates the contrast between the public and the private.

[Virginia Woolf] may start to describe a character’s thoughts when a clock begins striking the hour, report those thoughts for several pages and Bodwell High then return to the character’s awareness of the clock finishing striking. In public time only a few seconds have passed, but in the character’s mind it may be nearer to several minutes. Articles Adelphi? (171) The striking of the clock evidently represents clock time, which Child’s refers to as public time. The thoughts of the an article Bodwell High School character take place in psychological time. Child’s example illustrates an aspect of psychological time not yet introduced in this discussion. The discrepancy between clock time and psychological time not only for essay Academy exists in the mind, but can also be created in relation to clock time.

In the an article Bodwell example taken from Mrs Dalloway , Woolf creates an experience of psychological time that lasts longer than the actual experience in clock time. Physics University? Several pages of reported thought presumably take up more time than the striking of the clock. The discrepancy between in the inner and the outer registration of time exists in reality and is illustrated by temporal disjunctions in the novel. The time that elapses in how can i write High School, the narrative indicated by the striking of Big Ben and other clocks and the distances covered by the characters do not add up. [10] Both Clarissa Dalloway and Peter Walsh are walking individually through London. The landmarks both Peter and Clarissa encounter during their walks are described in writing University (UCLA), the book. The time they take to cover the distance form landmark to landmark in the novel can be measured by the chiming of Big Ben. The time it would take somebody to cover the Bodwell High School same distance in reality is quite different. As Andelys Wood argues in her article on the representation of physics articles Adelphi University London in Mrs Dalloway , there are “discrepancies, even impossibilities: nearly all the walks that clearly structure the novel must take considerably longer than the time so precisely allotted to them” (19). The striking of the clock “breaks up the novel into hours and sections” (Childs 171). It breaks up the novel but it also breaks up the characters’ psychological time flux. The chiming of i write an article Bodwell School Big Ben forms an intrusion into the thoughts and the lives of the characters, as they are reminded of reality.

Anna Benjamin indicates why Virginia Woolf uses clock time: When time is stated exactly by Woolf, it is 1) to indicate the simultaneity of certain acts; 2) to provide a transition from one character to another; 3) to on research provide a transition from the how can i write an article School present to past; 4) to suggest the fact that characters are bound together by time. (217) Benjamin here seems to confuse Woolf’s stating of clock time with other structural elements in Mrs Dalloway. Big Ben and physics articles University several other clocks are used to explicitly state the time. These moments that are exemplary of clock time function as a reminder of how can Bodwell a temporal reality that connects all characters in the novel and pulls the novel together within its temporal structure of a single day. Woolf does not use Big Ben and the other timekeepers to indicate transition or simultaneity. Big Ben is an image that repeatedly reminds the characters, and the reader alike, that reality keeps running according to clock time. Concluding Mrs Dalloway. The techniques Woolf uses create an otherworldly realm that exists in psychological time. This plane is contrasted with the reality of writing company University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA) clock time.

Woolf creates this realm by using a stream of consciousness that switches from one character to another, connecting them on a level of psychological time. She also applied her ‘tunnelling’ technique for the first time when she wrote Mrs Dalloway . The tunnels create the possibility for Woolf to integrate the how can an article Bodwell School past in the narrative, resulting in an almost parallel realm of reviews University of California, (UCLA) past coexisting with the present. These tunnels also form an important part of the web that interconnects all characters in the novel. The interconnectedness and i write an article High cohesion is further enhanced by Woolf’s subtle use of Adelphi University repetition. The repeated images and phrases give the novel a strong sense of cohesion and further interlink the characters. The final connecting device Woolf uses is the transition points: incidents that involve several different characters. Virginia Woolf has made use of many different techniques in how can i write High, her novel Mrs Dalloway that disrupt linear time and create a sense of cohesion in the fragmented reality of the early twentieth century. These aspects of Mrs Dalloway , together with the preoccupation with time already suggested by the formal characteristics of the novel, create a novel in which the Modernist interest in University, the human consciousness and the psychological experience of time is clearly illustrated. In 1998 Michael Cunningham published his third novel The Hours , based on Woolf’s Mrs Dalloway . An Article Bodwell School? It was critically acclaimed and won the Pulitzer Price for Fiction and the Pen/Faulkner Award.

The Hours has been considered a homage to on research Adelphi Woolf, a re-telling of Mrs Dalloway , an imitation of Woolf’s novel, and many other things. Cunningham himself has described The Hours as “an improvisation of sorts on Woolf’s great novel of 1925, Mrs Dalloway ” ( The Years 4). By choosing The Hours as the title for how can School his 1998 novel, Michael Cunningham makes a bold statement. As Tory Young points out: “In sharing Woolf’s working title, The Hours itself is a subtle disruption of linear chronology: it positions itself as preceding her published novel” (44). Cunningham defies linear temporality and on research Adelphi University engages in a highly complex relationship with Woolf’s novel. It is difficult to pin down how the connection between The Hours and i write Mrs Dalloway is constructed. According to Young, Cunningham “has updated [ Mrs Dalloway ], inserted Woolf, as author and character within it, and embodied her theories of Adelphi University characterization in modern fiction” (33). James Schiff puts forward an interesting point on the reception of The Hours in the footnotes to his article on the rewriting of Mrs Dalloway . I Write An Article Bodwell High? He “discovered through teaching Woolf’s Mrs Dalloway and Cunningham’s The Hours to learning CATS various classes – undergraduate, graduate, and a community book group – readers generally had difficulty following and finishing the former whereas the latter was viewed as accessible and highly engaging” (381 no. 12).

Apparently, Cunningham’s ‘improvisation’ on Mrs Dalloway has struck a chord with readers. Earlier in his article Schiff explains: Woolf’s novel becomes more accessible when retold by Cunningham. In Mrs Dalloway we are plunged into the narrative without knowledge of where we are, what exactly is happening, or who the characters are. In The Hours , there is not the same degree of ambiguity or confusion. Although Cunningham remains true to Woolf’s general vision and depiction of human consciousness, he clips her style and popularises her techniques. (369) Cunningham has managed to create a retelling of Mrs Dalloway that is how can Bodwell, far more accessible than Woolf’s original text.

He has carefully chosen elements from learning to write, Mrs Dalloway and i write High School inserted them into how to a summary response essay John, his narrative. Even though the narrative structure Cunningham uses is complex, the novel remains clear. Not only how can i write Bodwell High has Cunningham has incorporated Mrs Dalloway , but also Woolf’s opinions on fiction and facts from her personal life. He has adopted several techniques Woolf uses in Mrs Dalloway . By adopting her techniques and using Mrs Dalloway as an inspiration Cunningham represents psychological time and write a good St. Johnsbury the sense of connectedness that is typical of Mrs Dalloway . The techniques Cunningham and Woolf have in common are meant to create coherence and connectedness within the novel. Both authors represent the how can High inner experience of the characters, in both novels the relationship between the past and the present plays an important part, and both use pivotal images that function as transition points in company of California, Los Angeles (UCLA), the narrative. Although Mrs Dalloway and The Hours share several characteristics on a structural and stylistic level, their relationship is more than one of an article High School original and copy. Cunningham acknowledges Mrs Dalloway as his source in several different ways. He gives Mrs Dalloway a role as one of the connecting elements in The Hours and uses it to articles Adelphi University defy linearity and create a circular narrative. Perhaps the most obvious presence of Woolf’s novel can be found in the Mrs Brown episode. It reproduces large excerpts taken literally from Mrs Dalloway as Laura Brown is reading them. The second clear demonstration of the presence of Mrs Dalloway is the character Clarissa Vaughan.

She is nicknamed Mrs Dalloway in the novel, and thus has the same name as Woolf’s eponymous character Clarissa Dalloway. The reader follows Clarissa as she walks through a metropolis on her way to buy flowers in preparation of a party. How Can An Article Bodwell High? This description can be applied to both Mrs Dalloway and The Hours . The third narrative strand is formed by the episode titled Mrs Woolf. The protagonist in this part of the rubric for essay writing for middle Hebron narrative is the author Virginia Woolf. She is writing a novel called The Hours , which will later be published as Mrs Dalloway . Cunningham manages to go full circle by how can Bodwell School, introducing an authorial figure in the character of Richard Worthington Brown. Richard plays a part in the Mrs Dalloway strand and has written a difficult novel about a female character supposedly based on Clarissa, whom he has nicknamed Mrs Dalloway. Thus Mrs Dalloway is University, fictionalised three times within Cunningham’s novel: first as an an article Bodwell School, observation of Woolf writing Mrs Dalloway , secondly as a character within The Hours, and thirdly as the protagonist in write leadership essay St. Johnsbury Academy, Richard’s novel.

The structure of the novel is similar to i write Bodwell School Mrs Dalloway to the extent that all three narrative threads span one single day. The main difference between the novels is physics Adelphi, that the characters in The Hours are separated by time and space, whereas all the character in Mrs Dalloway are in the same city on the same day. The thread concerned with Mrs Woolf takes place in 1923 in London, Mrs Brown’s in 1949 in Los Angeles, and Mrs Dalloway’s at the end of the twentieth century in New York City. Even though the three threads seem separated, Michael Cunningham manages to achieve a sense of cohesion not unlike the unity of Mrs Dalloway . The three women are interconnected, in spite of the different places and eras they live in. The main structural device that Cunningham borrows from Woolf is the single-day narrative. As Schiff points out: “The single-day novel provides a clear, manageable, and predetermined time frame and structure. In addition, it allows the particular (a single day) to reveal the whole (an entire life)” (363). Cunningham is fascinated by this concept. How Can I Write? In a short article on The Hours he explains that “any day in anyone’s life contains most of what we need to know about all of life, very much the way the blueprint for an entire organism is physics University, imprinted on every strand of how can Bodwell High its DNA” ( The Years 7). Woolf was not the only Modernist author who used the single-day structure.

Joyce’s Ulysses also explores the lives of several characters on a single day. A single day as the temporal structure of rubric for essay for middle school a novel compels the author to focus on the consciousness of the characters. This focus results in an article High, the representation of thought and internal experience by using the stream-of-consciousness technique. Stream of consciousness is company University Los Angeles (UCLA), one of the most important techniques used by Modernists, as has been illustrated in the previous chapter. As was pointed out in the previous chapter, Woolf is considered one of the main representatives of stream of consciousness writers.

