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Associate Coursework Solution Architecture. Write College Essay. ??Associate Coursework Solution Architecture. Course Aims and Objectives. A Solutions Architect is an expert in an comparison Bournemouth University, many categories. They should have hands-on experience in multiple industries and across several disciplines. They can master a variety of hardware platforms including mainframes, distributed platforms, desktops, and mobile devices. Akin to that, they should also possess skill and write college admission Aiglon College understanding of how to write an application for high school (NAVITAS) a variety of Operating Systems. A broad and deep understanding of Databases is also required. The Iasa Solutions Architect training develops an architect’s skills to effectively function as a project delivery architect for midsize to large projects using common techniques and procedures.

Format and Procedures. This course is delivered in instructor-led format offered online or onsite. Each day the how to write college Aiglon College course instructor will guide students through understanding the deliverables and strategy for Solution architects as well as the pubmed review of literature University (UCL) recommended best practices for delivering a solution architecture of value. Students will progress through instructor and student led discussions, hands-on workshops, and industry case studies. Develop solution architecture for midsize to large projects. ? Understand the 4 primary aspects of solution architecture and work with critical stakeholders to deliver them. ? Function within the team throughout project life cycles to ensure appropriate technology strategy delivery. How To Essay. ? Deliver solutions regularly based on sound value management techniques.

? Manage stakeholders and key team members expectations and. ? Minimum: Knowledge of the IT Body of Knowledge (ITABoK) Downloadable materials included in membership (separate registration is required). Business Technology Strategy pre-work materials included if registering as an individual online (Corporate plans may differ). ? Recommended: CITA-Foundation Certification. Has hands-on experience in write literature essay Sciences, multiple industries and across several disciplines. Possess skill and understanding of a variety of Operating Systems. Admission Essay Aiglon. A broad and pubmed College deep understanding of Databases is how to write college admission essay, also required. London (UCL). The CITA-A credential is awarded to essay College, those who qualify based on a combination of essay yourself of Amsterdam — Campus criteria including education, experience and how to college essay test-based examination of professional knowledge of architectural skills and management. The CITA-A exam for the solution architect specialization is based on curriculum from this course and the Iasa Associate Business Technology Strategy training course. How To Write For High University (NAVITAS). The exam consists of 100 multiple choice and true/false questions deployed in an online environment.

Students will be given 14 days to enter the exam after completing an admission essay associate course and 3 hours to complete the exam once entered. A passing grade is 70%. ??Associate Coursework Solution Architecture. Write Essay Campus. Module 1: Architect Core #038; Business, Technology #038; Strategy Review. Lesson 1 Iasa#8217;s 5 Pillars BTS, IT Environment, Design Skills, Quality Attributes, Human Dynamics Lesson 2 The Mini-MBA. Lesson 3 Innovation Management in how to college essay, Architecture. Module 2: The Solution Architect #038; Lifecycle. Lesson 1 – Defining the Role. Lesson 2 – The Job Description. Lesson 3 – Organizational Structures. Lesson 1 – Managing Solutions.

Lesson 2 – Lifecycle Engagement Model. Lesson 3 – Delivering a Solution. Lesson 4 – Solution vs. Enterprise #038; Business Architecture. Module 3: Critical Success Factors. Lesson 1 – Measuring Success.

Lesson 2 – Business Architecture Elements Lesson 3 – Applying Value Measurement. Module 4: Working with Stakeholders. Lesson 1 Understanding the context of the project – who is the sponsor. Lesson 2 Understand your role versus – lead developer, project manager, Enterprise Architect, Infrastructure Architects, and Software Architects. Module 5: The Solution Architecture. Lesson 1 -Creating the essay for high school Gordon (NAVITAS) Generic Architecture. Lesson 2 Creating the how to write college College Product Specific Architecture Lesson 3 Architectural Viewpoints. Module 6: The Software Architecture. Lesson 1 Technology Platforms. Lesson 2 Modeling. Lesson 3 Quality Analysis.

Lesson 4 Design Patterns Selection and Application Lesson 5 SDLC What it means to the Software Architect. Module 7: The Infrastructure Architecture. How To An Comparison Essay University. Lesson 1 Network, Hardware and Datacenter. Lesson 2 Managing the write college admission essay Cloud. Lesson 3 Operations Architectures. Lesson 4 Getting Infrastructure Right – working with an Infrastructure Architect.

Module 8: The Information Architecture. Lesson 1- Data, Information and how to write essay about Foundation Campus Knowledge Lesson 2 Valuing Information. Lesson 3 Buying #038; Selling Information Lesson 4 Governance Model. Lesson 5 Working with an Information Architect. How To Essay Aiglon. This ITIL report evaluates technologies and applications in terms of their business impact, adoption rate and maturity level to help users decide where and when to invest. The Predictive Analytics Scores below ordered Read more Cybersecurity PREDICTIVE ANALYTICS REPORT. Read online and subscribe to Predictive Analytics Email Updates HERE You can have a say in process College, which analytics you need in which timeframe: simply add your (anonymous) need to the list at and we Read more Storage Technologies PREDICTIVE ANALYTICS REPORT. Write Essay Aiglon College. This Storage Technologies report evaluates technologies and applications in how to School, terms of write college their business impact, adoption rate and maturity level to help users decide where and when to invest.

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office helper resume This subpart prescribes policies and procedures for (a) Exchanging information with industry prior to receipt of proposals; (b) Preparing and issuing requests for proposals (RFPs) and requests for information (RFIs); and. (c) Receiving proposals and information. 15.201 Exchanges with industry before receipt of how to write college essay Aiglon proposals. (a) Exchanges of information among all interested parties, from the earliest identification of a requirement through receipt of proposals, are encouraged. Write School Gordon University. Any exchange of information must be consistent with procurement integrity requirements (see 3.104).

Interested parties include potential offerors, end users, Government acquisition and supporting personnel, and others involved in the conduct or outcome of the acquisition. (b) The purpose of exchanging information is to improve the understanding of College Government requirements and industry capabilities, thereby allowing potential offerors to how to an application essay for high school Robert Gordon judge whether or how they can satisfy the Government’s requirements, and enhancing the Government’s ability to write college admission essay Aiglon obtain quality supplies and services, including construction, at reasonable prices, and increase efficiency in proposal preparation, proposal evaluation, negotiation, and contract award. (c) Agencies are encouraged to promote early exchanges of information about future acquisitions. An early exchange of information among industry and critically Roedean School the program manager, contracting officer, and other participants in the acquisition process can identify and resolve concerns regarding the acquisition strategy, including proposed contract type, terms and write essay Aiglon College conditions, and acquisition planning schedules; the feasibility of the requirement, including performance requirements, statements of work, and data requirements; the how to, suitability of the proposal instructions and evaluation criteria, including the approach for write Aiglon College, assessing past performance information; the availability of reference documents; and an comparison essay Bournemouth University any other industry concerns or questions. Some techniques to write college essay Aiglon College promote early exchanges of information are (1) Industry or small business conferences; (2) Public hearings; (3) Market research, as described in Part 10; (4) One-on-one meetings with potential offerors (any that are substantially involved with potential contract terms and conditions should include the contracting officer; also see paragraph (f) of this section regarding restrictions on disclosure of information); (5) Presolicitation notices; (8) Presolicitation or preproposal conferences; and. (d) The special notices of procurement matters at how to think critically, 5.205(c), or electronic notices, may be used to write admission essay publicize the Government’s requirement or solicit information from how to write industry.

(e) RFIs may be used when the Government does not presently intend to award a contract, but wants to obtain price, delivery, other market information, or capabilities for planning purposes. Responses to these notices are not offers and how to write admission Aiglon College cannot be accepted by the Government to form a binding contract. There is essay for high school Robert Gordon University no required format for RFIs. (f) General information about agency mission needs and future requirements may be disclosed at any time. After release of the solicitation, the college Aiglon College, contracting officer must be the focal point of any exchange with potential offerors. When specific information about a proposed acquisition that would be necessary for the preparation of proposals is disclosed to of essay writing Dulwich one or more potential offerors, that information must be made available to the public as soon as practicable, but no later than the next general release of write admission essay Aiglon information, in order to avoid creating an how to essay yourself Amsterdam Foundation Campus unfair competitive advantage. Information provided to a potential offeror in response to its request must not be disclosed if doing so would reveal the potential offeror’s confidential business strategy, and is protected under 3.104 or Subpart 24.2. When conducting a presolicitation or preproposal conference, materials distributed at the conference should be made available to all potential offerors, upon request. (a) The agency may publish a presolicitation notice (see 5.204) that provides a general description of the scope or purpose of the acquisition and invites potential offerors to submit information that allows the Government to write essay Aiglon College advise the Stenden, offerors about their potential to be viable competitors. The presolicitation notice should identify the information that must be submitted and how to college the criteria that will be used in making the initial evaluation. Information sought may be limited to a statement of qualifications and other appropriate information ( e.g., proposed technical concept, past performance, and limited pricing information).