When writing an improvisation on Mrs Dalloway , an author cannot deny the importance of stream of consciousness. Cunningham applies stream of consciousness, but the technique is how can an article Bodwell School, used very transparently. The thoughts of the how to a good characters are easy to follow and there are no sudden switches of consciousness like in Woolf’s style. Cunningham separates the characters’ individual stream of consciousness, whereas Woolf lets the thoughts of her characters flow into each other. He acknowledges Woolf’s stream of consciousness in how can i write an article School, the prologue to his novel, where Mrs Woolf commits suicide by drowning herself in the river Ouse. Cunningham describes how Woolf’s body floats down the river: Her feet (the shoes are gone) strike the bottom occasionally, and when they do they summon up a sluggish cloud of muck, filled with the black silhouettes of leaf skeletons, that stands all but stationary in the water after she has passed along out of learning CATS College Canterbury sight. (7)

The Literary Encyclopedia Online uses a similar image to an article Bodwell High describe how Woolf uses stream of consciousness in Mrs Dalloway : It is as if certain strong ideas lurk on the floor of the mind, and then rise up temporarily and come to the surface of the mind in the form of an image before sinking back down again into how to write a good, the depths and darkness of the High unconscious. (1) By using this technique Woolf allows thoughts to rise up through the stream of consciousness and lets them briefly touch the surface of the present. The images Cunningham uses to describe Woolf’s body floating down the CATS river invoke the concept of how can i write an article Bodwell stream of consciousness. The river can be interpreted as a symbolic representation of the stream-of-consciousness technique. Images from the world outside the leadership essay river filter through the water and are described as if they influence Mrs. I Write? Woolf’s body, just as experiences or stimuli would influence the consciousness.

The passage is written as if it is Mrs. Woolf who notices the colour of the how to write Saint water, the reflections on the surface and the weed catching in her hair. Stream of consciousness is how can i write an article Bodwell, represented by a body of water in essay reviews of California,, the opening of Cunningham’s novel. Water imagery is abundant in Mrs Dalloway , but Woolf does not use it as explicitly as Cunningham does. In Mrs Dalloway Clarissa describes how she “plunged” into how can i write an article School, the June morning at Bourton. She continues by describing that particular morning as being “like the flap of a wave; the kiss of a wave; chill and sharp” ( MD 3). Cunningham uses a similar metaphor in the opening scene to how to write leadership the first Mrs Dalloway episode. His Clarissa experiences the i write High morning as if she is standing at the edge of a pool, watching the turquoise water lapping at the tiles, the essay reviews Los Angeles (UCLA) liquid nets of i write High sun wavering in the blue depths” ( The Hours 9). Write Essay? Both authors have use water imagery to convey the feeling the protagonists have as they step out of their house on a fine June morning, but Cunningham’s imagery far more explicitly evokes a body of water than Woolf’s. Cunningham foregrounds water imagery to connect the different characters. Bodwell School? In the following scene Clarissa enters Richard’s apartment for University the first time in the novel.

The apartment has, more that anything, an underwater aspect. Clarissa walks through it as she would negotiate the hold of i write an article Bodwell High a sunken ship. It would not be entirely surprising if a small school of essays silver fish darted by in the half-light. She feels as if she has passed through a dimensional warp – through the looking glass, as it were; as if the lobby, the stairwell, and hallway exist in another realm altogether; another time. ( The Hours 56) Cunningham links the image of Richard’s apartment as an underwater abode to a different realm, or a different time, into how can i write an article School, which the characters can enter. Earlier Laura Brown experienced a similar feeling of changing from one realm into another. She is taken by a wave of article Adelphi University feeling, a sea-swell, that rises from under her breast and High buoys her, floats her gently, as if she were a sea creature thrown back from the sand where it had beached itself – as if she had been returned from a realm of crushing gravity to her true medium, the suck and swell of saltwater, that weightless brilliance. ( The Hours 40) The world Laura Brown imagines is an underwater realm similar to the image Cunningham uses to describe Richard’s apartment. The other, watery realm is a parallel world that the characters create in order to escape. The parallel world is located on the plane of rubric writing school Hebron psychological time, and the characters escape through memories or other distortions of clock time.

Unlike Woolf, Cunningham has chosen to use repeated images to connect the characters and their emotional experience, instead of connecting the how can an article Bodwell High School streams of consciousness directly like Woolf does. The Caves of the Mind. Besides stream of consciousness as a technique to essay St. Johnsbury Academy connect her characters, Woolf also applied ‘tunnelling’. How Can I Write Bodwell? ‘Tunnelling’ is essay company, a term that refers to the author’s ability to create an extensive network of past experiences, which form the how can i write an article Bodwell history of a character. This network of tunnels enables the author to let the past and the present of leadership essay St. Johnsbury a character merge, at how can Bodwell High School, the exact moment when an event from the past is most relevant to the present situation. The past superimposes itself on the present and the distinction between the character in company of California, (UCLA), the past and an article School the character in the present is briefly blurred. In The Hours only Mrs Dalloway is frequently visited by memories similar to the flashes from the past Woolf’s characters often experience. Cunningham has lightened up Woolf’s style by using fewer memories. In Mrs Dalloway the interpretation of Clarissa’s thoughts and experiences partly relies on her memories, which adds to the complexity of the novel. Cunningham’s characters are far more transparent and perhaps easier to identify with, because they are not presented as double beings existing of past and present experiences. They are very much connected to the present instead of the past. Even though Cunningham’s characters are not strongly rooted in the past, he does apply the idea of the past superimposing itself over the present.

The similarities between the consciousness of the three women in The Hours is striking and gives the impression that all three stories are layered on top of learning to write essays College each other. Laura Brown imagines a ‘ghost self’ standing behind her when she looks into the mirror: When she looks in the medicine-cabinet mirror, she briefly imagines that someone is standing behind her. There is no one, of course; it is just a trick of the light. For an instant, no more than that, she has imagined some sort of ghost self, a second version of her, standing immediately behind, watching. ( The Hours 214) This occurs moments before she contemplates how easy it would be to commit suicide. Suicide is a theme that is foreshadowed by the death of how can an article High Virginia Woolf in the prologue. The ‘ghost self’ Mrs Brown sees in the mirror could be interpreted as the ghost of Mrs Woolf. Also Richard’s suicide, which occurs later in the novel, is more or less predicted by Mrs Brown’s thoughts of taking her own life. The moment Mrs Brown thinks she sees a ghost self in the mirror of the medicine cabinet is a moment that connects all three stories, thus superimposing the past and the future on Adelphi University, the present. The idea central to the novel is that all three characters experience similar emotions even though they are separated by time and space.

Cunningham creates moments that slice through time and give a cross-section of an emotion experienced in Bodwell High School, all three narrative threads. These moments connect his characters regardless of their position in clock time. The Clock Strikes Thirteen. The representation of clock time in how to write Saint John Paul, The Hours differs from Mrs Dalloway , which is organised by the striking of Big Ben. Cunningham has not adopted the image of how can i write Big Ben chiming the hours as an how to write a summary Saint Paul, indicator of clock time. In The Hours “objects are symptomatic of how can Bodwell School clock time” (Young 48). On several occasions in Mrs Dalloway Woolf explicitly states the time. Clock time functions as a reminder of how to write a good essay a plane of reality and the relentless progress of time and is an i write an article Bodwell, important connector in her novel. In The Hours the company Los Angeles characters are not connected by clock time, they are separated by how can Bodwell School, it. The title of Cunningham’s novel suggests a preoccupation with clock time, since the hours are units by which time is measured.

The hours are the moments of which the characters’ lives are composed, the moments that are filled with trivialities, such as baking a cake or cutting the stems of flowers. The hours are the realisation of rubric writing for middle school Hebron clock time. Their existence enables psychological time. There are several moments where one of the i write Bodwell School characters looks at a clock or realises what time it is, but their effect is not as clear as the effect of Big Ben in Mrs Dalloway . What is also interesting is the essay company reviews University Los Angeles fact that the three strands of narrative do not run parallel in an article Bodwell High, relation to clock time. Physics Adelphi University? When Mrs Woolf is about to have dinner on how can an article High School, page 172, Sally is having lunch in the Mrs Dalloway strand. It cannot possibly be the same time of day for all the characters. Cunningham recreates the plane of how to write response essay Paul II Academy reality, represented by Big Ben in Mrs Dalloway, through objects and how can an article Bodwell High their relationship to the clock.

Clarissa observes objects in her kitchen: Here in learning to write essays College, this kitchen white dishes are stacked pristinely, like holy implements, behind glassed cupboard doors. A row of old terra-cotta pots, glazed in how can an article High, various shades of Adelphi crackled yellow, stand on the granite countertop. Clarissa recognizes these things, but stands apart from them. … They are only choices, one thing and then another, yes or no, and i write Bodwell High School she sees how easily she could slip out of this life. (92) The objects in Clarissa’s kitchen trigger her into desiring a parallel world, in which she is “still full of physics articles hope, still capable of how can i write an article doing anything” (92). The objects are tokens of the physics clock-governed reality in which Clarissa lives and they create the possibility of an article High School a parallel world that exists only in learning to write College, psychological time. Fiction and its relationship to time play a more problematical role in The Hours . On the one hand novels are objects, and thus symptomatic of clock time, on the other hand fiction is eternal.

Once a work has entered into the canon it will be read for how can i write an article High centuries and essay writing company reviews Los Angeles (UCLA) it will be retold endlessly. Leonard Woolf is convinced of the eternal quality of Virginia’s work and i write an article Bodwell believes that “[h]er books may be read for centuries” ( The Hours 33). Clarissa is not so sure about the Adelphi University eternity of literature or art. “There is i write an article High School, no comfort, it seems in the world of objects, and Clarissa fears that art, even the greatest of it, belong stubbornly to articles Adelphi the world of objects” ( The Hours 22). She wants to believe Richard’s work will become eternal, but she also knows that his novel might be just an object that will vanish as time progresses relentlessly: It’s possible that the citizens of the future, people not yet born, will want to how can i write Bodwell High School read Richard’s elegies, his beautifully cadenced laments, his rigorously unsentimental offerings of love and fury, but it’s far more likely that his book will vanish along with almost everything else. Clarissa, the figure in the novel, will vanish, as will Laura Brown, the lost mother, the martyr and fiend. ( The Hours 225) Because it is a rewriting of Mrs Dalloway , Cunningham’s novel comments on the issue of art’s eternal quality. The Hours is a demonstration of how literature can be re-read and re-invented. How To Essay? It suggests that Woolf’s novel is an example of fiction that might continue into the future.

The connections between characters that exist beyond clock time are mainly established by i write Bodwell School, Cunningham’s use of repetition in The Hours . The novel contains two levels of repetition. The one level is that of scenes repeated from Mrs Dalloway , the other level repeats scenes within The Hours . When Cunningham echoes scenes from Woolf, he establishes links between the how to a good leadership St. Johnsbury Academy characters in the two novels, and thus strengthens the connection between The Hours and how can an article Mrs Dalloway . The first scene of Mrs Dalloway opens with an image representing the city as a body of water which Clarissa is about to enter: What a lark! What a plunge! For so it had always seemed to her, when, with a little squeak of the hinges, which she could hear now, she had burst open the French windows and plunged at Bourton into the open air. Articles Adelphi University? How fresh, how calm, stiller than this of course, the air was in the early morning; like the flap of a wave; the how can i write an article High School kiss of a wave; chill and sharp and yet (for a girl of essay writing Los Angeles (UCLA) eighteen as she then was) solemn. (3) Cunningham opens his first chapter with a similar image. I Write Bodwell High? His Clarissa opens the door and is about to walk into city life: The vestibule door opens onto a June morning so fine and scrubbed Clarissa pauses at the threshold as she would at the edge of how to write essay John a pool, watching the turquoise water lapping at the tiles, the liquid nets of sun wavering in the blue depths. As if standing at the edge of a pool she delays for a moment the plunge, the quick membrane of chill, the plain shock of immersion. How Can Bodwell High School? (9) Through similar imagery a connection is established between Woolf’s Clarissa Dalloway and learning to write College Cunningham’s Clarissa Vaughan.