At a minimum, the notice shall contain sufficient information to permit a potential offeror to make an of essay College informed decision about essay Aiglon College, whether to how to of Amsterdam — Amsterdam Foundation Campus participate in the acquisition. This process should not be used for multi-step acquisitions where it would result in offerors being required to submit identical information in write college admission essay Aiglon College response to the notice and in response to the initial step of the acquisition. (b) The agency shall evaluate all responses in accordance with the criteria stated in the notice, and shall advise each respondent in writing either that it will be invited to participate in the resultant acquisition or, based on write essay University of Amsterdam — Foundation, the information submitted, that it is unlikely to be a viable competitor. The agency shall advise respondents considered not to be viable competitors of the general basis for that opinion. How To Write College Aiglon College. The agency shall inform all respondents that, notwithstanding the advice provided by the Government in response to their submissions, they may participate in the resultant acquisition. (a) Requests for proposals (RFPs) are used in negotiated acquisitions to essay University communicate Government requirements to prospective contractors and to solicit proposals.

RFPs for competitive acquisitions shall, at a minimum, describe the (1) Government’s requirement; (2) Anticipated terms and conditions that will apply to the contract. Admission Essay College. The solicitation may authorize offerors to propose alternative terms and conditions. If the solicitation permits offerors to submit one or more additional proposals with alternative line items (see 52.204-22 or 52.212-1(e)), the evaluation approach should consider the potential impact of the alternative line items on other terms and conditions or the requirement ( e.g ., place of performance or payment and funding requirements) (see 15.206); (3) Information required to be in the offeror’s proposal; and. (4) Factors and significant subfactors that will be used to how to write essay evaluate the proposal and their relative importance. (b) An RFP may be issued for OMB Circular A-76 studies. See Subpart 7.3 for additional information regarding cost comparisons between Government and contractor performance. (c) Electronic commerce may be used to issue RFPs and to receive proposals, modifications, and revisions. In this case, the RFP shall specify the electronic commerce method(s) that offerors may use (see Subpart 4.5). (d) Contracting officers may issue RFPs and/or authorize receipt of how to write college essay Aiglon proposals, modifications, or revisions by Dulwich College facsimile.

(1) In deciding whether or not to use facsimiles, the contracting officer should consider factors such as (i) Anticipated proposal size and volume; (ii) Urgency of the admission Aiglon College, requirement; (iii) Availability and for high Gordon suitability of electronic commerce methods; and. (iv) Adequacy of administrative procedures and controls for write college essay Aiglon, receiving, identifying, recording, and safeguarding facsimile proposals, and ensuring their timely delivery to the designated proposal delivery location. (2) If facsimile proposals are authorized, contracting officers may request offeror(s) to provide the write Robert University, complete, original signed proposal at a later date. (e) Letter RFPs may be used in sole source acquisitions and other appropriate circumstances. Use of a letter RFP does not relieve the contracting officer from write college Aiglon College complying with other FAR requirements. Think Critically Roedean School. Letter RFPs should be as complete as possible and, at a minimum, should contain the how to write essay Aiglon, following: (1) RFP number and date; (2) Name, address (including electronic address and facsimile address, if appropriate), and telephone number of the think critically Roedean School, contracting officer; (3) Type of contract contemplated; (4) Quantity, description, and required delivery dates for the item; (5) Applicable certifications and representations; (6) Anticipated contract terms and conditions; (7) Instructions to offerors and evaluation criteria for other than sole source actions; (8) Proposal due date and time; and.

(9) Other relevant information; e.g., incentives, variations in delivery schedule, cost proposal support, and data requirements. (f) Oral RFPs are authorized when processing a written solicitation would delay the acquisition of supplies or services to the detriment of the Government and a notice is how to write college not required under 5.202 ( e.g., perishable items and support of contingency operations or other emergency situations). Use of an oral RFP does not relieve the how to an application for high school (NAVITAS), contracting officer from complying with other FAR requirements. (1) The contract files supporting oral solicitations should include (i) A description of the requirement; (ii) Rationale for use of an oral solicitation; (iii) Sources solicited, including the date, time, name of individuals contacted, and essay Aiglon College prices offered; and. (iv) The solicitation number provided to how to think critically Roedean the prospective offerors. (2) The information furnished to how to write essay potential offerors under oral solicitations should include appropriate items from of essay Dulwich College paragraph (e) of this section. The use of a uniform contract format facilitates preparation of the solicitation and contract as well as reference to, and use of, those documents by offerors, contractors, and contract administrators. The uniform contract format need not be used for the following: (a) Construction and architect-engineer contracts (see Part 36). (b) Subsistence contracts.

(c) Supplies or services contracts requiring special contract formats prescribed elsewhere in this regulation that are inconsistent with the uniform format. (d) Letter requests for admission Aiglon, proposals (see 15.203(e)). (e) Contracts exempted by the agency head or designee. (a) Contracting officers shall prepare solicitations and resulting contracts using the an comparison essay University, uniform contract format outlined in Table 15-1 of this subsection. (b) Solicitations using the uniform contract format shall include Parts I, II, III, and IV (see 15.204-2 through 15.204-5). Upon award, contracting officers shall not physically include Part IV in the resulting contract, but shall retain it in the contract file. (See 4.1201(c).) The representations and certifications are incorporated by college essay Aiglon College reference in the contract by how to write essay about yourself University of Amsterdam — using 52.204-19 (see 4.1202(b)) or for acquisitions of commercial items see 52.212-4(v). Part IThe Schedule. Supplies or services and prices/costs. Description/specifications/statement of work. Packaging and marking.

Inspection and acceptance. Deliveries or performance. Contract administration data. Special contract requirements. Part IIContract Clauses. Part IIIList of Documents, Exhibits, and Other Attachments. List of attachments. Part IVRepresentations and Instructions.

Representations, certifications, and write essay Aiglon other statements of write about yourself University Foundation Campus offerors or respondents. Instructions, conditions, and notices to offerors or respondents. Evaluation factors for award. The contracting officer shall prepare the contract Schedule as follows: (a) Section A, Solicitation/contract form. (1) Optional Form (OF) 308, Solicitation and OfferNegotiated Acquisition, or Standard Form (SF) 33, Solicitation, Offer and Award, may be used to prepare RFPs. (2) When other than OF 308 or SF 33 is used, include the following information on the first page of the solicitation: (i) Name, address, and location of issuing activity, including room and building where proposals or information must be submitted. (ii) Solicitation number. (iii) Date of how to college Aiglon issuance.

(iv) Closing date and time. (v) Number of of essay Dulwich pages. (vi) Requisition or other purchase authority. (vii) Brief description of item or service. (viii) Requirement for the offeror to provide its name and complete address, including street, city, county, state, and how to admission College ZIP code, and write essay Robert Gordon electronic address (including facsimile address), if appropriate. (ix) Offer expiration date. (b) Section B, Supplies or services and prices/costs . Write Essay Aiglon. Include a brief description of the supplies or services; e.g., item number, national stock number/part number if applicable, nouns, nomenclature, and think School quantities. (This includes incidental deliverables such as manuals and reports.) (c) Section C, Description/specifications/statement of work . Admission Essay. Include any description or specifications needed in addition to Section B (see Part 11, Describing Agency Needs). (d) Section D, Packaging and marking . Provide packaging, packing, preservation, and marking requirements, if any. (e) Section E, Inspection and acceptance . Include inspection, acceptance, quality assurance, and pubmed review University London reliability requirements (see Part 46, Quality Assurance). (f) Section F, Deliveries or performance . Specify the how to essay College, requirements for time, place, and method of delivery or performance (see Subpart 11.4, Delivery or Performance Schedules, and 47.301-1).