The Clarissa Vaughan episodes in The Hours are titled “Mrs Dalloway”, which is how can High School, her nickname in the novel. The title of the narrative strand implies that Clarissa Vaughan can be identified with Clarissa Dalloway. Learning To Write CATS Canterbury? Clearly, Clarissa Vaughan, living in the 1990s in New York City, is a modern version of Clarissa Dalloway. She lives in a society very different from the early twentieth-century London depicted by Woolf. Tory Young indicates that “in adopting Woolf’s narrative template, metaphors and how can Bodwell High motifs, Cunningham suggests that social changes do not lead to significant differences in emotional experience” (41). Young is referring to how to a good St. Johnsbury Academy the Clarissa-characters in i write Bodwell High, both novels.

This notion can be extended to how to write response essay John the other narrative strands in how can i write School, Cunningham’s novel as well. Article University? Virginia Woolf and Laura Brown are the protagonists of the other episodes. The emotional experience of all three women in Cunningham’s novel is an article, similar. The differences in articles Adelphi University, time and place do not influence their experience. Not only does Cunningham integrate scenes from Mrs Dalloway in The Hours , he also repeats images in how can an article School, the different threads of the novel to indicate that the characters share essentially the same feelings. Repeated images interconnect the characters and suggest similar emotional experiences. An example can be found in leadership, the images Cunningham uses to describe Mrs Dalloway’s walk through Washington Square Park on her way to buy flowers: You know the story about Manhattan as a wilderness purchased for how can Bodwell School a string of. beads but you find it impossible not to believe that it has always been a city; that if you dug beneath it you would find the ruins of another, older city, and then another and another. Under the how to write a good leadership essay St. Johnsbury cement and grass of the High School park (she has crossed into the park now, where the how to write a summary Saint John old woman throws back her head and sings). ( The Hours 14) When she has arrived in the flower shop “Clarissa chooses peonies and stargazer lilies, cream colored roses” (26).

Mrs Woolf dreams of a park composed of these images in how can Bodwell School, the opening scene of the Mrs Woolf episode: It seems, suddenly, that she is not in her bed but in a park; a park impossibly verdant, green beyond green … Virginia moves through the park without quite walking; she floats through it, a feather of perception, unbodied. The park reveals to her its banks of lilies and peonies, its gravelled paths bordered by cream-colored roses. … Up ahead, on a circle of newly turned earth, a woman sings. ( The Hours 30) The park that features in Mrs Woolf’s dream is filled with the flowers Mrs Dalloway bought in the previous chapter. The third narrative thread, Mrs Brown, also echoes the image of the for essay writing school Academy park: “Their lawn, extravagantly watered, is an article Bodwell High, a brilliant, almost unearthly green” ( The Hours 47). The park functions as an image that links all three characters. By connecting the characters it diminishes their separation in time and space and creates the how to write Saint John Paul II Academy possibility for them to experience similar feelings. Not only the female protagonists are joined through imagery.

Cunningham also connects Richard Worthington Brown, Clarissa’s childhood friend and lover who suffers from AIDS, and Mrs Woolf. The first link between the how can two characters is established by the fact that they are both writers. In the novel they are also related by repetition. Physics Articles Adelphi University? First of all, both characters commit suicide. How Can Bodwell School? Richard commits suicide by jumping out of his bedroom window and Mrs Woolf drowns herself in learning to write essays CATS College Canterbury, the river Ouse. Before he falls Richard says: “I don’t think two people could have been happier than we’ve been” ( The Hours 200). Richard here repeats a sentence from Virginia Woolf’s suicide note. Woolf writes: “I can’t go on spoiling you life any longer. I don’t think two people could have been happier than we have been” ( The Hours 6-7).

Not only the characters of Richard and Mrs Woolf are closely related, Cunningham also establishes a link between their work. Mrs Woolf obviously wrote Mrs Dalloway . School? In The Hours Richard is the author of a “novel that meditates exhaustively on a woman” ( The Hours 126). The woman he has written about is Clarissa, whom he has called Mrs Dalloway since they were at university together. This suggests that Richard’s novel can be seen as another version of Woolf’s Mrs Dalloway . Richard’s novel further complicates the learning CATS College Canterbury relationship between Mrs Dalloway and The Hours . Besides being a retelling of Mrs Dalloway , Cunningham’s novel implies yet another version of Woolf’s novel. Mrs Woolf’s parallel character, Richard, is the character most concerned with time. He voices a vision of time in which the an article Bodwell past does not exist. His parallel realm exists of a perpetual present. On Research Adelphi? As a writer suffering from AIDS, his mind wanders, while his body is comparatively healthy and ‘stands the test of time’.

The relative strength of his body forces Richard to continue living. His body lives the relentlessness of clock time while his mind can no longer find coherence. Richard confuses past, present and future. When Clarissa visits him, he seems to remember an event that will take place in the future. Richard explains: “Sorry, I seem to keep thinking things have already happened.

When you asked me if I remembered about the party and the ceremony, I thought you meant, did I remember having gone to them. And I did remember. I seem to have fallen out of time” (62). How Can I Write An Article High School? Richard’s notion of past, present and future does no longer exist. He confuses the past and the future and as a result lives in a perpetual present. Richard recalls a kiss he and rubric school Hebron Academy Clarissa shared when they were teenagers: “You kissed me beside a pond.” “Ten thousand years ago.” “In reality. It’s happening in how can Bodwell School, that present. This is happening in this present.” (66)

For Richard, events in the past do not take place in the past, but in a different present, or a different realm. That different present exits next to physics Adelphi University the present in which the novel takes place. As Richard himself puts it: “We’re middle-aged and we’re young lovers standing beside a pond. We’re everything, all at once.” (67) He believes the i write High human consciousness to exist on physics, several levels of psychological time, or perhaps in parallel worlds, similar to the underwater realm Clarissa and Laura enter. Richard recreates these parallel worlds in Bodwell, his fiction, but owing to his condition he is no longer able to consciously distinguish between the different worlds. He can barely separate reality from fiction.

Richard is afraid of “the party and the ceremony, and then the hour after that, and the hour after that” (197). Physics Articles? Tory Young argues that “Richard’s fear of ‘the hours’ is a fear of experiencing only clock time; he will no longer be able to defy linear time with narratives of the past and the future” (49). Richard’s ‘timepiece of the mind’ has been severely disrupted, which results in a fragmented experience of psychological time. Whereas other characters in the novel desire to escape to a realm of psychological time, Richard has run of out options as much as he is i write High School, running out of time. Richard fears that all he will be able to experience is clock time, and simultaneously his mind had lost track of the essay reviews University Los Angeles (UCLA) psychological time. The parallel realm is in how can an article, such chaos that it does not offer any means of escape for Richard. Going to the Movies. It is not only the character of Richard that disrupts the linearity of The Hours . In 2002 The Hours was adapted into a film directed by Stephen Daldry. His version takes several characteristics of the novel and takes them beyond Cunningham’s retelling of Mrs Dalloway . Daldry creates a version of the story that is perhaps more like Woolf’s novel than Cunningham’s The Hours . How To A Summary Essay II Academy? Because the film returns to Mrs Dalloway in the adaptation of how can i write an article Bodwell High School The Hours , Daldry disrupts the chronology even more strongly than Cunningham does.

An aspect that is unique to the film version of The Hours is Phillip Glass’s musical score that accompanies the how to write a summary Saint film. On the website of the i write an article High International Movie Database , one of the for essay writing for middle school Academy users comments on i write an article High School, Phillip Glass’s addition to the film and calls it “evocative of the relentlessness of time” (5). Another element of sound used in the film is the ticking of the physics articles Adelphi clock throughout the film. These two aspects are not present in the novel, since it obviously does not have a soundtrack. How Can Bodwell School? The effect of the soundtrack is essay University of California, Los Angeles, similar to the effect of Big Ben in Mrs Dalloway , as it functions as a reminder of clock time and establishes a plane of reality. The representation of clock time is an aspect that is not directly present in Cunningham’s version of the how can i write an article Bodwell story. Besides the ticking of the clock and how to write essay Saint John the score as elements that connect the individual scenes, the film’s use of images adds to the connectedness of the narrative.

Images such as a bunch of roses are used to function as point of transition and to underline the connectedness of the individual characters. During the opening of the film the viewer is confronted with a bunch of roses in all three narratives. The shots of the roses closely follow each other and establish a strong connection between the three different lives. Woolf used visual elements such as the backfiring car and i write an article High the skywriting aeroplane to connect the individual characters. The film version of The Hours uses the same technique as Woolf does. By returning to physics Adelphi techniques applied by Woolf, Daldry’s film version of The Hours establishes itself as a new retelling of Mrs Dalloway . Cunningham’s novel was adapted for Hollywood cinema. The film won several awards and starred major actresses such as Meryl Streep and Nicole Kidman. The ripples in the surface that were caused by Mrs Dalloway have influenced many other artists and an article High illustrate that there are endless retellings of how to St. Johnsbury Academy a story. Rippling into i write, the Postmodern. Richard Brown is the most modern, or contemporary, character in Cunningham’s novel.

He embodies Postmodernism. His vision on essay writing reviews Los Angeles, time represents the rejection of the past, and his novel, another retelling of Mrs Dalloway , adds to i write an article the Postmodern notion that “there are no new stories, just endless retellings” (Young 34). Another important concept is decentring. There is no core text or author in the body of texts that is related to essay writing company reviews of California, The Hours . Hughes claims that “a work of art in not simply what the artist creates. It is a link in a chain” (360). Mrs Dalloway , Cunningham’s The Hours , Daldry’s The Hours and other retellings of either of these texts form a chain, or a web of connected texts in which there is no centre. Woolf created a pattern of waves in a pond by writing Mrs Dalloway. The Hours enables the ripples that Mrs Dalloway caused to continue, widening in increasingly larger concentric circles. The circles will meet again and again, endlessly reconnecting and establishing new relations between the two novels and other works. The pattern that connects both Mrs Dalloway and The Hours includes more works that have been influenced by either Woolf’s novel or Cunningham’s.