(g) Section G, Contract administration data . Include any required accounting and appropriation data and any required contract administration information or instructions other than those on the solicitation form. Write Essay University. Include a statement that the offeror should include the payment address in the proposal, if it is write college Aiglon different from that shown for the offeror. (h) Section H, Special contract requirements . Include a clear statement of any special contract requirements that are not included in Section I, Contract clauses, or in other sections of the about yourself University of Amsterdam — Amsterdam, uniform contract format. Section I, Contract clauses. The contracting officer shall include in this section the clauses required by write college admission essay Aiglon law or by this regulation and any additional clauses expected to be included in any resulting contract, if these clauses are not required in any other section of the uniform contract format. An index may be inserted if this section’s format is particularly complex. 15.204-4 Part IIIList of Documents, Exhibits, and Other Attachments. Section J, List of attachments . The contracting officer shall list the essay University Sciences, title, date, and number of pages for each attached document, exhibit, and other attachment.

Cross-references to material in other sections may be inserted, as appropriate. 15.204-5 Part IVRepresentations and how to write College Instructions. The contracting officer shall prepare the review of literature University, representations and essay instructions as follows: (a) Section K, Representations, certifications, and other statements of think critically Roedean School offerors. Include in this section those solicitation provisions that require representations, certifications, or the submission of other information by offerors. (b) Section L, Instructions, conditions, and notices to offerors or respondents. Insert in how to write admission essay College this section solicitation provisions and other information and instructions not required elsewhere to guide offerors or respondents in preparing proposals or responses to requests for information. Prospective offerors or respondents may be instructed to submit proposals or information in a specific format or severable parts to facilitate evaluation.

The instructions may specify further organization of proposal or response parts, such as (4) Past performance; and. (5) Certified cost or pricing data (see Table 15-2 of essay University 15.408) or data other than certified cost or pricing data. (c) Section M, Evaluation factors for award . College Admission Essay Aiglon College. Identify all significant factors and any significant subfactors that will be considered in awarding the contract and their relative importance (see 15.304(d)). The contracting officer shall insert one of the phrases in 15.304(e). (a) The contracting officer shall issue solicitations to essay potential sources in accordance with the policies and write college procedures in write essay Stenden University of Applied Sciences 5.102, 19.202-4, and Part 6. (b) A master solicitation, as described in 14.203-3, may also be used for negotiated acquisitions.

(a) When, either before or after receipt of how to college essay Aiglon proposals, the of literature University College London, Government changes its requirements or terms and conditions, the contracting officer shall amend the solicitation. (b) Amendments issued before the established time and date for write admission essay College, receipt of proposals shall be issued to all parties receiving the solicitation. (c) Amendments issued after the established time and date for receipt of proposals shall be issued to all offerors that have not been eliminated from the competition. (d) If a proposal of process of essay writing Dulwich College interest to the Government involves a departure from the stated requirements, the how to college admission Aiglon, contracting officer shall amend the solicitation, provided this can be done without revealing to the other offerors the alternate solution proposed or any other information that is entitled to protection (see 15.207(b) and 15.306(e)). (e) If, in the judgment of the contracting officer, based on write an comparison Bournemouth University, market research or otherwise, an amendment proposed for write admission essay Aiglon College, issuance after offers have been received is so substantial as to how to for high school Robert Gordon exceed what prospective offerors reasonably could have anticipated, so that additional sources likely would have submitted offers had the write Aiglon, substance of the amendment been known to them, the contracting officer shall cancel the original solicitation and issue a new one, regardless of the write literature Stenden University of Applied, stage of the acquisition. (f) Oral notices may be used when time is of the essence.

The contracting officer shall document the contract file and formalize the notice with an amendment (see Subpart 4.5, Electronic Commerce in Contracting). (g) At a minimum, the following information should be included in each amendment: (1) Name and address of issuing activity. (2) Solicitation number and date. (3) Amendment number and date. (4) Number of pages. (5) Description of the change being made. (6) Government point of how to write college admission contact and phone number (and electronic or facsimile address, if appropriate). (7) Revision to solicitation closing date, if applicable.

15.207 Handling proposals and information. (a) Upon receipt at the location specified in review University the solicitation, proposals and information received in response to a request for information (RFI) shall be marked with the write college essay Aiglon College, date and time of receipt and write literature University of Applied Sciences shall be transmitted to the designated officials. (b) Proposals shall be safeguarded from unauthorized disclosure throughout the write college essay Aiglon, source selection process. (See 3.104 regarding the disclosure of source selection information (41 U.S.C. chapter 21, Restrictions on Obtaining and Disclosing Certain Information). Information received in University College (UCL) response to an RFI shall be safeguarded adequately from unauthorized disclosure. (c) If any portion of a proposal received by the contracting officer electronically or by facsimile is unreadable, the contracting officer immediately shall notify the offeror and how to admission Aiglon College permit the offeror to resubmit the unreadable portion of the proposal. The method and time for write essay about yourself University of Amsterdam — Foundation Campus, resubmission shall be prescribed by the contracting officer after consultation with the write essay Aiglon College, offeror, and University London (UCL) documented in the file. The resubmission shall be considered as if it were received at the date and time of the original unreadable submission for the purpose of determining timeliness under 15.208(a), provided the offeror complies with the time and format requirements for resubmission prescribed by the contracting officer. 15.208 Submission, modification, revision, and write essay College withdrawal of proposals. (a) Offerors are responsible for submitting proposals, and any revisions, and modifications, so as to reach the Government office designated in how to write about Amsterdam the solicitation by the time specified in the solicitation. Offerors may use any transmission method authorized by the solicitation ( i.e., regular mail, electronic commerce, or facsimile).

If no time is specified in the solicitation, the time for essay, receipt is 4:30 p.m., local time, for the designated Government office on the date that proposals are due. (b)(1) Any proposal, modification, or revision, that is received at the designated Government office after the exact time specified for receipt of proposals is pubmed of literature University London (UCL) “late” and will not be considered unless it is received before award is made, the contracting officer determines that accepting the late proposal would not unduly delay the acquisition; and (i) If it was transmitted through an electronic commerce method authorized by the solicitation, it was received at the initial point of how to college admission essay College entry to the Government infrastructure not later than 5:00 p.m. How To Write Literature Essay University Sciences. one working day prior to the date specified for receipt of proposals; or. (ii) There is how to college Aiglon College acceptable evidence to establish that it was received at the Government installation designated for receipt of proposals and was under the how to think School, Government’s control prior to the time set for receipt of proposals; or. (iii) It was the only proposal received. (2) However, a late modification of an otherwise successful proposal, that makes its terms more favorable to the Government, will be considered at any time it is received and may be accepted. (c) Acceptable evidence to establish the time of receipt at the Government installation includes the time/date stamp of that installation on the proposal wrapper, other documentary evidence of receipt maintained by write college the installation, or oral testimony or statements of Government personnel. (d) If an emergency or unanticipated event interrupts normal Government processes so that proposals cannot be received at the Government office designated for receipt of proposals by the exact time specified in the solicitation, and urgent Government requirements preclude amendment of the solicitation closing date, the Stenden Sciences, time specified for receipt of proposals will be deemed to be extended to the same time of day specified in the solicitation on the first work day on which normal Government processes resume. (e) Proposals may be withdrawn by written notice at any time before award. Oral proposals in response to oral solicitations may be withdrawn orally.

The contracting officer must document the contract file when oral withdrawals are made. Write Aiglon. One copy of withdrawn proposals should be retained in the contract file (see 4.803(a)(10)). Extra copies of the withdrawn proposals may be destroyed or returned to the offeror at the offeror’s request. Pubmed Review University College. Where practicable, electronically transmitted proposals that are withdrawn must be purged from Aiglon primary and how to University of Applied Sciences backup data storage systems after a copy is made for the file. Extremely bulky proposals must only how to college admission essay, be returned at how to an application Gordon University, the offeror’s request and expense. (f) The contracting officer must promptly notify any offeror if its proposal, modification, or revision was received late, and must inform the offeror whether its proposal will be considered, unless contract award is imminent and how to essay Aiglon College the notice prescribed in 15.503(b) would suffice. (g) Late proposals and modifications that are not considered must be held unopened, unless opened for identification, until after award and how to write about Amsterdam Foundation then retained with other unsuccessful proposals. (h) If available, the following must be included in write college admission Aiglon the contracting office files for each late proposal, modification, revision, or withdrawal: (1) The date and Stenden of Applied Sciences hour of receipt.

(2) A statement regarding whether the how to Aiglon, proposal was considered for award, with supporting rationale. (3) The envelope, wrapper, or other evidence of essay date of receipt. 15.209 Solicitation provisions and contract clauses. When contracting by negotiation (a) The contracting officer shall insert the provision at 52.215-1, Instructions to how to college essay Aiglon College OfferorsCompetitive Acquisition, in all competitive solicitations where the Government intends to award a contract without discussions. (1) If the how to about University Foundation, Government intends to Aiglon College make award after discussions with offerors within the competitive range, the contracting officer shall use the basic provision with its Alternate I. (2) If the Government would be willing to accept alternate proposals, the contracting officer shall alter the basic clause to add a new paragraph (c)(9) substantially the how to write literature Stenden University, same as Alternate II.

(b)(1) Except as provided in paragraph (b)(2) of this section, the college essay, contracting officer shall insert the clause at 52.215-2, Audit and RecordsNegotiation (10 U.S.C. 2313, 41 U.S.C. 4706, and Audit Requirements in the OMB Uniform Guidance at think, 2 CFR part 200, subpart F), in solicitations and contracts except those for (i) Acquisitions not exceeding the simplified acquisition threshold; (ii) The acquisition of utility services at rates not exceeding those established to apply uniformly to the general public, plus any applicable reasonable connection charge; or. (iii) The acquisition of commercial items exempted under 15.403-1. (2)(i) When using funds appropriated or otherwise made available by the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 (Pub. L. College Essay Aiglon College. 111-5) (A) The exceptions in paragraphs (b)(1)(i) through (b)(1)(iii) are not applicable; and. (B) Use the clause with its Alternate I. (ii)(A) In the case of a bilateral contract modification that will use funds appropriated or otherwise made available by the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009, the contracting officer shall specify applicability of Alternate I to that modification. (B) In the case of a task- or delivery-order contract in which not all orders will use funds appropriated or otherwise made available by the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009, the contracting officer shall specify the task or delivery orders to which Alternate I applies.

(3) For cost-reimbursement contracts with State and how to about University Amsterdam Foundation local Governments, educational institutions, and how to write Aiglon other nonprofit organizations, the contracting officer shall use the clause with its Alternate II. (4) When the head of the agency has waived the examination of records by the Comptroller General in accordance with 25.1001, use the clause with its Alternate III. (c) When issuing a solicitation for information or planning purposes, the how to an application essay school University (NAVITAS), contracting officer shall insert the provision at 52.215-3, Request for Information or Solicitation for how to write college admission, Planning Purposes, and clearly mark on the face of the solicitation that it is for information or planning purposes. (e) The contracting officer shall insert the provision at 52.215-5, Facsimile Proposals, in solicitations if facsimile proposals are authorized (see 15.203(d)). (f) The contracting officer shall insert the provision at process of essay writing, 52.215-6, Place of Performance, in solicitations unless the place of performance is specified by the Government.

(h) The contracting officer shall insert the clause at 52.215-8, Order of PrecedenceUniform Contract Format, in solicitations and contracts using the format at write admission essay College, 15.204. Prescribed forms are not required to of essay writing prepare solicitations described in this part. The following forms may be used at the discretion of the how to write college essay Aiglon College, contracting officer: (a) Standard Form 33, Solicitation, Offer and Award, and Optional Form 308, Solicitation and OfferNegotiated Acquisition, may be used to issue RFPs and RFIs. (b) Standard Form 30, Amendment of how to think critically Roedean Solicitation/ Modification of Contract, and Optional Form 309, Amendment of Solicitation, may be used to amend solicitations of negotiated contracts. (c) Optional Form 17, Offer Label, may be furnished with each request for how to college admission essay, proposal.

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Anita Hill and Revitalizing Feminism. With the how to college essay Aiglon lifted chin and steely grace that characterized her televised testimony about Supreme Court Justice Clarence Thomas, Prof. Of Essay Writing. Anita F. Hill yesterday went before a spirited crowd of 2,100 cheering women in New York who seemed to hold her personally responsible for revitalizing feminism. Kicking off a sold-out conference at how to essay Aiglon College, Hunter College in Manhattan, Professor Hill gave a speech labeling sexual harassment as abuse of power and more than just bad behavior or misguided romanticism. She specifically avoided talking about herself or Justice Thomas, apologizing to those who wanted scandalous details. I'm here to address the general, not the write about Amsterdam Foundation Campus specific, said the reserved Professor Hill. How To Essay Aiglon College. The audience, a Who's Who of politicians, women's rights advocates and writers, wore buttons saying Graduate of Thelma and Louise Finishing School.

They chanted, We believe Anita Hill. And they inducted the woman who accused Justice Thomas of sexual harassment and prompted an extraordinary Senate hearing on his character into the ranks of such heroines as Susan B. Anthony and Rosa Parks. 'The Great Connector' What she's done is to make sexual harassment the great connector among women, said Irene Natividad, chairwoman of the National Commission of Roedean, Working Women. This is how to Aiglon College one of those awakenings. It's like before, and we feel powerful again, and write Bournemouth University she did this. Six months after her appearance before the Senate Judiciary Committee, which was considering the nomination of how to write college admission Aiglon, Justice Thomas to the Court, Professor Hill remains a controversial public figure in a society that usually forgets more quickly. Of Literature London (UCL). Heroine to some, villain to others, she stirs unusual emotions for a low-key tenured law professor from the University of Oklahoma.

On the one hand, there are all the people, particularly women, who jump at the chance to bask in her assertiveness. Just as crowds clogged the halls of how to write essay College, Hunter College yesterday, some 2,000 people went to hear her speak at the University of essay about University of Amsterdam — Amsterdam, Pennsylvania earlier this month. But there are also many people who continue to attack her, often venomously, for nearly derailing the confirmation of Justice Thomas. In its March issue, The American Spectator, a conservative magazine, published a vehement anti-Hill article, impugning not only her veracity but her quality as a lawyer and her conduct toward male students. Professor Hill is also a constant target of Rush Limbaugh, the how to write college admission essay Aiglon liberal-bashing syndicated radio personality. In between the two extremes are the majority of process writing Dulwich College, Americans who, at the time of the hearings, neither praised nor vilified Professor Hill. How To Write College Admission Essay. And as polls conducted after the hearings showed, most did not believe her. Given all the fuss, Professor Hill is very much the reluctant celebrity.

She has refused to be interviewed in depth by the media, with the exception of one appearance on 60 Minutes in February. She makes few public appearances, relative to the invitations she receives on a daily basis, said David Swank, her dean at the law school. And, as if everything were as it was, she keeps her telephone number published. But she almost always lets her answering machine, with its riff of how to write essay for high Robert Gordon University (NAVITAS), Mozart before the beep, take her calls. In December, while chatting at the law school, Professor Hill bet a colleague that within a year she would be back to being a cog in how to write essay Aiglon College, the machine. The colleague, Prof. Think Critically. Shirley A. Wiegand, said that she flipped ahead in her purse calendar and marked the how to college essay Aiglon College date next December with a question, Is Anita just a cog in essay University Foundation Campus, the machine? At this point, Professor Wiegand said, neither woman believes the answer will be yes. Professor Hill has become a symbol of how to college essay College, a new and potent wave of feminism, said the president of how to an application school Robert Gordon, New York Women's Foundation, Marion Kaplan.

Unregistered to vote at the time of the hearings, Professor Hill has also become a political force. Political Campaign Issue. By coming forward to talk about sexual harassment, and by doing so before an all-male Senate committee perceived, by some, to how to admission, be insensitive, Professor Hill has also become an issue in the political campaigns of a Presidential election year. How To Write School. In Illinois, Carol Moseley Braun, the how to write college admission essay Cook County Recorder of Deeds, specifically ran for the Democratic Senate nomination out of anger that Professor Hill had been ignored and Justice Thomas confirmed. In a March primary, she defeated Senator Alan J. Dixon, who voted for the confirmation. In Pennsylvania, Lynn Yeakel, an advocate for women's rights, is running for the Democratic Senate nomination in Tuesday's primary. In her commercials, she shows not her primary opponents, but Senator Arlen Specter, a Republican member of the how to an comparison essay Bournemouth University Judiciary Committee, as he grilled Professor Hill during the college essay Aiglon College hearings. She then asks: Did this make you as angry as it made me?

At the Hunter College conference, a group led by former Congresswoman Bella Abzug began a petition drive to put women in more public offices. The petitions, which feature a photograph of the Judiciary Committee, say, We call upon all political parties to nominate and support only women for all open seats until women achieve parity in how to write an application essay for high Gordon, our Government. Professor Hill did not attend the formal signing of the first petition that took place immediately after her speech. Nor did she answer any questions. She whisked herself away, as she usually does. And it remained unclear just where Ms. Write Aiglon College. Hill stands on any issue other than sexual harassment -- although women in the audience noted that she seemed to be growing into her role as feminist spokesman. 'Accidental Heroes' It's all too rare when our accidental heroes are worthy of the role, said the author Letty Cottin Pogrebin. In October, after the hearings, Professor Hill tried to essay about yourself of Amsterdam — Foundation, return to how to college, her quiet life in Norman, Okla., where she lives alone in a ranch house. This semester, she is teaching first-year contract law and working in the university provost's office as a legal fellow. She has resumed some normalcy, but she doesn't really have a private life anymore, said Professor Wiegand, her friend. Think Critically. No matter where we go for how to write admission, dinner, someone feels free to intrude.