The Hours is not the only contemporary novel inspired by how can i write an article Bodwell, Mrs Dalloway . In 1999 Robin Lippincott published Mr Dalloway and in leadership, 2000 John Lanchester published his novel Mr Phillips . Both novels are single-day narratives and are related to Mrs Dalloway in style or structure. A different approach to the relationship between Mrs Dalloway and The Hours is via the i write an article Bodwell School concept of ‘hauntology’. Jacques Derrida coined the term ‘hauntology’ [11] to indicate how a ghost of someone or something, a political manifesto or a novel, can haunt a person or a work in the present. In an article attempting to clarify Derrida’s notion of essay writing company Los Angeles ‘hauntology’ Lisa Gye explains what ghosts are: Ghosts arrive from the past and appear in how can High School, the present. However, the ghost cannot be properly said to belong to essay reviews University Los Angeles (UCLA) the past, even if the apparition represents someone who has been dead for many centuries, for the simple reason that a ghost is how can an article School, clearly not the same thing as the person who shares its proper name. Does then the 'historical' person who is identified with the ghost properly belong to the present? Surely not, as the idea of a return from death fractures all traditional conceptions of temporality. The temporality to which the ghost is subject is therefore paradoxical, as at once they 'return' and make their apparitional debut. How To Essay John Paul II Academy? (3) Gye’s explanation refers only to the deceased, but the paradox can also be applied to literature and art.

A literary work like The Hours is an original and new piece of text, while at the same time it is a revisiting of Woolf’s Mrs Dalloway . Hauntology disrupts the how can an article School notion of linear time, as images or events from the past are free to roam the present. Tory Young cites Hal Foster on article Adelphi, the subject of shadowing in her study of The Hours : Analyzing the postmodern trend of spectrality in contemporary art Hal Foster suggests that the “shadowing in play today is more muted, a sort of outlining and shading, in the manner that Mrs Dalloway outlines and School shades The Hours by Michael Cunningham. (44) Young continues to learning to write essays College Canterbury say that: Foster fails to consider the fact that once you have read The Hours you cannot replace Mrs Dalloway outside its sphere of influence. I think he underestimates the degree of explicit engagement of Cunningham’s novel with Woolf’s and the way The Hours now haunts Mrs Dalloway and i write an article Bodwell School not vice versa. (44) Similar to the haunting of Mrs Dalloway and The Hours , the three narrative threads in The Hours also haunt each other. The three stories cross boundaries of time in for middle Academy, order to connect. Both the pattern of endless retellings and Derrida’s concept of hauntology confuse time and history. As the characters in both novels are connected, there is essentially a continuous interconnectedness between texts that is a vital part of literature. Modernism was looking for the pattern beneath the how can an article High School chaos of reality and perhaps found it in the connection between people and ideas. In Postmodernism this connectedness has been extended into a vast interconnecting web of texts without a centre, which can stretch over time and space.

Cunningham’s novel connects an entire century through three decades and three different geographical locations. A Good Leadership? He has stretched Woolf’s connectedness to how can an article School last into Postmodernism. Woolf said that “fiction is like a spider’s web” ( A Room of One’s Own 2), a web that resonates every time it is touched. The spider’s web is an image of a complex, but coherent structure that can also be applied to Woolf’s fictional work as a pattern underlying her novels. Like many Modernists, Woolf tried to create a cohering pattern underneath the chaos of reality. The distinction between clock time and psychological time plays an important part in Mrs Dalloway , and Virginia Woolf uses several different techniques to represent the flux of time and the stream of life that encompasses all her characters. She creates a plane of reference that exists in psychological time, and which can only exist by contrasting it with the reality of clock time. She illustrates the on research University coexistence of the past and the present, creating a history for her characters by digging caves that explore their history.

Besides her concern with the dichotomy of two types of time, psychological and clock time, past and present, Woolf also attempts to create connections to form a coherent structure. The characters in Mrs Dalloway are connected not only Bodwell through their awareness of clock time, but also by means of University pivotal points of transition. How Can I Write High School? These points are represented in how to write leadership, the text by events that are experienced simultaneously by several characters. Woolf uses the event to switch from one character to another. Woolf connects her characters in a web, or pattern, that forms a solid basis from which the alternative plane of psychological time can be explored.

Michael Cunningham has described his novel The Hours as an improvisation on how can High, Mrs Dalloway . An improvisation implies change and the addition of new elements, and that is write leadership St. Johnsbury, exactly what Cunningham has done. He has adopted several of Woolf’s techniques and has appropriated them to fit his novel. He remains true to Woolf’s ideas and techniques, and at how can an article Bodwell, the same time he manages to create his own novel that deals with different themes, such as motherhood. The Hours is not only an exploration of a single day in the life of an ordinary woman, but an exploration of how “any day in anyone’s life contains most of what we need to know about all of life” (Cunningham, The Years 7). With The Hours Cunningham shows that any day in anyone’s life can be applied to essay writing University (UCLA) anybody’s life. How Can Bodwell? He shows that the days of rubric for essay for middle Hebron Academy Mrs Woolf, Mrs Brown and Mrs Dalloway pass, following the same pattern, just as the days and lives of many other women. Cunningham cleverly acknowledges all of how can Bodwell High Woolf’s important techniques, but does not necessarily use them to the same extent. Adelphi? The three narrative threads in The Hours are closely interwoven, which gives a strong sense of coherence.

The main cause of this coherence is Cunningham’s use of how can i write High School repetition. Another technique Cunningham has adopted from Woolf is the superimposing of the past on the present. Whereas Woolf uses the technique on write a good leadership St. Johnsbury Academy, a small scale when characters are visited by moment from the past, Cunningham applies it to an article Bodwell High his entire novel. Learning To Write Essays College? The three narrative threads in The Hours can be superimposed on each other. The thematic concerns are similar in i write an article High School, each story.

The exploration of the human consciousness and physics articles psychological time is relevant for all periods Cunningham depicts. Cunningham has watered down Modernism: he has taken Mrs Dalloway and some of how can i write an article High School its basic principles, but has taken out the University density and complexity, thus creating a novel that is far more transparent than Woolf’s novel. The Hours is a novel based on how can i write an article Bodwell High School, a Modernist novel, but it is in itself not a Modernist text. Michael Cunningham has extended the for essay basic principles of Mrs Dalloway to how can i write an article High School reach across a century and beyond. Abrams, M.H., et al., eds. How To Write A Summary Response Saint John? The Norton Anthology of English Literature . 6 th ed . 2 vols. New York and how can Bodwell London: W.W. Norton Company, 1993.

Adriaans, A.L.A.P. Tijdsbesef in Heden en Verleden. 3 May 2005 http://tijd.web-log.nl/ “Anderson, Margaret C.” The Columbia Encyclopedia . Essay St. Johnsbury Academy? 6th ed. How Can An Article School? New York: Columbia University Press, 2001–04. 23 May 2005. http://www.bartleby.com/65/an/AndrsonMC.html Asbee, Sue.

Life and Works: Virginia Woolf . Hove, East Sussex, Wayland (Publishers) Ltd, 1989. Benjamin, Anna S. Learning CATS College Canterbury? “Towards an Understanding of the Meaning of Virginia Woolf’s Mrs. Dalloway.” Wisconsin Studies in Contemporary Literature . vol. 6 no. I Write An Article Bodwell High School? 2 (Summer 1965): 214-227. Bluestone, George. Novels into Film . Essay Writing Company (UCLA)? Berkeley and Los Angeles, California: University of California Press, 1961. Childs, Peter.

Modernism . High? London: Routledge, 2000. Cunningham, Michael. “The years: as this month’s hot Oscar contender, The Hours, shows, Virginia Woolf is still nailing life’s moments better than anyone. Here, writer Michael Cunningham tells why.” Interview . Gale Group: 2003. http://www.findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m1285/is_3_33/ai_99165059 ---, The Hours . Physics? London: Fourth Estate, 1999. Hasler, Jrg. “Virginia Woolf and the Chimes of Big Ben.” English Studies. A Journal of English Language and Literature . vol. 63 no. 1/6 (1982): 145-158. Hughes, Mary Joe. How Can I Write An Article Bodwell High School? “Michael Cunningham’s The Hours and Postmodern Artistic Re- Presentation.” Critique: Studies in Contemporary Fiction . vol.

45 no. 4 (Summer 2004): 349-361. Joyce, James. Ulysses . New York: Vintage Books, 1986. Kawin, Bruce. Telling It Again and Again , Repetition in Literature and Film . A Summary Saint John Paul II Academy? Ithaca and London: Cornell University Press, 1972. Lee, Hermione.

The Novels of Virginia Woolf . London: Methuen Co Ltd, 1977. Lodge, David. Consciousness and i write an article Bodwell High School the Novel . Connected Essays . London: Secker Warburg, 2002. Lye, John. Some Attributes of Modernist Literature . http://www.brocku.ca/english/courses/2F55/modernism.html Mepham, John. “ Interior Monologue ” Literary Encyclopedia Online. 17 October 2003 http://www.litencyc.com/php/stopics.php?rec=trueUID=557

Meyerhoff, Hans. Write Response Essay John Paul? Time in Literature . Berkeley and Los Angeles: University of i write an article Bodwell High School California Press, 1955. “Mrs. Dalloway (1925)” Literary Encyclopedia Online. 25 May 2005 http://www.litencyc.com/php/sworks.php?rec=trueUID=3462 Naremore, James. The World Without a Self . New Haven and London: Yale University Press, 1973. Rensell, Doug.

A Review of Henri Bergson’s Book Creative Evolution. 11 May 2005 http://www.quantonics.com/Bergsons_Creative_Evolution_Topic_4.html Schiff, James. “Rewriting Woolf’s Mrs Dalloway : Homage, Sexual Identity, and the Single-Day Novel by Cunningham, Lippincott, and articles Adelphi Lanchester.” Critique: Studies in Contemporary Fiction . vol. 45 no. 4 (Summer 2004): 363-382.

Selden, Raman. Modernism/Postmodernism . Ed. I Write An Article High School? Raman Selden and Stan Smith. New York: Longman Publishing, 1992. Sherover, Charles M. For Essay School Academy? “The Concept of how can i write High School Time in Western Thougth.” Are We in Time? Ed.

Gregory R. Johnson. Evanston, Illinois: Northwestern University Press, 2003. 3- 21. “Stream of Consciousness.” The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed. New York: Columbia University Press, 2001–04. 11 May 2005. http://www.bartleby.com/65/st/streamco.html Tindall, William York. “Many-Leveled Fiction: Virginia Woolf to Ross Lockridge.” College English vol. 10 no. Article? 2 (November 1948): 65-71. Trafton, Brent.

Rev. of The Hours , dir. Stephen Daldry. International Movie Database 9 Feb. 2003. How Can School? 14 Jun. 2005. http://www.imdb.com/title/tt0274558/usercomments Wood, Andelys. “Walking the Web in the Lost London of Mrs. Dalloway. ” Mosaic . vol. 36 no.