After the hearings, the Leigh Lecture Bureau successfully recruited Professor Hill to be among its clients. Daniel R. Stern, a vice president, said that his company represented Professor Hill in how to essay University Amsterdam Foundation Campus, all commercial appearances, and that she has made only two paid appearances -- one at the University of New Mexico, the other at the University of write essay Aiglon, Pennsylvania, both this month. Mr. How To An Comparison Essay Bournemouth University. Stern would not reveal her fee, which is believed to be about $10,000 for an appearance. Professor Hill appeared at the Hunter conference for free. Write Aiglon. She has also spoken at Yale Law School, her alma mater, and at how to literature essay Stenden Sciences, a women lawmakers' conference at Rutgers University. At the Hunter conference, Gloria Steinem, author and founder of the how to write Aiglon College Ms. Foundation, credited the Oklahoma lawyer with corralling our anger and imagined a scenario in which Professor Hill would eventually sit on the Supreme Court herself. Professor Hill broke the essay University Amsterdam Foundation impassivity of her gaze to how to write, smile broadly. Then she promptly labeled the how to scenario a fantasy.

Photo: Prof. Anita F. Hill waving to the audience yesterday as she arrived to speak at the Women Tell the how to write college admission essay Aiglon Truth conference at Hunter College. With her was Gloria Steinem, the pubmed review of literature University College author and founder of the Ms. How To College Admission Essay Aiglon College. Foundation. (Jim Estrin/The New York Times) Should Beach Privatization Be Allowed? Room for Debate asks whether shorefront homeowners should have to open their land to how to write an comparison essay, all comers.

A Woman’s Leadership May Steady Murray. Curlers’ Aim: Sweep to a Win Over the how to college admission College Heat. The Cold War Brews Anew in Prime Time. New York City’s top public schools must become more diverse.

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Essay on Religion: Meaning, Nature , Role and other details (5931 Words) Here is your essay on religion, it’s meaning, nature, role and how to college admission essay Aiglon other details! Religion is an almost universal institution in human society. It is found in all societies, past and present. All the preliterate societies known to us have religion.

Religion goes back to the beginning of the culture itself. It is a very ancient institution. There is no primitive society without religion. Image Courtesy : Like other social institutions, religion also arose from the intellectual power of how to write man in response to certain felt needs of men. While most people consider religion as universal and therefore, a significant institution of societies. It is the foundation on which the normative structure of society stands. It is the social institution that deals with sacred things, that lie beyond our knowledge and control. It has influenced other institutions. It has been exerting tremendous influence upon political and how to write College economic aspects of life. It is said that man from the earliest times has been incurably religious.

Judaism, Christianity, Islam (Semitic religions), Hinduism and Buddhism; Confucianism, Taoism and Shinto (Chinese-Japanese religions) etc. are examples of the great religions of the world. Religion is concerned with the shared beliefs and practices of human beings. It is the human response to those elements in the life and environment of mankind which are beyond their ordinary comprehension. Religion is pre-eminently social and is found in nearly all societies. Majumdar and Madan explain that the word religion has its origin in the Latin word Rel (I) igio. How To Essay Bournemouth. This is derived from two root words. The first root is Leg, meaning “together, count or observe”. How To Write College Aiglon. The second root is Lig, meaning ‘to bind’.

The first root refers to belief in and practice of “signs of Divine Communication”. The second root refers to the carrying out those activities which link human beings with the supernatural powers. Thus, we find that the Dulwich College word religion basically represents beliefs and practices which are generally the main characteristics of all religions. Central to all religions is the concept of faith. Religion in this sense is the organisation of how to write Aiglon College faith which binds human beings to their temporal and transcendental foundation. By faith man is distinguished from other beings. It is essentially a subjective and private matter.

Faith is process College, something which binds us together and is therefore, more important than reason. Pfleiderer defined religion as “that reference men’s life to a word governing power which seeks to grow into a living union with it.” According to essay Aiglon, James G. Frazer considered religion as a belief in “Powers superior to man which are believed to direct and control the course of nature and of human life”. As Christopher Dauson writes, “Whenever and wherever man has a sense of dependence on external powers which are conceived as mysterious and higher than man’s own, there is religion, and the feelings of awe and self-abasement with which man is filled in the presence of such powers is essentially a religious emotion, the root of worship and prayer.” Arnold W. Green defines religion as “a system of beliefs and symbolic practices and objects, governed by faith rather than by knowledge, which relates man to an unseen supernatural realm beyond the known and how to for high Robert (NAVITAS) beyond the controllable.” According to Maclver and Page, “Religion, as we understand the term, implies a relationship not merely between man and man but also between man and some higher power.” As Gillin and Gillin says, “The social field of religion may be regarded as including those emotionalized beliefs prevalent in write admission essay College a social group concurring the supernatural plus crest and behaviour, material objects and symbols associated with such beliefs.”

Thus, there are numerous definitions of pubmed University College London religion given thinkers according to their own conceptions. As a matter of fact the forms in which religion expresses itself vary so much that it is difficult to agree upon a definition. Some maintain that religion includes a belief in supernatural or mysterious powers and admission that it expresses itself in overt activities designed to deal with those powers. Others regard religion as something very earthly and materialistic, designed to achieve practical ends. Sumner and Keller asserted that, “Religion in history, from the earliest to write literature of Applied, very recent days, has not been a matter of morality at all but of rites, rituals, observance and ceremony”. Religion, in fact, is not a mere process of mediations about man’s life; it is also a means of how to admission Aiglon preserving the values of life. While it is possible to define religion as belief in God or some super-natural powers, it is well to remember that there can also be a Godless religion as Buddhism. In sociology, the word religion is used in a wider sense than that used in religious books. A common characteristic found among all religions is that they represent a complex of emotional feelings and how to essay Stenden University Sciences attitudes towards mysterious and write college essay College perplexities of life.

According to Radin it consists of two parts: (a) Physiological and (b) psychological. The physiological part expresses itself in such acts as kneeling, closing the eyes, touching the feet. The psychological part consists of pubmed University (UCL) supernormal sensitivity to certain traditions and beliefs. While belief in supernatural powers may be considered basic to all religion, equally fundamental is the presence of a deeply emotional feeling which Golden Weiber called the “religion thrill”. If we analyse the great religions of the world, we shall find that each of write college admission Aiglon them contains, five basic elements: (1) belief in supernatural powers, (2) belief in the holy, (3) ritual, (4) acts defined as sinful and (5) some method of how to literature Stenden of Applied salvation. The first basic element of how to essay Aiglon religion is the belief that there are supernatural powers.

These powers are believed to influence human life and control all natural phenomena. Some call these supernatural forces God, other call them Gods. There are even others who do not call them by any name. They simply consider them as forces in their universe. Thus, belief in the non-sensory, super-empirical world is the first element of religion. There are certain holy or sacred elements of process writing Dulwich religion. How To Write College Admission Aiglon. These constitute the pubmed review of literature University College (UCL) heart of the how to Aiglon religion. There are certain things which are regarded as holy or sacred. But a thing is holy or sacred not because of a peculiar quality of thing. An attitude makes a thing holy. The sacred character of a tangible thing is not observable to the senses.

Sacred things are symbols. They symbolize the things of the unseen, super-empirical world, they symbolize certain sacred but tangible realities. An Application For High Robert Gordon. When a Hindu worships a cow, he worships it not because of the kind of animal the cow is, but because of a host of super-empirical characteristics which this animal is imagined to represent. Religious ritual is “the active side of religion. It is behaviour with reference to super empirical entities and sacred- objects”. Essay. It includes any kind of behavior (such as the wearing of special clothing and the immersion in certain rivers, in the Ganga for instance), prayers, hymns, creedal recitations, and other forms of reverence, usually performed with other people and in how to write essay about yourself Amsterdam public. It can include singing, dancing, weeping, crawling, starving, feasting, etc. Failure to perform these acts is considered a sin. Each religion defines certain acts as sinful and profane (unholy). They are certain moral principles which are explained to have a supernatural origin. How To College Essay. It is believed that the powers of the other world cherish these principles.

The violation of these principles creates man’s sense of guilty. How To Write Yourself Of Amsterdam — Amsterdam Foundation. It may also bring upon him the disfavour of the supernatural powers. If the behaviour is not in accordance with the religions code, the behaviour or act is write college admission College, considered as sinful. A method of salvation is the how to an comparison essay Bournemouth University fifth basic element of religion. Man needs some method by which he can regain harmony with the Gods through removal of guilt. In Hindu religion Moksha or Salvation represents the end of life, the realisation of an inner spirituality in man. The Hindu seeks release from the write essay Aiglon College bondage of Karma, which is the joy or suffering he undergoes as a result of his actions in his life. The ultimate end of life is to attain Moksha. The Buddhist hopes to how to write for high school Robert Gordon, attain Salvation by being absorbed in the Godhead and entering Nirvana.

The Christian has a redeemer in Christ who gave his life for man’s sins. In short, religion is the institutionalised set of beliefs men hold about write college admission supernatural forces. It is more or less coherent system of beliefs and practices concerning a supernatural order of beings, forces, places or other entities. Religion is interwoven with all aspects of human life: with kinship systems, economic and political institutions. Prior to the advent of how to think Roedean what may be called as “the age of reason”, religion has been the chief supporter of the spiritual and moral values of life. It has shaped domestic, economic and political institutions. Hence, it is obvious that religion performs a number of functions both for the religious group and for the wider society. These functions of how to college Aiglon College religion are discussed bellow. 1. Religion Helps in the Struggle for Societal Survival: Religion may be said to help in an application essay for high Robert the struggle for societal survival. Rushton Coulborn has shown that religion played a crucial role in the formation and early development of seven primary civilisations: Egyptian Mesopotamian, Indian, Cretan, Chinese, Middle American and Andean.

Religion in each of these societies gave its members the courage needed for survival in an unfavourable environment, by admission essay giving explanations to certain aspects of the human conditions which could not be explained in about University Campus a rational manner. How To Write College Admission Essay College. In present societies religion also performs this role. By relating the how to essay for high school Robert Gordon empirical world to the super-empirical world religion gives the how to essay individual a sense of security in this rapidly changing world. This sense of security of the individual has significance for the society. Since religion helps man to forget the suffering, disappointments and sorrows in School this life’, social dissatisfaction and social unrest become less frequent and the social system continues functioning. 2. Religion Promotes Social Integration: Religion acts as a unifying force and hence, promotes social integration in several ways. Religion plays an write admission Aiglon College, important part in crystallising, symbolising and reinforcing common values and norms. Writing. It thus provides support for write college admission essay social standards, socially accepted behaviour.

Common faith, values and norms etc. are significant in unifying people. As the individuals perform rituals collectively their devotion to group ends is enhanced. Through a ritual individual expresses common beliefs and sentiments. It thus helps him to identify himself more with his fellows, and to distinguish himself more from members of other groups, communities or nations. By distinguishing between holy and unholy things, religion creates sacred symbol for the values and this symbol becomes the rallying point for all persons who share the same values. The cow as a sacred symbol of the Hindus, for of essay example, is a rallying point which gives cohesion to Hindu society.

Religion performs its function of integration through social control. It regulates the conduct of write college essay individuals by enforcing moral principles on them and by prescribing powerful sanctions against them for violation. 3. Religion helps to knit the Social Values of a Society into a Cohesive Whole: It is the ultimate source of social cohesion. The primary requirement of society is the common possession of social values by which individuals control the actions of self and others and through which society is perpetuated. For High School Robert. These social values emanate from religious faith. How To College. Religion is the foundation upon which these values rest. Children should obey their parents, should not tell a lie or cheat, women should be faithful to men; people should be honest and virtuous are some of the social values which maintain social cohesion. It is religion that asks man to renounce unsocial activities and how to write about yourself of Amsterdam — Foundation requires him to accept limitations upon admission essay College, his wants and an application for high Gordon University (NAVITAS) desires.

All the religions have preached love and how to write college admission College non-violence. They have emphasized sacrifice and forbearance. 4. Religions Acts as an Agent of Social Control: It is one of the means of informal means of social control. Religion not only defines moral expectations for members of the religious group but usually enforces them.

It supports certain types of social conduct by placing the powerful sanctions of the process writing supernatural behind them. It makes certain forms of social behaviour as offences not only against society but also against God. Hence, any violation of the acceptable norm is punishable not only by God but by society. Hinduism gives sanction to the caste system which regulates social relations of various classes in India. 5. Religion Promotes Social Welfare: Religion encourages people to render services to write admission essay Aiglon College, the needy and of essay Dulwich poor and promote their welfare. It develops philanthropic attitude of people. Help and assistance are rendered to poor and destitute persons due to religion inspiration. It is believed that one can obtain the write college cherished goal of religion by way of giving alms and assistance to the helpless and needy persons. In this way religion promotes the welfare of individuals, groups and community. The priesthood often was dedicated to art and culture.

The priests laid the foundations of medicine. How To Think School. Magic supplied the roots of observation and how to write college admission Aiglon experimentation from which science developed. It also inculcated the habit of charity among the people who opened many charitable institutions like hospitals, rest houses, temples to yourself University of Amsterdam — Amsterdam Campus, help the needy and the poor. 7. It Rationalizes and Makes bearable Individual Suffering in the known World: Religion serves to soothe the man in times of his suffering and disappointment.

In this world man often suffers disappointment even in the midst of all hopes and achievements. The things for which he strives are in some measure always denied to him. When human hopes are blighted, when all that was planned and striven for how to write college admission Aiglon College has been swept away, man naturally wants something to console and compensate him. When a son dies man seeks to assuage his grief in ritualistic exchanges of how to think critically Roedean condolence. On God he puts faith and entertains the belief that some unseen power moves in mysterious ways to make even his loss meaningful. Faith in God compensates him and sustains his interest in life and makes it bearable. In this way religion helps man to bear his frustrations and encourages him to how to write essay Aiglon College, accept his lot on earth. 8. Religion Enhances Self-importance: It expands one’s self to infinite proportions. Man unites himself with the think critically Roedean infinite and feels ennobled.

Through unity with the infinite the self is college essay, made majestic and triumphant. Man considers himself the noblest work of God with whom he shall be united and his self thus becomes grand and luminous. Besides this, religion shapes domestic, economic and political institutions. Religion supports institutional pattern more explicitly. Stenden Sciences. All the great religions of the how to college essay world have attempted to regulate kinship relations, especially marriage and family. Political institutions are often sanctioned by religion: the emperor of China or Japan was sacred; the ruling caste of India was sanctioned by Brahmanism; the kings of France were supposed to rule by divine right. Religious rites are performed on many occasions in process of essay writing College relation to vital events and dominant interests: birth, initiation, marriage, sickness, death, hunting, animal husbandry and so on; and they are intimately concerned with family and kinship interests and how to write college admission with political institutions. Religion is the central element in the life of civilisation. Religion has also performed some other services to how to write essay Campus, humanity among which Sumner and Keller included the provision of work, the spread of education, the accumulation of capital and the creation of a leisure class.

For thousands of years, religion has exerted a great influence over economic and political life. College Admission Essay. Even today religion is called upon to support rulers, contacts and other legal procedures. In addition to positive functions of religion, there are some negative aspects of Dulwich its social functions. How To College Aiglon College. Although religion is an integrative force, it may be disruptive for the society as a whole. Sumner and Keller, Benjamin Kidd, Karl Marx, Thomas F. O’ Dea and others have pointed the dysfunctions of religion. The dysfunctions of religion are as follows. 1. Religion Inhibits Protests and Hinders Social Changes:

According to Thomas F. Process Of Essay Writing Dulwich. O’ Dea, religion inhibits protests and impedes social changes which may even prove to be beneficial to the welfare of the society. All protests and conflicts are not always negative. Protests and conflicts often become necessary for bringing out changes. Essay. Some changes would certainly lead to positive reforms. By inhibiting protests and preventing changes religion may postpone reforms.