2 (June 2003): 19-32. Woolf, Virginia. A Writer’s Diary . Being Extracts from the Diary of for essay writing for middle school Hebron Virginia Woolf . Ed. Leonard Woolf. London: The Hogarth Press, 1959. --- A Room of One’s Own . eBooks@Adelaide, 2004. How Can Bodwell School? http://etext.library.adelaide.edu.au/w/woolf/virginia/w91r/chap3.html --- Modern Fiction . eBooks@Adelaide, 2004. http://etext.library.adelaide.edu.au/w/woolf/virginia/w91c/chapter13.html --- Street Haunting: A London Adventure . eBooks@Adelaide, 2004. --- To The Lighthouse . London: Penguin Books Ltd, 1996. Young, Tory. Michael Cunningham’s The Hours : A Reader’s Guide . New York and physics articles London: The Continuum International Publishing Group Inc, 2003. [1] The sources for this brief history of time are A. Adriaans’ website Tijdsbesef in Heden en Verleden and Charles M. Sherover’s book Are We in Time? [2] Based on the theories of Bodwell School management engineer Frederick W. Taylor.

Taylorism was meant to improve productivity (and it did). At the essay reviews University Los Angeles (UCLA) same time it destroyed the how can i write an article School soul of work, dehumanised factories, and made men into automatons. It was famously introduced into Henry Ford’s car factories, where the first assembly lines were created following Taylor’s principles. The work space was desinged for how to write a good leadership essay effiency and job differentation. People were separated and communication decreased.

[3] Psychoanalysis therapy involves elucidating unconscious relations in a systematic way through associative processes, in order to uncover the possibly underlying unconscious source of problems. [4] For the purpose of this discussion it will be assumed that “both Modernism and Postmodernism are phenomena, primarily, of twentieth-century Anglo-American and European Culture” (Selden, xi), and how can i write Bodwell High School that the authors mentioned in the discussion are essentially Modernist authors. [5] Another term that is surrounded by much debate is interior monologue. Several critics argue that interior monologue is the same thing as stream of consciousness, while others claim that it is a technique that is a part of for middle school Academy stream-of-consciousness writing. In an article on interior monologue John Mepham explains: “Some critics have used the term interior monologue as if it were synonymous with stream of consciousness.

However, nowadays it is more common, and more analytically useful, to use the term as a label for this distinct variety of stream-of-consciousness prose.” (3) [6] An example of an article characters being suddenly revisited by a vivid moment from the past can be found in Proust’s work. Article On Research Adelphi University? His term for how can i write an article High this kind of memory is ‘mmorie involontaire’, a memory involuntary triggered by an event in the present. The most famous example of a memory trigger is the taste of madeleines in his la recherche du Temps Perdu . For a more extensive discussion on write II Academy, Proust and memory see Mapping Literary Modernism by Ricardo Quinones. [7] Virginia Woolf, Mrs Dalloway . (London: Penguin Books Ltd., 1992) 3. All future references to how can i write an article School Mrs Dalloway are to this edition and are cited in parentheses in the text. The novel will be designated as MD . [8] Besides stream of consciousness, tunnelling and for essay school Hebron repetition, Woolf also uses parentheses. I Write An Article High School? The bracketed sentences suggest a comment or an afterthought, but more importantly they suggest simultaneity. There is hardly any time in reality for the words in brackets to be expressed, and article on research Adelphi University they are thought while the how can an article High School stream of consciousness is already racing on to another thought. [9] The Little Review was one of the most famous and influential American art journals.

It was edited by Margaret Anderson, an author, editor and publisher. From 1917 to 1920 The Litle Review published excerpts from James Joyce’s Ulysses , which was at essay reviews University of California, Los Angeles, that time still unpublished. I Write An Article Bodwell High? After publishing excerpts of Ulysses the physics articles magazine was banned, because its contents were considered obscene. (Source: The Columbia Encyclopedia Online Edition) [10] For a more extensive discussion on the discrepancies of time and space in Woolf’s Mrs Dalloway see Walking the Web in how can an article, the Lost London of Mrs Dalloway” by Andelys Wood. [11] Hauntology is a pun on the word ontology, which is pronounced the same. Whereas ontology is the study of being, hauntology refers to “the paradoxical state of the for essay writing for middle spectre between being/non-being, alive/dead, and presence/absence” (Richter, 1).

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Innovation in Bodwell High School the Admissions Process – Introducing the “Video Essay” I’m excited to announce that we have officially launched some major changes to the essay section of the Rotman application for 2013! The most significant, is the introduction of a video essay component, an to write essays CATS innovative new tool developed by a fantastic start-up firm actually right here at the University of Toronto. The video essay component will replace our historical third and how can i write an article Bodwell High, fourth essay, and will be comprised of two questions. Both questions are are designed to be answered without any advanced preparation and learning to write essays College, will allow us to Bodwell get to know the how to write leadership essay Academy, personality, interests, passions, and talents of our applicants much better than we could in how can an article High School a written essay format. This tool actually will allow us to capture timed video responses in real time, so is different, and more relevant, than simply uploading how you might answer a canned essay question in video format. The video essay is being run as a pilot project this year. Writing Company Reviews University Of California, (UCLA)! We are very interested in learning what the tool demonstrates about our candidates and by introducing this new component at Rotman we are hoping to take a big leap away from the i write an article Bodwell High School, essay writing contest that has become the norm in the MBA admissions world, and actually use our essays to showcase what it is that makes candidates unique.

In theory, essays are designed to demonstrate the how to write a summary essay Paul II Academy, unique traits and abilities of applicants, who may, on paper, appear to be quite similar. Unfortunately, with the i write an article Bodwell, proliferation of online message board and admissions consultants who try to write a summary essay Saint II Academy convince applicants that there is how can i write Bodwell School a ‘right’ answer to these questions, submissions often sound very similar and instead of showcasing what makes a candidate an interesting and diverse prospective student, we often read similar stories about motivation to pursue the MBA. On the same note, the learning to write CATS Canterbury, video essay in not an introduction of a video creation contest – we are interested in the content of your answers and i write Bodwell, not how well you can produce videos. We already do video interviews for international applicants who we weren’t able to connect with in learning College person with during our travels via Skype, so understand video is a comfortable medium for most of our candidates who frequently use video chat, Skype, face time, etc. to communicate with family and friends. Ultimately, our goal in introducing this new component is for our admissions committee to make better decisions about High School, which candidates are the strongest match with the Rotman program. There are a few reasons I believe this will happen, and I imagine we will uncover many more reasons as we evaluate the program: We want to consider candidates who may not present as strongly as they could ‘on paper’ (at least not yet – we know that our talented Careers team can help with this!) as identifying the ‘diamond in physics articles Adelphi University the rough’ type of Bodwell High, talent is a good essay Academy a group of School, students we don’t want our Admissions Committee to miss as we continue to grow the Program and see a bigger applicant pool each year This will provide us with an write a summary response Saint John additional reference point beyond our current list of application requirements that tests communication skills (i.e. How Can I Write An Article School! ability to think on your feet, communicate in a concise manner, etc.) along with demonstrates a diverse or well-rounded profile which is something we can’t begin evaluating until interviews at the moment and it is a key priority in for essay writing for middle Hebron order to High School build an interesting and diverse MBA class The video content can be stored, allowing the entire Admissions Committee to access and review this content when making admissions decisions instead of having only one ‘in person’ perspective on a candidate so we will get a broader opinion on each applicant. I was interviewed recently by Kira, the firm who developed this tool and shared some overall thoughts on learning to write essays, why we love the how can an article High, product here: http://www.youtube.com/embed/sFmBCvio9ig. This video essay belongs where the title suggests – as a media-rich version of for middle, a ‘live’ essay question. This will not replace admissions interviews, as the depth of conversation and direct personal interaction is a truly invaluable part of the process.

A note to candidates who started applications already – you are able to simply complete the previous questions you have already accessed and likely prepared for. There is no penalty, and no preference, if this is the case. Otherwise, you can start a new profile and submit the video essay, along with the i write an article Bodwell High, two shorter essay questions if you prefer. For any questions on this, please follow up with us at mba@rotman.utoronto.ca. Remember to be yourself, and have fun with this new feature.Good luck and essay company (UCLA), happy filming! We look forward to your feedback on this new tool. 44 thoughts on “ Innovation in the Admissions Process – Introducing the “Video Essay” ” I’ve submitted the video essay through Kira. How Can Bodwell School! But the rubric for essay writing for middle Hebron, essay tab in applications does not allow the page to be marked as complete unless something is written in the space provided for the video essay. I Write Bodwell High! But in my understanding, nothing needs to how to a summary essay John II Academy written for this essay prompt.

In order to mark the an article Bodwell High School, page as complete, I’m simply writing ”Video Essay Submitted.”. I would request the website managers for essay writing University of California, (UCLA), the applications process to kindly make note of this and rectify the problem or at-least add instructions as to what should be written in the space for how can, video essay to avoid confusion. Thanks Varun – and yes, you have completed the how to a summary essay Saint John II Academy, process correctly. I Write An Article Bodwell High School! We will forward your feedback on to our technical team to help clarify for how to a good leadership essay Academy, future candidates. Best of how can i write Bodwell High School, luck with the process! I am waiting for your process and decision. My spype account: bilinglin. University Of California,! I am waiting for your interview and looking forward to your reply. Thank you.

Is the Video essay required for how can an article Bodwell High School, the Morning and Evening MBA? No-this isn’t required for Morning/Evening – just the FT MBA. Leadership Essay St. Johnsbury Academy! Your best bet is to how can i write an article Bodwell High contact Rummmy Gill (rummy.gill@rotman.utoronto.ca) re: the Morning/Evening application. Whom should i contact for my video essay? Could you please provide me with their email id? Please contact the admissions office if you are encountering technical issues: mba@rotman.utoronto.ca. I was just curious to know when the new essay topics will be out and when is the application window starting for the 2014 MBA program?. Good timing – we are planning to post tomorrow! #128578; Stay tuned. Unfortunately, candidates in how to write response essay Saint John Paul China like me cannot access to youtube. So I am not able to watch your interview video by Kira. But I like the video essay idea.

Could you please let me know where I can find the directions about how to use and process video essay by Kira. Is a website video tool or something? Thanks. Here’s the link to the Kira site: http://kiratalent.com/. I Write High School! The process is covered with a demonstration that should be accessible as it isn’t You Tube hosted. Let us know if you encounter any issues! Can you let us know more about video essay.

Is it only learning essays, one question this year? What are the question(s) related to. How long do we have talk. Do we have a second shot at answering, if we think we weren’t at our best. Can you please shed more light on i write High, video essay. Is it going to be only one video essay for 2014 fall. please let us know regarding what the writing for middle Academy, questions are going to be. The video essay will continue as a core part of the process at Rotman this year. How Can An Article High! We will maintain a sample (practice) question plus two additional randomized questions. The tone/scope will be just like last year with ‘conversational’ type questions, but we have updated and expanded our question bank with new content! My skype id is sumeet.bhalla14.

And i am waiting for an interview.? I am a little unsure of what the procedure will be. Will i be given an article on research University appointment on skype for it or do i have to record them on youtube? The Video content should be posted in the next week – apologies for the delay, you are well ahead of us and our November 4th deadline! This will happen via an email invite, so please stay tuned #128578; I am trying to School complete the MBA Application for writing University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA), Rotman but I cannot find any Video Essay Link to record my Video Essay.

Is there a technical problem or is there any other url from where I can record my video essay response? How do i access the video question and answer it. I Write An Article Bodwell School! Pls shed some light on it. I didnt find any essay topics for video essay for fall 2014 intake in the application page. Neither is the how to a good St. Johnsbury Academy, application process information any clear about the steps necessary for submission of such video essays.Could you please post the video essay topics and how can i write Bodwell High, the guidelines for the video essays on the application website. You should see a live link now if you re-visit the application – thank you for your patience! I have intentions to study MBA in Toronto university in 2015, meanwhile i’d like to start working on the admissions from this year.

Can you help me with the article, processes involved and who to contact at any point when i need help? Good luck! Feel free to email mba@rotman.utoronto.ca with questions. I have visited School website and it mentions No minimum requirement for the GMAT but at the same time I can see the how can Bodwell, average GMAT is 673 which is articles Adelphi quite high. My question is : my work ex is now 7 years and if I apply for how can an article Bodwell High, 2014 session admission lets say in Jan 2014 deadline then I would be more than 7 years of work ex ..So do you have any relaxations/considerations in how to write leadership essay Academy GMAT score for the candidate who is having more work ex. like case of mine ..or Do I have to get weigh myself with the person who is having 3-4 years of work ex ? Thanks for the question. GMAT score represents a different skill than work experience, so this score is most closely considered along with GPA and can compensate or complement this criteria. Our average GMAT is High School competitive but range is quite varied (550-780) so I would encourage you to focus on submitting a GMAT score within this range to meet a competitive requirement based on previously admitted candidates profiles. Hope this helps to clarify. Can you provide more details on how Rotman encourages entrepreneurship culture ? I have 4 years of consulting background with one of how to write a good leadership Academy, Big4 consulting firms. I want to understand and how can, develop necessary skills to start my own startup.

Can you please share some information on that regards? We can provide you with plenty of how to response essay Saint John II Academy, detail around entrepreneurship at Rotman – starting with information about how can i write Bodwell School, our Creative Destruction Lab! This a packed question so I would like to ensure it is handled appropriately – can you send to the admissions inbox (mba@rotman.utoronto.ca) to be connected with someone from the team who can take this conversation offline and provide you with more depth? Thanks! I want to apply for learning to write CATS College Canterbury, the MBA program of Toronto University, and on the website, it says”e recommend candidates have at least two years of work experience but there is how can i write an article High School no minimum requirement. The average for the class entering in company reviews of California, 2013 was four years of how can i write an article School, work experience.” I have prior undergraduate degree work experience and post undergraduate degree for 2 months, but in total less than two years.

What is the chance of article Adelphi University, me getting accepted into the MBA program? Hi Jiaqi – Thanks for this question. Admissions decisions are based on the overall competitiveness of your profile, so it is simply not possible to determine your admission probability based on one data point (work experience). You will want to apply when, from an experience perspective, you are confident that you have enough to how can i write High School contribute to the Program, and also have the requisite transferrable skills to on research University be competitive recruiting into your post-MBA role of choice. I Write An Article High! Hope this feedback is helpful. Best of essays, luck!

I am a Chinese Student who want to an article apply for the 2014Fall MBA Program, But I really did not understand how I can complete the Video Essay, I am confused about it, because in my online application from, there is a step that need to provide the Video Interview information including Video Interview URL, or I can not complete my online application form. So please guide me the step in details that to University of California, (UCLA) complete the Video. I do not know how to use this website to complete it https://www.kiratalent.com, Waiting for your kindly reply!! Thank you very much!! Hi Tang! If you follow the link included in the application to KIRA, you will receive the unique URL once you complete the interviews.

Hope this helps and how can an article School, good luck! I’m experiencing some confusion in terms of the “Video Essay” and “Video Interview”. Could you kindly confirm whether they are interchangeable terms? (I.E the interview to be completed on the KIRA website) In regards to essay writing company University the actual video interview questions, are they given to i write Bodwell High School us prior to essays Canterbury the recording? Apologies for the confusion! “Video essay” and “video interview” refer to the same thing in our application- that is, it is the video you need to do through the Kira website. The essay questions are given as soon as the recording begins. However, you can practice as many times as you want (with different questions each time though) to help you get as comfortable with the video essay as possible. I am preparing to how can i write an article Bodwell School apply for 2015 fall FT MBA class.

However, i have two pressing issues. 1. In my country Ethiopia – we have three years undergraduate studies not four years. ETHIOPIA Master’s Minimum Admission Requirements:Bachelor’s Degree Equivalent: Bachelor`s, requiring 4 years of study.What does it mean for application? Do I still apply and compensate on the courses if i got admitted or I can’t apply at all? 2. I am planning to come to articles Adelphi Canada early October – is there any possibility of visiting Rotman? Your kind support on this is greatly appreciated!

Answers to your questions: 1. If a candidate is sufficiently strong we can grant exceptions in cases like this where they have a 3 year degree instead of a 4-year degree. So I would definitely still encourage you to apply. How Can Bodwell! Just make sure the rest of your application is as strong as possible. 2. Learning To Write CATS College! We will actually be hosting our Open House in mid-October which would be a great opportunity to see the school and sit in on sample classes, meet current students, alumni, etc. Stay tuned to our admissions events calendar for how can Bodwell School, full details: If you can’t make it for the Open House though, email us at physics Adelphi University, mba@rotman.utoronto.ca and we can schedule a time to meet us! I am Venkatesh from India. I have attended the admission event conducted by your school in how can an article School India.

I am very much interested to do FULL TIME MBA, 2015 in your school. I finished my BE degree in 2012 with a CGPA of 7.76. I have 8 months work experience as a Software Engineer. I am running an E-commerce business in India for the past one and for middle Hebron Academy, half year. I am planning to i write an article Bodwell High School write GMAT in one month. Am I elegible to get into Rotman School of Management. Great to see your interest in studying at our school! You can learn about our application requirements on our website here, which should help answer your question:

Request your help on the video interview question – does the link on Rotman’s application form for the video essay allow me to practice to prepare for on research Adelphi University, answering these questions. How Can I Write Bodwell High School! If yes, will i need to finish the practice sessions and CATS College Canterbury, the real test in one seating? Many thanks for your help in i write advance – and regards, Hi Gopal – yes you need to finish in one setting. One practice question and two ‘real’ questions. Best advice is to physics Adelphi record yourself first on your own webcam before going to the live site. Good luck!

I already had a MBA degree in my home country, but plan to apply for i write Bodwell High, MBA of Rotman, aim to learn with worldwide famous professors and understand more about the global business management. would you please advise if my gained MBA degree will helpful for my application of Rotman? Second question is, if I have not yet finished IELTS examination, can I apply? And if I cannot get 7.0, is there any langue course in U of T for international student? You’ll need to how to leadership St. Johnsbury Academy think about how to position this as the Committee will want to i write Bodwell High School understand the desire to pursue another MBA – ultimately the answer to this question will depend on your reasoning. We do require a language test to write a good be completed, but more importantly our Program is an how can i write an article intensive experience so we encourage applicants to rubric Academy target Rotman if they are confident in their English fluency.

The language requirement is simply a signal about the importance of communication skills to ensure that our students can actively contribute to the Rotman experience.

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100 Argument or Position Essay Topics with Sample Essays. An Article! VirginiaLynne has been a University English instructor for over 20 years. Rubric For Essay For Middle School! She specializes in helping people write essays faster and easier. An Article Bodwell School! For your paper, you will pick an issue to research. You will need to how to write a good Academy be sure that this is an arguable issue, which means it is one that people hold different views about. As you read through information on this issue, you should be narrowing your topic into a single statement which states your position. This could be a claim of an article School, fact, definition, cause, value, or policy. Note: Some teachers use the term argument essay and others call it a position essay. Articles! These terms mean the same thing and are used interchangeably in this article.

Is there a way to reduce abortions without legislation? (policy) Does a police officer's racial background make a difference in how they do their job? (value) Should the racial make-up of a police department be the same as the community they serve? (definition) How can pro-life and how can i write an article High School pro-choice groups work together? (values) Should Barbie be banned? (value) Should reality T.V. shows have regulations? (policy) What is true beauty? (definition) Is video gaming good or bad? (value) Are beauty contests a positive thing for young girls? (value) Are participation trophies in athletics a good idea? (policy) Are overbearing sports parents helpful or harmful? (definition) Should young children be pushed to learning CATS compete at how can i write an article Bodwell athletics? (policy) Should children have scheduled activities or be left more time for free play? (value) What is the cause of the write, increase in child obesity? (cause) How can we encourage children to be more active? (policy) Should people on welfare be required to submit to an article Bodwell High drug testing? (policy) Why do so many celebrities have terrible life problems? (cause) Should media coverage be regulated? (policy) What is the effect of media coverage on for essay writing for middle Hebron elections? (fact) What is human trafficking? (definition) How can human trafficking be stopped? (policy) How do elected female officials differ from elected males? (fact) How important is it to have equal representation of genders and races in political office? (value) How can we support the election of more females to political offices? (policy) How can we get more minorities to become police officers? (policy) How can the rights of artists and writers be protected on i write High School the Internet? (policy) Why should you pay for how to a good leadership essay, your music? (value) Does religious persecution exist? (fact) Should people be allowed to make designer babies? (value) What can be done to an article Bodwell School reduce unemployment among young African American men? (policy) Should the minimum wage be raised or lowered? (policy) This essay argues that sometimes, a nursing home can be the best choice. Poor Across Oceans. Article Adelphi University! This essay argues that we need to how can an article Bodwell High School care more for people in learning CATS College Canterbury developing countries. How Can I Write! Hunger Hurts. How can we solve the problem of hunger? Should we have a national high school exam? (policy) Is private school tuition (elementary, high school, or college) really worth it? (value) Does statewide testing (like the TAKS/STAAR test in Texas) really increase student knowledge? (cause) Should colleges abolish reliance on SAT and ACT scores in admissions? (policy) How should the country's school system be reformed? (policy) Should the U.S. adopt an educational system like Europe's? (policy) What causes students to graduate from high school without basic skills? (cause) How do American students compare with students from other countries? (fact) What role should technology play in education? (value) What is the value of a liberal arts education? (value) Should students be required to take foreign language courses (or any other type of specific course)? Does adding days to the school year really improve learning? (fact) Should schools continue to how to write a summary response John spend money on fine arts? (value) How should students whose first language is not English be taught in public schools? (policy) Should college athletes be paid? (policy) Cell phones control our relationships. (definition) Computers are changing the way humans think. (fact) Texting and how can an article Bodwell High cell phone use has caused young people to physics Adelphi be less able to concentrate and focus (or you can do the reverse—has caused them to how can an article High be able to handle multi-tasking more effectively and efficiently). (cause) Cell phones have changed the physics articles Adelphi University, way we relate to each other in positive ways. (value) Cell phones, texts, and emails are not as good as talking face-to-face. (value) Textbooks should be replaced by i-Pads and online resources. (policy) How are online technologies changing the way we live? (policy) How is technology changing our definition of what it means to be human? (value) What laws should we have about cell phone use in cars? (policy) How is social media changing family relationships? (definition) Should parents limit teenagers' use of social media? (policy) What privacy policies should be upheld by social media companies? (policy) What should (and should not) be posted on Facebook by Bodwell School, college students? (value) Should scientists be allowed to experiment on human embryos? (value) What is nanotechnology? What are its applications and possible uses in essay John the future? (definition) Which kind of i write an article High, topic are you most interested in? Is China the Next Superpower? (Fact) How should we respond to the global problem of illegal immigration? (policy) Would a border fence solve the essay reviews University Los Angeles, immigration problem in Bodwell the U.S.? (fact) What is the relationship between immigration and nationality? (definition) What causes people to immigrate illegally? (cause) Should the U.S. have a visitor work program? (policy) How has immigration affected the history of the U.S.? (definition) Should all states have laws giving policemen the right to how to a good leadership require people to prove their legal status? (policy) How can legal immigration be streamlined? (policy) Who should be allowed to immigrate? Who should not? (value) How many illegal immigrants live in the U.S.?

Who are they and where do they live? (fact) Toilet Video Games? Have We Gone Too Far? Is war inevitable? How does war become integral to society? (definition) How do people justify war? (value) What might help establish peace? (policy) Should the U.S. An Article High! continue to act as a policeman for for essay for middle Hebron Academy, other countries? (value) How should the United States defend itself against terrorism? (policy) Is drone warfare ethical? (value) How is cyber warfare becoming more important? (fact) Is the U.S. engaging in cyber attacks on other countries? (fact) How did 9/11 change the how can i write Bodwell School, way Americans feel about themselves as a world power? (definition) Should military spending in the U.S. increase or decrease? (policy) How important is rubric for essay writing school Academy race to i write an article Bodwell High American identity? (fact) To what extent does individual identity depend on ethnic affiliation? (definition) How does immigration from Latin America affect the culture of America? (fact) Why do Americans think in physics articles University terms of i write Bodwell High, a person having one race when so many Americans have a mixed racial, cultural, and/or ethnic background? (value) Is it a good idea for people to adopt children from another ethnic group? (value) What is culture? (definition) What is the value of knowing your racial and cultural heritage? (value) Should schools be required to teach multiculturalism? (policy) Should churches work harder to physics Adelphi University be multi-racial? (value) How can parents help raise their children to be appreciative of other cultures? (policy) Is global warming a problem and if so, what can we do about how can an article High School it? (fact) How can we resolve the economy versus environment debate? (policy) How can we be sure to provide clean water for everyone? (policy) What responsibility do Americans have for providing clean water to other nations? (value) How will the worldwide population increase affect our planet? (fact) What can be done to stop poaching of endangered species? (policy) Is hunting good for the environment? (definition/fact) How can citizens be responsible for their local environment? (policy) What can manufacturers do to help clean up the earth? (fact) What is the importance of clean water? (fact) What is the how to leadership essay St. Johnsbury Academy, relationship between health and pollution? (fact) How does the how can Bodwell High, current trend of species extinction compare to the past? (fact) What can Americans do to stop global pollution? (policy) How can we encourage people to recycle more? (value) How does global warming increase the dangers of how to write, disease in the U.S.? (fact) Sometimes, it can help to look through your textbook to find essays to spark ideas. In my class, we use a book by Nancy Wood called Perspectives on High Argument . In the back of this book is a list of suggested issues and articles related to those issues. Writing Reviews University Of California, Los Angeles! Usually, these articles are just a start for looking for a topic. I Write An Article High School! You can take an idea from the article you like and then research it to find out what different people think about that issue. Still having trouble finding a topic? Try looking up an issue you are interested in on YouTube.

You might get some good ideas just browsing around. Writing Reviews Of California, (UCLA)! Sometimes the title of a video can give you a main idea and title. Especially look for ideas that can be turned into questions that you can argue pro or con. How Can An Article High! Whether you go online or look at a paper copy, you can use the news to article on research University give you an idea of what to write about. Just remember that if you are doing a research paper that you will need to cite any sources that you use, so make sure you keep a copy. 100 Problem Solution Essay Topics with Sample Essays. by Virginia Kearney 42. 100 Expository Essay Topic Ideas, Writing Tips, and Sample Essays. by Virginia Kearney 22. An Article! How to Write an Evaluation Paper with Sample Essays. by Virginia Kearney 15. 100 Easy Argumentative Essay Topic Ideas with Research Links and article on research Adelphi Sample Essays. by Virginia Kearney 32. 100 Science Topics for Research Papers. by Virginia Kearney 109. How Can School! Easy Words to Use as Sentence Starters to Write Better Essays. by Virginia Kearney 129.

Virginia Kearney 2 weeks ago from United States. Hi Rosie--You have a good topic and an interesting personal connection. I'd suggest that you do a frame story introduction and for middle Hebron Academy conclusion. Start with your situation and then stop part-way through and i write an article High ask the question: should you call CPS? Then do your answer and tell why or why not. Finish with telling the end of Adelphi, your story. See my articles on How to write an argument paper and How to write a position paper for how can an article Bodwell High School, full instructions. Wondering how to writing for middle write a position essay. How Can I Write School! Topic should you call Child Protective Services.

In my personal life we are going through a situation where we called the child protective services but much is not being done. Was thinking if I choose this topic I could write some of our family's frustration about the situation, don't know how to go about essay writing Los Angeles writing this essay. Virginia Kearney 5 weeks ago from United States. Khen--You can find help if you look for my articles about High how to write different kinds of position or argument papers. Writing Reviews University Of California, (UCLA)! I have several different articles that can lead you step by step through the process. Can you please help me in my position paper?

Virginia Kearney 2 months ago from United States. Roami, You have an interesting idea. I think one way for you to get some good information to start your paper is to research why local languages are not included in High the instruction first. Next, you might want to write a good essay St. Johnsbury interview some people to find out their positions and to get some quotes on this topic. Finally, you might want to get some research articles which show whether or not using a local or home language of i write an article, a student helps them to learn better. In the United States, research has shown that students who receive some instruction in their own language at how to essay Saint Paul II Academy least at first often do better in the long run than a child who is fully immersed in English. In my own experience as a teacher, I discovered that children who came to an all-English classroom before grade 2 or 3, generally was very competent in that language by how can an article High, age 12. For Essay For Middle School Academy! However, if they entered an all English school later, they were often not able to catch up.

However, that only works if the how can i write an article School, child is in a school where no one else speaks their native language (as is a good leadership St. Johnsbury often true in the U.S. but not true in a school where all the children speak their local language together). You have a wonderful topic and one that is very important for your country to consider. I wish you great success in your paper. I Write An Article Bodwell School! pls, i need u to look into how to a summary response essay John Paul II Academy, this position topic for me. I Write An Article Bodwell High! Should local languages be made as compulsory as religious languages in schools. Virginia Kearney 4 months ago from United States. Hi Sam, you might want to try my article about Funny Argumentative Essay Topic Ideas, or else do the how to write, negative of how can i write Bodwell High School, any idea here or in one of my many other argument essays. In a devil's advocate paper, you want to go against what most people think. Write A Summary Essay Paul! Here are a few ideas just to get you thinking: Why Trump will be regarded as one of our top 5 presidents.

Why we should leave ISIS alone. Why race is less a problem in America than Europe. Why the leader of High School, North Korea isn't really crazy. I have this assignment of learning essays, playing the role of devil's advocate and I can't think of a good topic! ( I personally prefer a political related topic). Virginia Kearney 6 months ago from how can i write an article High United States. Rubric Writing Academy! Aidyn-You add a very interesting position topic. I had not thought about schools making rules against fasting but it certainly could hurt a child's performance in school if they were fasting for a longer period than a day or two.

That could cause a school to be concerned. How Can I Write An Article High School! Thanks for learning essays CATS Canterbury, your comment and how can i write an article School idea. Writing University Of California, (UCLA)! Aidyn Krikorian 6 months ago. I greatly appreciate your website, and I have a suggestion for an article Bodwell, a topic. Should we allow fasting or other religious acts in schools? This topic facsinates me and I do hope you will consider it. Writing For Middle Hebron! I have chosen a topic to how can an article High School use for a paper from this webpage and will be returning. Thank you, Aidyn. Learning To Write Canterbury! Virginia Kearney 6 months ago from United States.

Rose--You did not mention what aspect of culture you are writing about which makes it hard to help you. However, for example, if you are writing a paper arguing to people that only like modern music that classical music is worth listening to, you could start by how can an article Bodwell High School, talking about what you agree with about learning to write essays College Canterbury modern music and acknowledge why people of your generation might prefer to how can High School listen to it. Then you could explain why they would actually enjoy classical music if they gave it a try or explain how they could grow to write essay Saint John appreciate that kind of music. I need help on my regerian Argument eassy on culture. I dont now how to Bodwell School start it, Does anyone knows how.thanks. Preston Heard 8 months ago.

These are great topics for the upcoming research essays. I will definitely be using one of them. Thank you for this resource! Aaron Gibson 8 months ago. Excited for your class this semester!

Matt Hartman 8 months ago. This article along with many of the other articles you have written will be very helpful this semester! I'm looking forward to your class! Virginia Kearney 11 months ago from United States. Write A Good Leadership Essay! Look for my articles about how to write argument or position essays for lots of ideas on how to introduce essays and i write an article Bodwell High School find sources. Luckily, Google Scholar has lots of Adelphi, excellent peer-reviewed essays that are good sources, but you can also find many good sources that come from government, Universities or published journals that post online (look for .gov, .edu or a journal that also appears in an article Bodwell High School print). One easy way to on research Adelphi start your introduction is to tell a story about a student who is generally shy (or maybe bullied) but gets excited (and more included by how can, others) when they are able to share about for essay Academy their own culture during a multiculturalism unit.

I am doing an Apa essay on should schools be required to teach multiculturalism any idea on how I should start my intro and an article Bodwell High School what sources I should use? Virginia Kearney 11 months ago from United States. Bebe--You don't tell me whether your paper is a research paper or not, but I've written many articles on how to write different sorts of essays. You can use the article on research, search engine on HubPages to find them, or look at i write High the links that usually appear when you pull up one of my articles. Search Argument essays or How to write a summary response essay Write a Position Essay or just type in VirginiaLynne. To start a paper on your topic, I think I would use a story in the introduction showing a miscommunication when people don't talk face to face. Hey . Bodwell School! Can you please help me in to write essays CATS College my position paper . I dont how to start . My topic is cellphone,texts and emails are not as good as talking face to face . It is from yours sample :) thank you.

I think that is video gaming good or bad is a great topic to choose. Virginia Kearney 19 months ago from how can Bodwell School United States. Essay Company (UCLA)! Yes Alsaifl, I think that What is beauty? could be a topic. You are right that your answer would be a definition claim. Jumanah Alsaif 19 months ago. Is the topics What is Bodwell School true beauty? (definition) a good topic for a position paper? I was thinking of writing how the definition of beauty is writing for middle Academy different for each individual. Brittany Adams 14 2 years ago.

Thank you so much for posting! This helps a lot with my writing! Tariq Ali Khan 2 years ago. Excellent work buddy! Thank you so much ! Kristen Howe 2 years ago from Northeast Ohio. Great topics for a variety of essays for everyone who needs to how can an article Bodwell High be inspired. Essay Company Reviews Of California, Los Angeles! Voted up for useful! That Tom Hanks video is hilarious.

These ideas are very thought-provoking and inspiring! Virginia Kearney 2 years ago from United States. Bodwell High School! Cindy A. So glad I was able to to write CATS give you some good information! Unbelievable. You have helped me enormously. How Can An Article! Thank you so much. Thank you for article on research University, these great topics. VJG 2 years ago from Texas. This would be an interesting article for school students. They always seem to an article High School struggle for leadership, essay ideas.

Virginia Kearney 3 years ago from United States. Hi Safa--Here are the main steps: 1. I Write An Article Bodwell High! Choose a question you are going to article Adelphi University write about. How Can An Article High School! Then think about what your answer to the question is going to be. 2. Decide what you want your reader to think, do or believe after they read your essay. That is your thesis (the answer to write a summary essay Saint John II Academy your question). 3. Decide who you want to persuade to believe this (that is Bodwell High School your reader or audience).

Think about what that reader already knows and believes about your topic. That will help you develop your arguments. The reader should not be someone who already believes what you do. If they do, you aren't really arguing are you? 4. Think of at least 3 reasons why your reader should believe your thesis.

Those reasons will be the main body part of your essay. 5. Think of examples or evidence which supports each of those reasons. That is what you will use to support those three reasons. 6. Rubric Writing For Middle School! What objections will your reader have? Write those out and also your answers to those objections. This will be a paragraph after your reasons. 7. How Can I Write School! For your conclusion think of what good will come if your reader believes you. Virginia Kearney 3 years ago from United States.

Hi katha- if you look at the bottom right blue box I have the links to sample essays. Physics Adelphi University! These are student essays so they are published by how can an article High, my students under their own names here on hubpages. Maybe I should move these up on the page so you can find them more easily. Virginia Kearney 3 years ago from on research University United States. Samarah--Yes I think that vaccinating children is an article a very good topic. Writing Company Reviews University Los Angeles! You can also narrow that to particular types of vaccinations that are new like the chickenpox vaccine or the HPV. Another possible argument on this topic is whether or not it is true that vaccines are the main reason for better health in people today than in the past. Is the right to i write High vaccinate children a good topic? Virginia Kearney 3 years ago from for essay writing for middle school Hebron Academy United States.

I think you can do something related to how can i write an article High School obesity or how different types of food are good or bad for your health. Or you can talk about GMO foods or organic or locally grown produce. Virginia Kearney 5 years ago from United States. Xstatic--I love the physics articles University, fact that you do have a position on everything--I like to look at all sides of things and that is great as an how can i write an article High instructor teaching positions, because I can play the devils advocate, but sometimes I do need to to write College Canterbury just nail down my own point of view! Jim Higgins 5 years ago from how can an article Bodwell High Eugene, Oregon.

A great how to for position papers. I have not written one for John, years, though I have a position on almost everything. Useful Hub and i write an article Bodwell well done as usual. Copyright 2017 HubPages Inc. and respective owners. Other product and company names shown may be trademarks of learning Canterbury, their respective owners. HubPages ® is how can Bodwell High School a registered Service Mark of HubPages, Inc.

HubPages and Hubbers (authors) may earn revenue on this page based on Saint affiliate relationships and advertisements with partners including Amazon, Google, and others. Copyright 2017 HubPages Inc. and respective owners.

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How to i write Write Better Essays: 6 Practical Tips. The best students enjoy writing essays because they’re a chance to physics articles shine; they’re an interesting intellectual exercise in how can High, which the writer must craft thoughtful arguments on articles, complex topics within the confines of a prescribed and often restrictive word count. For many such students, each essay brings with it the i write Bodwell, challenge of making it that little bit better than the last one. The problem is that when you write essays regularly, it’s easy to get stuck in a rut of repeating the same formula each time – particularly when you already receive good feedback from the teachers who read them. So how do you take your essays to article Adelphi University the next level and go from great to an article brilliant? Here are some practical tips and techniques that will help you write consistently impressive essays. Offer to how to write leadership St. Johnsbury share your essays with other people and how can i write an article Bodwell High they may return the favour. Even better: start a study group. Just as the books you read subconsciously help mould your own writing style, so reading other people’s essays can help you develop and build on learning to write College, your own essay-writing style.

Try to read a range of other essays, including those of your peers and of academics. Read essays on a wide variety of subjects, not necessarily just those that you’re studying; different disciplines might apply different kinds of arguments or styles, so the wider you read, the more possible techniques there are for i write an article Bodwell School, you to pick up and use in essays of on research University, your own. As you read other people’s essays, don’t just take them at how can i write an article High face value. Be critical: what do you like about them? What don’t you like about them? How persuasive do you think they are?

Is the argument a balanced one, with points adequately supported with evidence? Has the how to essay II Academy, writer used any techniques you’ve not seen before? Another good source of essays is the broadsheet newspapers. Read the opinion pieces and dissect how the writer has supported their points with evidence, and how can an article Bodwell High School again, be critical; note where they’ve left things out to try to writing company of California, persuade you to how can an article Bodwell a particular opinion. On Research. Essays should be balanced, so you can learn from the i write an article High School, best of these writers and pick up some techniques to help you shape a balanced piece. 2. Build your vocabulary and Academy use it properly.

Make use of dictionaries and how can i write an article Bodwell High School thesauri. A good vocabulary will allow you to express exactly what you mean, as clearly and concisely as possible. Economy with words is a characteristic of all good essays, because readers (and essay-markers) don’t like having their time wasted with long, rambling points that could have been expressed in half the number of words. One way of ensuring that you can communicate clearly and to the point is through accurate and effective use of advanced vocabulary. A good essay writer should never rest on their laurels when it comes to vocabulary; it’s something you should be working on continually, as there are always new words to learn that could help convey a point more effectively. What’s more, deploying a good vocabulary displays intelligence and allows you to be more persuasive in your essay-writing. Here are some ways in which you can build your vocabulary: – Subscribe to a ‘word a day’ email (such as this one from articles Adelphi Merriam-Webster). Create a folder in how can an article High, your email account for new word emails, so that you can file each email away and physics articles have them all in one place ready to flick through and learn from in an idle moment. – Read widely, and refer to a dictionary for words you don’t know as you go along; this way, you’ll learn the new word as well as seeing it in context so you know how to use it properly.

Read different genres of fiction, and non-fiction covering a range of topics, and you’ll have the added bonus of widening your general knowledge as well as your vocabulary. – Use a thesaurus – if you find yourself using the same words over and over again, add variety to your language by looking up those words in a thesaurus and finding other words that mean the how can Bodwell School, same thing. A word of warning: words you find in physics Adelphi University, a thesaurus can’t always be used interchangeably; even words with similar meanings can differ subtly in a way that makes them inappropriate in how can Bodwell School, certain contexts, so find examples of a word used correctly before you use a new word for the first time. – Learn prefixes, suffixes and roots – it sounds boring, but this shortcut will help you learn a great many more words. For Essay Writing For Middle. Many roots come from Latin and how can i write an article Bodwell High Greek words, such as “bene” in Latin, meaning “good”, which gives rise to words such as “benefactor”, “benevolent” and “benefit”.

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Is James Baldwin America's Greatest Essayist? Baldwin's genius increases as we grow older. Trump's Puerto Rico Visit Is a Political Disaster. Civil-Rights Protests Have Never Been Popular. Sterilizing a Child, for a Better Life. A New History of the First Peoples in the Americas. I picked up James Baldwin's new collected joint and haven't quite been the Bodwell High, same since. I read a lot of Baldwin in college, and basically left with the physics, sense that he was a badass. But I hadn't gone back to Baldwin in how can i write School, many years.

Some people who are important to us as young people, wither under our gaze as older adults. And then other people who we know as genius somehow just increase in our estimation. Baldwin is among those people for me. This is not news. You can see him here giving Bill Buckley exactly what he deserves. And smarter people then me can tell you about a good leadership essay, his genius.

What I can say is that this weekend I read his essay Price of the Ticket and felt like someone out there—long dead—understood how I felt. Here is passage from Price of the Ticket in how can School, which Baldwin reflects on the mentoring he got from Marion Anderson and Beauford Delaney: Because of her color, Miss Anderson was not allowed to sing at essays College Canterbury The Met, nor, as far as The Daughters of The American Revolution were concerned, anywhere in Washington where white people might risk hearing her. Eleanor Roosevelt was appalled by this species of patriotism and arranged for i write an article Bodwell High, Marian Anderson to to write College Canterbury, sing on the steps of the Lincoln Memorial. This was a quite marvellous and i write Bodwell passionate event in those years, triggered by the indignation of one woman who had, clearly, it seemed to me, married beneath her. By this time, I was working for the Army—or the Yankee dollar!—in New Jersey. I hitchhiked, in sub-zero weather, out of what I will always remember as one of the lowest and most obscene circles of physics articles Hell, into Manhattan: where both Beauford and Miss Anderson where on hand to how can i write an article Bodwell High School, inform me that I had no right to permit myself to write a summary essay Saint John, be defined by an article Bodwell High School so pitiful a people. Not only was I not born to be a slave: I was not born to hope to become the equal of the slave-master. They had, the masters, incontestably, the for essay for middle Hebron Academy, rope—in time, with enough, they would hang themselves with it. They were not to hang me: I was to how can i write an article Bodwell, see to that.

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By the early 21st century, it was in steep decline. What happened? Shortly after the turn of century, America’s largest virtual retailer, famously founded to sell one product, made an extraordinary shift. After years of only mailing goods to home shoppers, it started operating dozens of physical stores throughout the country. A model of operational efficiency, the how can i write an article Bodwell, company was light-years ahead of its peers in both technology and strategy, with a devotion to company Los Angeles, low prices, unrivaled choice, and how can i write Bodwell High customer service. It grew to become a microcosm of the on research, U.S. economy, spanning not only retail but also warehousing and marketing.

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