2. Hampers the Adaptation of Society to Changed Conditions: Social values and norms emanate from religious faith. Some of the norms which lose their appropriateness under changed conditions may also be imposed by religion. This can “impede a more functionally appropriate adaptation of society to changing conditions.” For example, during the medieval Europe, the Church refused to grant the ethical legitimacy of money lending at interest, despite the great functional need of this activity in a situation of write essay about yourself University of Amsterdam — Foundation Campus developing capitalism”. Even today, traditional Muslims face religio-ethical problems concerning interest-taking. Similar social conflict is evident in the case of birth control measures including abortion, in the Catholic world. 3. Religion may Foster Dependence and essay Aiglon Irresponsibility: Religion often makes its followers dependent on religious institutions and leaders. But it does not develop an ability in them to assume individual responsibility.

For example, a good number of people in India prefer to how to write literature of Applied, take the advises of priests and religious leaders before starting some ventures. Write Admission Essay College. But they do not take the suggestion of those who are competent in the field. In its course of development religion has supported and promoted evil practices such as cannibalism, slavery, untouchability, human and animal sacrifice etc. As religion interprets misfortune and suffering in this world as manifestations of the supernatural order itself, it sanctifies the existing social structure. Religion preaches submission to the existing socio-economic condition and to fate. It is this control function of religion that caused Marx to call religion as “the sigh of the oppressed creature, the sentiment of a heartless world, and the soul of soulless conditions.

It is the opiate of the people.” By sanctifying norms and write essay Bournemouth legitimizing social institutions, religion serves as a guardian of the status quo. Religion is the source of many superstitions. These superstitions have caused harm to human being. Superstitions like evil spirits and ghosts cause diseases; poverty is the desire of the God etc. hinder the welfare of human beings. Religion results in inter-group conflicts by dividing people along religious lines. It is write college Aiglon, deeply related with conflicts. Wars and battles have been fought in the name of religion. Sumner and Keller are of the opinion that religion often causes economic wastes. For example, investing huge sums of money on building temples, churches, mosques, etc., spending much on of essay writing Dulwich, religious fairs, festivals and ceremonies, spoiling huge quantity of food articles, material things etc., in the name offerings. It leads to how to College, waste of human labour, energy and time. Religion creates diversities among people.

It creates a gap among them. In the name of God and religion, loot, plundering, mass killing, rape and essay for high Robert Gordon University (NAVITAS) other cruel and inhuman treatments have been meted out to people. Religion has made people blind, dumb and deaf to the reality. They have faith without reasoning which is blind. On the contrary, it has often made people to become bigots and fanatics. Bigotry and fanaticism have led to persecution, inhuman treatment and misery in write college admission Aiglon the past. Religion preserves traditions. It preaches submission to the existing conditions and maintenance of status quo. Religion is not readily amenable to how to an comparison essay University, social change and progress. 12.

Religion Retards Scientific Achievement: Religion has tried to prevent the scientists from write essay discovering new facts. Write About Of Amsterdam — Campus. For example, it tried to suppress the doctrines of Darwin, Huxley and others. By placing high premium on divine power religion has made people fatalistic. They think that all events in life is due to how to essay, some divine power and hence due to fate. As a result, his power and potentiality is undermined. How To Gordon (NAVITAS). Thus, religion affects the creativity of man. Marx has strongly criticised religion.

For Marx all that was fundamental in the science of society proceeded from the material and especially the economic sphere. Write Essay College. For him therefore religion is, to be sure, superstition, but to stop at this point is to limit religion to an application essay for high Robert Gordon University, merely abstract belief. It leaves the impression that religion may be dislodged simply by new, rational belief. Marx’s sense of the matter is admission essay Aiglon College, more profound. Merely changing beliefs is write literature essay of Applied Sciences, not enough. The transformation of an how to write Aiglon, entire social order is how to write essay Bournemouth University, required, for belief is deeply rooted in the social relations of men. Religion, writes Marx, “is the ‘self-consciousness and self-feeling of man who either has not yet found himself or has already lost himself. But man is no abstract being, squatting outside the world.

Man is the world of man, the how to write essay Aiglon College state, and society. This state, this society produce religion, a perverted world consciousness, because they are a perverted world. Religion is the compendium of that world, its encyclopedic, its enthusiasm, its moral sanction, its solemn completion, its universal ground for consolation and justification. It is the write an application essay school Robert University fantastic realization of the human essence because the human essence has no true reality. Marx believed, like Luduig Feuerbach, that what man gives to God in the form of worship, he takes from himself. That is, man is persuaded through suffering or through false teaching to project what is his to a supernatural being. But he was convinced, unlike Feuerbach, that what is fundamental is not religious forms – against which Feuerbach had urged revolt-but the economic forms of admission essay College existence. The abolition of religion as the “illusory happiness” of the people is required for their real happiness, declared Marx. But before religion can be abolished the conditions which nurture it must be done away with. “The demand to give up the illusions about its condition is the demand to give up a condition which needs illusion”.

Marx’s criticism of religion is thus deeply connected with the criticism of right and the criticism of how to essay Stenden University of Applied politics. As Marx put it… “The criticism of heaven transforms itself into the criticism of earth, the criticism of religion into the criticism of law and the criticism of theology into the criticism of politics”. Marx was an atheist as well as a great humanist. How To Write College Admission Essay Aiglon College. He had profound sympathy for all who look up to religion for salvation. How To About Yourself Of Amsterdam — Amsterdam Foundation Campus. This is how to essay Aiglon College, amply clear from his following observation: “The criticism of religion ends with the teaching that man is the review University (UCL) highest essence of college admission essay College man, hence with the categorical imperative to overthrow all relations in which man is debased, enslaved abandoned…” Change is the very essence of a living thing. A living religion must grow, must advance and must change. Pubmed Review University College London. No form of religion is static. In some cases the change may be slow and minor, in others relatively rapid and major.

Every religion claims its first principle supreme, original and eternal. Hence, there is also an how to write Aiglon, element of censure for change. Broadly, there are three types of changes in religion: (i) from simple to complex, (ii) from complex to simple and (iii) mixing forms. Contact with complex form of religion adds many new elements in the simple form of essay for high Robert (NAVITAS) tribal religion. For example, with the gradual spread of Vaishnavism in chhotanagpur, the Oraons tribe which lives in that region, began to reorganise traditional faith. There are also examples of simplification of complex form of religion, specially of rituals and essay College ceremonies. Buddhism for instance, came as a revolt against the Vedic ritual which was both complex and expensive, and also beyond the write about yourself University of Amsterdam — Amsterdam Foundation Campus common man’s reach. In the 19 century, Brahmo Samaj again tried to simplify the complex nature of Brahmanic Hinduism. Mixing of how to college admission Aiglon more than one form has caused development of new religious organisation. The most excellent example is of Sophism.

It has evolved from Persian, Zoroastrianism and Arab Islamism. Sikhism, Kabirpantha and how to think School many other Santa-Sampradayas of how to write essay College their kind are Sanatan Hinduism, modified by Buddhism and Suphism. The history of the think critically development of religion shows that as mankind moves from small isolated village towards large, complex, urban, industrialised society the character of influence of religion on man and how to write college essay Aiglon College his life changes. In the earlier phases of religion the primary needs of mankind, those concerned with the necessities of life, played a dominant part. As man’s knowledge of write literature essay Stenden University of Applied Sciences natural forces grows, he learns to control them by College natural methods, that is, by how to write about yourself of Amsterdam — Campus a detailed scrutiny of their causes and conditions.

As religious explanation of the universe is gradually substituted by rational scientific explanations and various group activities (such as politics, education, art and music) have been increasingly transferred from ecclesiastical to civil and other non-religious agencies, the conception of how to write admission essay Aiglon God as a power over man and his society loses its importance. This movement is sometimes referred to pubmed review, as secularisation. Thus secularisation as Bryan Wilson has defined, refers to write essay, the process in which religious thinking, practice and institutions lose social significance. Of Literature London. In Europe, secularisation is held to be the outcome of the social changes brought about by urban, industrial society. It means that religious beliefs and practices have tended to decline in modern urban, industrial societies, particularly among the working class in Western societies. Religion in Western societies has tended to place less emphasis on dogma and more on social values. It has tried to reconcile its doctrine with scientific knowledge.

As Barnes has pointed out religion adapted to our changed conditions of life is how to admission essay College, worth preserving and it must seek to how to about yourself Amsterdam, organise. The masses and guide their activities for the benefit of the society rather than for how to write College the purpose of pleasing the how to write Amsterdam Campus God. Secularism as an ideology has emerged from the dialectic of college admission Aiglon modern science and Protestantism, not from simple repudiation of religion and how to essay yourself of Amsterdam — Campus the rise of rationalism. However, the process of secularisation has affected the domination of religious institutions and symbols. The process of secularisation was started in India during the British rule. But the process of secularisation took its course unlike Western Europe renaissance and reformation in the fifteenth and sixteenth century. The process was very slow. However, this worldly outlook, rationality and secular education gradually affected various aspects of religion in India. Various laws of social reformation, modern education, transport and communication contributed towards decline in religiosity among the Hindus. No doubt we are moving from religiosity to write Aiglon College, secular way of life.

But evidences show that religious beliefs have not declined in West as well as in our society. First, organised Christianity plays an important political force in Europe and North America. Second, the vitality of write an comparison Bournemouth University Zionism, militant Islam (Islamic fundamentalism), radical Catholicism in how to College Latin America and Sikhism, fundamentalism and communalism in India suggest that no necessary connection exists between modernisation and secularisation. All these criticisms are formidable indeed. But it should be noted that the diversity of religious sects and cults in modern societies demonstrates that religion has become an individual matter and not a dominant feature of social life. It can also be argued that, while religion may play a part in an comparison essay ideological struggles against colonialism (as in Iran), in the long run modernisation of society brings about secularisation. The history of the development of religion shows that as mankind moves from small isolated villages towards large, complex, urban, industrial society; the influence of how to college essay College religion on man and his life changes. In the earlier phases of religion the how to write essay Robert University primary needs of mankind were very much influenced by it. As man’s knowledge of natural forces grows, he learns to control them by natural methods, that is, by how to a detailed scrutiny of their causes and conditions. As religious explanation of the universe is Bournemouth, gradually substituted by rational scientific explanations and how to write College various group activities (politics, education, art and process of essay writing Dulwich College music) have been increasingly transferred from ecclesiastic to civil and other non-religious agencies, the conception of God as power over man and how to write college Aiglon College his society loses its importance.

This movement is sometimes referred to as secularization. Secularism as an ideology has emerged from the pubmed University dialectic of modern science and Protestantism, not from a simple repudiation of religion and the rise of how to admission College rationalism. ‘Secularisation’, in the words of Peter Berger, refers to ‘the process by which sectors of think Roedean School society and culture are removed from the domination of religious institutions and symbols. Brayan Wilson argues that the admission College following factors encouraged the development of rational thinking and a rational world view. Firstly, ascetic Protestantism, which created an ethic which was pragmatic, rational controlled and anti-emotional.

Secondly, the rational organizations, firms, public service, educational institution, Government, the State which impose rational behaviour upon them. Thirdly, the greater knowledge of social and physical world which results from the development of physical, biological and social sciences. He says that this knowledge is based on reason rather than faith. He claims that science not only explained many facts of critically life and the material environment in a way more satisfactory (than religion), but it also provided confirmation of its explanation in practical results. The term ‘secularisation’ has been used in different ways. Some have misunderstood, misconceived and misinterpreted the meaning of the concept. Others have included discrete and separate elements loosely, put them together that create confusion. The range of meaning attached to the term has become so wide, that David Martin advocates its removal from the sociological vocabulary. There are two meanings of the admission essay word current in modern and modernizing India and even in the whole of this subcontinent. One of the two meanings is found by consulting any standard dictionary.

But there is the how to think critically Roedean School difficulty in finding the other, for it is non-standard, local meaning which, many like to believe, is typically and distinctively Indian or South Asian. The first meaning becomes clear when people talk of secular trends in history or economics, or when they speak of secularizing the State. The word secular has been used in this sense, at least in the English-speaking West, for more than three hundred years. This secularism chalks out an area in public life where religion is not admitted. One can have religion in one’s private life. One can be a good Hindu or a good Muslim within one’s home or at one’s place of worship. How To College Admission Essay College. But when one enters public life, one is expected to think critically School, leave one’s faith behind.

In contrast, the non-Western meaning of secularism revolves round equal respect for all religions. In the Indian context the word has very different meaning from its standard use in the English language. It is held that India is not Europe and admission essay College hence secularism in India cannot mean the writing same thing as it does in Europe. What does it matter if secularism means something else in Europe and American political discourse? As long as there are clear and commonly agreed referents for the world in the Indian context, we should go ahead and address ourselves to essay Aiglon College, the specifically Indian meaning of secularism. Unfortunately the matter cannot be settled that easily. The Indian meaning of secularism did not emerge in ignorance of the European or American meanings of the word. Indian meaning of how to essay University Amsterdam Foundation Campus secularism is debated in its Western genealogies. New meaning is acquired by the word secularism in India.

The original concept is named by the English words, Secular and secularism in how to college essay Aiglon College the Indian languages, by neologisms such as ‘Dharma-nirapekshata. This is translation of those English words and dharma-nirapekshata is Roedean, used to refer to the range of meanings indicated by the English term. The term dharma-nirapekshata cannot be a substitute of secular or secularism which is standardly used in talking about the role of religion in a modern State or society. Dharma-nirapekshata is the outcome of vested interests inherent in our political system. Dharma-nirapekshata is understood in terms of practice of any religion by any citizen. Besides, the State is not to give preference to any religion over another. But this term is how to essay College, irrelevant in a democratic structure and process of essay writing College it bears no application in reality because three principles are mentioned in the liberal-doctrine (Liberty which requires that the State, permits the how to write admission essay Aiglon practice of any religion, equality which requires that State not to give preference to any religion and the principle of neutrality).

Indian secularism has been inadequately defined ‘attitude’ of an application Robert Gordon University goodwill towards all religions, ‘Sarvadharma Sadbhava’. College. In a narrower formulation it has been a negative or a defensive policy of religious neutrality on the part of the State. Hence, the original concept will not admit the Indian case with its range of references. Well-established and well-defined concept of secularism cannot be explained differently in terms of Western or Indian model. To Herberg, ‘authentic religion’ means an emphasis on the supernatural, a deep inner conviction of the reality of supernatural power, a serious commitment to religious teaching, a strong element of the theological doctrine and a refusal to compromise religious beliefs and values with those of the process of essay writing wider society. If there is any trend of decline in any aspect of religion mentioned above, then it is write admission Aiglon, indicative of the process of secularisation. Thus secularization, as Brayan Wilson has defined, refers to the process in which religious thinking, practice and institutions lose social significance. Religion in how to write literature essay of Applied America is subordinated to the American way of life. It means that religious belief and practices have tended to decline. Secularism is taken to mean that one’s religious ideals and beliefs should not interfere in general with social, economic and how to write college admission essay Aiglon political field. Paying equal importance or constitutional guarantee for coexistence of religions does not mean secularism.

There are other aspects of secularism. Of Essay Writing College. Secularism is related to rationalism and how to college admission essay Aiglon empiricism. Secularisation involves reduction of religious influence on how to think School, men, elimination of some aspects of it which are not beneficial to human welfare, elimination of superstitions and blind beliefs. In this manner, the process of secularisation implies the following assumptions. The process of secularisation implies the transformation of religious institutions as a whole. There is the need to secularise the religious institutions. This means less emphasis on college Aiglon College, supernatural power, lack of theological doctrine, and desirability to compromise with religious beliefs and how to write an application essay school Robert Gordon (NAVITAS) values. The religious institutions undergo a process of change in the context of changing society. How To Admission Essay. In a modern society sacred has little or no place, that a society undergoes a process of ‘desacrilisation’ . This means that supernatural forces are no longer seen as controlling the world. Action is not directed by religious beliefs.

People in a modern society increasingly look upon the world and their own lives without the benefit of religious interpretation. As a result there is a ‘secularisation of consciousness’. Berger argues that the ‘decisive variable for secularisation is the process of rationalisation’. That is the pre-requisite for any industrial society of the modern type. Secularisation also implies rationality.

Wilson argues that a rational world view is the energy of religion. How To An Comparison Essay. It is write college Aiglon College, based on write Stenden of Applied, testing of arguments and how to Aiglon College beliefs by rational procedure, on asserting truth by means of factors which can be quantified and how to think Roedean objectively measured. Religion is based on faith. Its claim to truth cannot be tested by rational procedures. A rational world view rejects faith which is the basis of religion. It removes the mystery, magic and authority of how to write college admission religion. A secular man lays more emphasis on physical laws rather than supernatural forces. The process of secularisation as the most important component of the how to write an application for high Robert Gordon (NAVITAS) process of modernisation is occurring in different forms in various contemporary societies.

Like modernisation, this process is write admission Aiglon College, good and desirable for the welfare of mankind. Finally, it is both a product and write Stenden University of Applied Sciences a process. Leave a Reply Click here to cancel reply. You must be logged in to post a comment. Before publishing your articles on how to essay Aiglon, this site, please read the following pages: