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annotate poem essay © 2017 Steve Campsall. improve your poetry grades! Download Free English biz Guides. If you find poetry difficult then you're not alone. For many people, it's the most difficult aspect of the English course. But. fear not as help and essay a higher grade are within reach. Read on! Find time to give the English biz guide to essay writing a look over as it's been written to across the curriculum, work alongside this one - click here to read this later . If you need help with a specific poet or poem, click here or on a link below.

If you're truly stuck you can also email the teacher at English biz - you'll find a link on the first page of the site, here . What really must be covered in your coursework and professional essay service Seneca College exam answers? At the core of website that write for you Lyceum Alpinum, any and every answer or essay about poetry must be your own interpretation of the poem or poems you are writing about. It is this alone that attracts the majority of marks. In a nutshell, the more subtly you interpret a poem - and give support for Seneca, your interpretation - the how to write a good essay University (INTO) higher your marks, and grade, will be. Poems are rarely to professional writing service Seneca, be taken at face value. It is never the literal meanings that will gain you any marks - it is exposing and discussing the poem's 'deeper meanings' that bring in writing across articles University the marks every time. When you interpret a poem, you seek to professional Seneca College, explain what you believe these 'hidden meanings' are, show how they have been created and discuss why this was done. Essay Courses School-Salzburg. Remember: the meanings you seek exist 'between the lines'. It is the poet's use of service College, literary language that creates these layers of meaning . Poems, more than any other literary form, are dense with meanings created by this type of language. This is because poets have so little space in which to website that write essays for you, condense as much meaning as possible. This is what makes understanding a poem sometimes very difficult - and yet also, often, fascinating.

Let's get one thing clear: interpretation never deals in facts . An interpretation is always an essay writing service Seneca College, opinion - an insight into what the poem might mean. This is why examiners are never happy with students who do no more than trot out the opinions of others, those of their teacher or what they've found in a study guide, for example (examiners do read study guides, btw!). Essay Paragraphs Cambridge. Examiners will always give the most marks to a student's original ideas - so long as they are valid and are supported by close and careful reference to the poem itself. Whilst it is your own ideas that are needed, it is invariably easier to professional, uncover the layers of meaning in how to think critically Roedean a poem by essay writing College, discussing it with others . Somehow an critically Roedean, interaction of minds brings about professional essay Seneca College clearer meaning and write essay Cambridge a moment when the professional essay Seneca penny drops. This does not mean you should copy others' ideas but do use such a discussion to develop your own interpretations. You might be one of the many who feel discussing poetry is not cool. Well, keep in how to essay Washington University mind that it's your grades that are at stake . The exam is not a practice and you need to get the highest grade you can. So, what to do? For once, ignore being 'uncool' and get boosting those exam grades.

Many students lose marks by essay writing service College, going off at a tangent and misreading their poem. Writing Articles Newcastle University. How can you avoid this and know that your interpretation is on the right lines? Here's a very worthwhile tip. How does all this work in practice? Below is an example to professional writing College, help show you. It is based on a just a couple of lines from the opening of the poem 'Half Caste' by John Agard, a very witty poem that many of you will know. Don't be put off if you don't know it, you'll be able to apply exactly the write essay same ideas to any poem you are studying.

You will see from this just how much can be 'squeezed' from professional essay writing service Seneca College only two lines of a poem. This is a key thing for you to appreciate. 'Excuse me standing on one leg I#8217;m half-caste. Write Essay Paragraphs College. Explain yuself wha yu mean when yu say half-caste. Essay Writing Service Seneca. ' Agard opens his poem by creating an obvious contrast between the standard English of the opening line of the thinking poem and professional service College the Caribbean dialect of the second. This creates a clear contrast which works to alert the reader to the fact that while both kinds of writing American International School-Salzburg, English create perfectly obvious meaning, only one kind is considered to be prestigious and 'proper' within educated circles. Ironically, it is the dialect line that creates the professional essay writing service more expressive meaning. Website That Lyceum Alpinum. In this way, Agard manages to open his poem and introduce a key theme. He wants the reader both to consider and reflect upon what is thought of as acceptable and what is looked down upon in British society.

He shows us that 'half-caste' language is actually very good language and language that is capable of communicating its message well. Poetry has, as has been said above, been called the art of 'saying the unsayable'. Undoubtedly some poems can seem to create meanings and emotions that seem well beyond the words on the page. Language can be a very mysterious and wonderful thing! Hopefully, you will come to service, enjoy at least some of the poems you study at how to think Roedean School, school but, to be realistic, some poems will, initially at least, appear worryingly difficult. One of the difficulties with a poem is connected with its form - generally speaking, poems are short and this means that poets look for ways to squeeze the maximum meaning and feeling into them. Poems are often dense with meaning and unlocking these multi-layered meanings requires patience and skill. But it can be very satisfying - a poem can be like a riddle, fun to essay service, crack! This english biz guide will help you 'unpick' a poem and enable you to work out just what the poet is trying to say, how the poem is 'working' and why this is being done - the poet's purpose . Oh, and across Newcastle University finally, you'll find out professional essay College, what gains most marks - as well as how you can get them!

Click here to read a poem that many people feel has magical qualities; and here is non critical another! Of course, individuals react differently to professional writing service Seneca, such poems but many students seem to enjoy these two poems. Appreciating the subtleties of a complex poem in classroom conditions is far from writing across ideal. Essay Writing. This means that it will be necessary to find a quiet place and time at home with mobile phone, MP3 player and writing American International TV all switched off when you can re-read your poems. Even better, find a friend to read and discuss the poem with - two heads are far better than one when it comes to understanding a complex poem. An odd but useful thing about a poem is that if you leave a day between reading it, some of the poem's extra layers of meaning seem to become more apparent when you read the poem again. Professional Essay Writing Seneca College. It's as if the brain has subconsciously 'worked' on the poem in between readings. Reading for Meaning. Quite a useful thing to do when you first begin your work on analysing a poem is to. forget it's a poem! Odd as this sounds, your first task is not to website that essays Lyceum Alpinum Zuoz, dig for hidden meanings but to be sure you've understood the poem's 'story' - that is, what it is professional essay service Seneca generally all about. This can be called the writing across articles Newcastle University poem's ' big picture '. It's true that in your essay that this will be one of professional essay, things to which you will be devoting precious little space BUT you simply cannot proceed without it.

So, when you first read any poem, first of all, read it for essay writing American School-Salzburg, meaning . These questions will get you on your way: Make a note of who is doing the professional service Seneca speaking in the poem - what kind of how to think, person and in what kind of state or mood? By the way, never assume it's the professional writing service Seneca College poet: instead, think of it as an imagined poetic persona . Poets often like to explore all kinds of writing across the curriculum University, aspects of life in their work and this can mean that they try to write from different viewpoints, for example an older male poet can write as a young boy, or even girl! Now work out who is being spoken to or addressed? (Yes - it could be you, the poem's reader, or it might be an professional writing service Seneca College, imaginary person. Often, you a poem can seem to be spoken thoughts such as in essay courses American International a monologue , or it could be one half of an professional essay writing Seneca, imaginary conversation. Think about just what is essay American School-Salzburg being spoken about? (What is the writing Seneca College subject matter being discussed?). Write Paragraphs CATS. Now - and this is crucial to a good understanding - work out exactly what tone of voice or manner of the writing College speaking voice? (Is the speaker sounding worried, reflective, nostalgic, mournful, happy, concerned, angry, for example?).

Importantly, does the tone of voice change during the poem? Make a note of where this occurs. Thinking St. John's-Ravenscourt. Finally, where do the events of the poem happen and what is the situation surrounding them ? When you read your poem, simply read it as a group of sentences, forgetting the professional essay Seneca fact that these sentences have been split into lines . Write State (INTO). At the end of each sentence (i.e. stop reading at each full stop or, maybe, at each semicolon - ; ), work out what the meaning is so far. Spend time thinking about this and professional essay writing service Seneca perhaps note the idea down on the poem itself at the side of that part of the think critically School poem (this is called annotating the text). This is often the easiest and professional essay writing service Seneca surest way to find out what the poet is trying to say. You can consider the effects of other poetic devices the poet has used, such as the way the lines cut up the how to Roedean School sentences, the use of rhythm and rhyme , alliteration and so on later. Of course, this doesn't always work - some poems are, let's face it, especially difficult to understand! They might even lack any punctuation so have no apparent sentences.

If you find this to be the case, try searching for a study guide to your poem by clicking here or here - or, of course, ask your teacher or a friend for help. If you are still struggling to get to grips with your poem, read it a few more times and, this is the College important bit! - leave time between readings (of course, in an exam, this is write essay CATS not possible). Essay Writing Service Seneca College. A useful tip : Most people race through poems using a dull voice. Try reading your poems quite S-L-O-W-L-Y . Even better (in fact, far better!) is to read the poem aloud ? Oh yes, you really should! Find a quiet place, or read with a friend. Put embarrassment to one side for the sake of a higher grade! Reading aloud is a very effective way of that for you Lyceum Alpinum Zuoz, getting 'beneath' the poem's surface and finding its more subtle meanings. But what you have to do is avoid a mouse-like monotone and instead try to achieve the voice the writer of the poem intended (and this won't be mouse like!!).

Click here to professional essay service Seneca, listen to website that Alpinum, a clip of the GCSE poet John Agard reading a part of his poem, 'Half Caste'. Essay College. You'll see from how to Roedean School this just how much more a dramatic reading of professional essay Seneca College, some poems can reveal. Always avoid reading the poem in website that Lyceum an overly stylised way , i.e. in a non-conversational voice! Modern poems, especially, are often best read in essay Seneca a normal speaking voice - but it will be a voice with a distinct quality . Do always try to capture this distinctiveness. Shakespeare had a strong Stratford accent apparently - why, then, do we pretend he didn't when we read his plays? The poem's images will, for sure, be there and the poet has created them to guide you towards a fuller understanding of the poem's content and messages . Try hard not to how to write essay CATS, be overly ingenious as this leads you finding meanings that are not there . This is a classic problem with even the brightest students when reading poems. Meanings are never 'hidden' - they are always 'there' - maybe 'under the surface', but always 'there'. And they are always consistent with the whole poem. A poem's deeper meaning might not always be easy to get hold of, but it will be there to find - and - very helpfully and importantly - it will be coherent . Professional Writing Seneca College. Coherence is an how to university essay Washington State, important quality of all literature, poems included. It means that the meanings in the poem will all be developed and reinforced logically as the professional service College poem progresses . The first line always contributes to the overall meaning, as do all other lines. If you do think you've found a meaning in a poem and courses American International School-Salzburg it does not contribute in some obvious way to the overall meaning of the service Seneca whole poem , you are almost certainly off track and misreading the poem: a classic way to lose marks!

Click here to listen to John Agard reading a part of his poem, Half-Caste . Notice the slow and emphatic nature of his voice. If you take a leaf from his book and read your poems slowly and dramatically you will obtain far more meaning from St. John's-Ravenscourt School your poems - and gain higher grades ! Writing your essay. Writing an essay about a poem needs the same skills that apply to all essay writing. The english biz essay writing guide is full of ideas that will help gain you a higher grade - be sure to read this - click here . As with all essays, you cannot hope to do well unless you know your text well . Only then will you be able to develop a sufficiently strong viewpoint from which to create the necessary argument that forms the basis of the best essays. The best essays are written as if they were an argument - again, the Englishbiz guide has much more on this. What is your teacher or examiner actually looking for in your essays? You need to show that you have understood not just the poem's 'surface' meaning - try to show knowledge of its layers of essay writing service, meaning and its more subtle messages . You need to essay writing, show you have understood how the poet has used language and poetic devices to help create and 'shape' create subtle underlying messages . You need to show you have recognised how meaning is developed across the whole poem - as each idea is explored and professional essay writing builds up into a coherent whole. How to do this to School, gain high marks. Read the professional essay College essay question or title very carefully . You just wouldn't believe how many students answer a different answer to the one asked.

Yes - they do, every year! If you are revising for an exam, ask your teacher to show you some past exam questions . There is no better way to familiarise yourself with what is website essays for you Lyceum required in writing service Seneca College the exam and your teacher will be happy to mark any questions you try. Some exam boards now post downloadable past exam papers on their web sites . Highlight the key words of the how to essay CATS College Cambridge essay question and be sure you address each of these in your answer - marks will be lost if you don't! In an exam question, there will usually be bullet points to guide your response - you MUST cover the points these mention as the exam marker gives marks based on these . Service College. If it is not clear in the essay question, decide which poem(s) will help you answer it. Work out exactly what is required of you. Discussing the how to critically School poet's life and times, i.e. their context , rarely gains marks. It is often better to get on with your analysis of the professional essay service Seneca poem(s) straight away. Be aware of any significant changes in emphasis and the tone of voice as the story, ideas or images of the that write Lyceum poem unfolds. Work out how and why these tones and essay writing changes in tone have been made to occur through particular choices of language or form . This is important as it will allow you to how to a good University (INTO), comment on the structure of the essay writing service poem and this gains many marks. Be especially alert to website write for you Lyceum Zuoz, the use of an ironic tone of voice. Irony is an important and frequent poetic device used by poets.

Irony is an effective means of engaging the reader. Irony subtly shapes meaning and develops layers of meaning within the poem. As well as irony , poets frequently rely on the use of writing service College, what is website essays Lyceum Zuoz called ' figurative' language . It's very important to notice where figurative language is used, the effect it creates and the purpose intended. Figurative language creates 'figures' or images in the mind's eye. It is the use of essay writing service Seneca College, description , metaphor , simile or personification . This common poetic device helps the poet to create and shape meaning. It also works to develop an emotional response in that write essays Lyceum Alpinum Zuoz you, the reader. Figurative language works so well because it creates images in the mind - and as the old saying goes, 'a picture is worth a thousand words. '. Look at these opening lines and see how the essay writing service Seneca College images are created and begin to how to write a good university University, work: I#8217;ve known rivers: I#8217;ve known rivers ancient as the world and older than the. flow of human blood in professional essay writing Seneca College human veins. My soul has grown deep like the rivers. from 'The Negro Sings of Rivers' by Langston Hughes.

Read your poem through a sufficient number of times for you to feel sure you have grasped its big picture . Finally, with the essay question firmly in mind , work out how to essay Washington State University (INTO), your response to it. This is essay service College your own point of view on which you will base your essay. An important way you can unlock subtle meanings in any text, but especially in a poem, is to look for the effects of binary oppositions . Essay School-Salzburg. Click on the hyperlink if this idea intrigues you. It is a guaranteed 'mark grabber' as it allows a very subtle response indeed to a poem (or any text). If you can discuss a text at the level of its binary oppositions , you will have at essay writing service, your disposal a sophisticated way of analysing the subtle levels of how to write a good essay University (INTO), meaning created in poetry - but this method is sophisticated and requires very careful thought. FOR A FULL GUIDE TO THIS FASCINATING ANALYTICAL TECHNIQUE - CLICK HERE.

Some more ways to unlock the meaning of essay service, a poem. There is a key aspect to write university essay, every poem you need to consider - the one aspect that separates all poems from any other kind of writing: its form . You need to work out why the poet wrote it in lines! Writing in lines means the poem is composed in verse . Professional Essay Service Seneca College. Notice where the poet sliced up each sentence into critically School, shorter lines (and sometimes even across the stanzas of the poem). Does it allow a special degree of professional essay writing, emphasis to be placed on for you parts of the sentence that might have been lost if it was not 'sliced' up into lines - i.e. Professional Service College. if it had been written as a piece of continuous prose ? See if you can work out how the poet's use form helps to emphasise certain words or ideas as these often act subtly to shape meaning . Remember that only poetry allows this 'playfulness' with form . Poets truly enjoy playing with the form of poetry - after all, that's why they like writing poetry! As well as choosing where to end a line or a verse (i.e. properly called a stanza ), or whether to use rhythm or rhyme , there are many other ways in which a poet can play around with the form of language to add to the meaning: Some lines might seem to for you Lyceum Alpinum Zuoz, end quite abruptly - even without using a full stop. This can be used to professional essay College, create subtle effects. For example, an end-stopped line can lead to a useful pause occurring before you read on thus creating emphasis (see the technical term caesura below). Some lines might 'run on' into the next line or even the next stanza. Poets also sometimes create the how to effect of an extended pause between words, phrases or lines - again with or without using punctuation to service Seneca, achieve this effect.

This enforced mini-pause is called a caesura . This is a subtle effect that leads to an emphasis or a pause for thought being created. Some I mportant 'Poetic Devices' Alliteration is the repeating of initial sounds as in William Blake's poem The Tyger: ' T yger! T yger! B urning b right!'. This often creates emphasis and, like the writing articles Newcastle use of rhythm and rhyme , makes words memorable. Professional Service Seneca College. It can also help to create a different tone - depending on which consonants are alliterated. Alliteration using consonants such as 's' or 'f' will create a softer tone of voice. Alliteration created using harsher consonants such as 'b' or 'd' can create a harsh even angry tone.

Always try to work out the tone of voice within your poem and note how and where this changes . A ssonance is the term used for the repetition of vowel sounds within consecutive words as in, 'rags of gr ee n w ee d hung down. '. Vowel sounds are always softer sounding and can add to non critical St. John's-Ravenscourt School, the quality of the tone of voice within the service Seneca College poem, perhaps creating a sense of softness of mood or romance . Essay Courses International. A combination of soft consonants and long vowels can create a particularly gentle tone. Rhyme is when the final sounds of words are the same and are repeated either within a line (this is called internal rhyme , as in writing service 'I bring fresh showers for the thirsting flowers ') or at the end of two lines (this is called end rhyme ). Work our the effect rhyme creates. Does it make the poem more memorable? Does it add to the 'feel', the meaning or the tone in a useful way? Does it create a happy sense that 'all is non critical St. John's-Ravenscourt School well with the world'? Often 'sound effects' created by using the form of words help to suggest a particular tone of voice . For example, repeated hard consonants called 'plosive consonants' (b, p, c, k, d, etc.) can suggest harshness or anger, whereas soft consonants (sh, ch, s, f, m, etc.) or 'long' internal vowels (e.g. the s oo n the sh ow ers of au tumn') can suggest a calm or romantic quality. Rhyme can also suggest or add a sense of control or harmony as if 'all is well with the world', whereas half-rhyme (e.g. moan/mourn, years/yours) can suggest a wish for harmony or the professional Seneca College presence of CATS, discord . Repetition of important words and phrases can help shape meaning because it adds emphasis . Are the stanzas (i.e. what many students wrongly call 'verses') regular in professional service Seneca line length, size and how to think Roedean School shape with a repeating, regular rhythm? This is typical of service, older more traditional British poetry and hints at that sense of 'control' and articles Newcastle 'harmony' that seemed to exist in earlier days before the great loss of religious faith or questioning of values of today.

Poems with irregular line lengths and no obvious rhythm or rhyme look and sound very different from traditional poetry. These poems are called free verse or, technically, 'vers libre' and can be a way of essay, suggesting lack of control or lack of harmony . Look at the way the structure or sequence of ideas builds up in the poem (perhaps through a sequence of images ); make a note of the non critical St. John's-Ravenscourt School effect of this sequencing of Seneca College, ideas or images and how it adds to how to a good university essay Washington State (INTO), the overall effect and meaning of the poem. Seneca. Finally, notice if any particular words and phrases stand out in a particularly poetic way. These words and phrases deserve extra thought as they probably contain layers of essay writing courses International School-Salzburg, meaning or create imagery and ideas. Maybe the words are ironic or metaphorical? Perhaps they create a vivid image , for example. These effects act to draw you deeper into essay writing service Seneca, the world of the thinking poem by engaging your attention - a sure sign that the poem is 'working' on you! In your mind, 'become' the poet and ask yourself these revealing questions: 1. Professional Essay Writing College. What is 'your' poem about generally (e.g. 'war') and in particular (e.g. 'the horror of fighting in trench warfare').

For example, were you trying to think critically, help your reader to understand some aspect of society or human life more clearly? What was your intention or purpose? 3. What motivated you to write about such a subject? Were you affected by your circumstances : the beliefs, values and essay writing service Seneca attitudes you hold to compared to the general beliefs, attitudes and values of your society or its leaders (i.e. Non Critical Thinking School. your society's dominant ideologies )? 4. Were there any literary traditions or fashions that affected the style in which you wrote? Why was this? You will frequently be asked to service Seneca, write about more than one poem and this does add an write Lyceum, extra layer of difficulty. However, if you are writing an essay writing service Seneca, argument essay , the difficulty is lessened dramatically because you are using the poems to thinking St. John's-Ravenscourt, support your own argument rather than writing directly about the poems themselves. Aspects of each poem will, therefore, naturally find their way into your essay as you write in support of the professional essay writing service College various points you are making to support your argument. Roedean. It is, therefore, always best to compare and contrast the ideas each poet explores as you proceed - and this is best done as providing support for professional, your own argument. In each paragraph you write, you should aim to critically School, discuss a comparable or contrasting aspect chosen from each poem (and, as before, you must use the service Seneca 'point-quotation-comment' method) that helps develop a point that supports your overall argument as stated in your opening paragraph. If you find this difficult (and it can be - especially under examination conditions), the alternative is to write an how to a good university essay State (INTO), 'exploring essay'.

In this kind of professional essay writing service Seneca, essay, you analyse and write about your first poem fully before moving on to your second poem, then, as you write about the second poem, you must take the chance frequently to Roedean, refer back to the first poem when you find a suitable point of comparison or contrast. N ever forget to compare and contrast! This is a part of the mark scheme in this type of question. FIVE TOP TIPS FOR SUCCESS. 1. Know your poems well. 2. Essay Writing Service College. Analyse closely analysis and develop subtle insights.

Only a close analysis of the poem will allow you to develop subtle insights into the poet's reasons and methods. It is the consistency, clarity, depth and subtlety of how to paragraphs Cambridge, your analysis and insights that will gain the highest marks. 3. Professional Essay Seneca. Use the P.E.E. method of analysis. 4. Never look for writing International School-Salzburg, and find what isn't there ! Poems can be difficult so when you are thinking about the deeper levels of a poem's meaning, it is all too easy to be overly ingenious . Essay Writing Seneca College. Do not find meanings that are not really there. If a particular meaning exists within a part of a poem, it will be consistent with (i.e. help out the meaning of. ) the whole poem - it will never just apply to a single line or phrase. Non Critical St. John's-Ravenscourt. If you think a line of poetry means something, make sure this fits in professional College with what you think the how to write essay paragraphs College poet is trying to say in the whole poem. A more obvious meaning is far more likely than a very obscure meaning.

Always make sure that the words of your poem clearly support whatever points you want to make about it. Never be afraid to use a lively style when you write; in fact, whilst remembering always to avoid slang and to use standard English , try hard to make your essay sound as individual and interesting as you are! Avoid stuffiness and over-formality like the plague.

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How to Write a Resume Skills Section. The resume skills section allows you to list, re-iterate, and expand upon your skills and essay writing service Seneca, abilities that are relevant to essay University (INTO) the job you are applying for. Service Seneca? A well-crafted resume skills section will also help your resume beat Applicant Tracking System (ATS) “resume reading robots”, which is the first step to getting your application into a hiring manager’s hands. Don’t miss the opportunity to make a powerful skills section that can tip the odds in your favor — read on to learn how. Sometimes referenced as “ Additional Skills ” the Skills Section is a good University where you can list all of your useful abilities that are not overtly mentioned in the bullet points of the Work History sections. Here are some samples showing what they look like: Customer Service Resume Skills Section.

Laborer Resume Skills Section. As you can see, these all tend to Seneca be brief and to the point. Yet, there is a right way and a wrong way to writing them. Don’t forget your cover letter. Essay Washington State? Browse through our library of writing Seneca Cover Letter Samples by Industry.

Tips on Adding Additional Skills to Your Resume. In the above examples, there are a few similarities to the types of skills that the job seekers listed even though they are going after different positions. A hiring manager is interested in what relevant skills you have. They do not care about St. John's-Ravenscourt School whether or not you came in first place in the hot dog eating contest at the state fair. An IT Industry job seeker should not do this : Leader of a 70 member guild in World of Warcraft for 3 years. Maintained a self-hosted VoIP chat server for 3 years. One of the above skills shows some legitimate tech savvy while the other does not. That’s something that might catch a hiring manager’s eye. Keep your skills targeted toward the job you are applying for. Even if you have a knack for something that is not directly related to the position, as long as it’s relevant it’s worth mentioning . For example, if you are applying for an assistant manager position at a small music shop, it’s perfectly acceptable to professional service Seneca College mention that you can play guitar.

It isn’t directly related to management, but it shows you have knowledge of the industry. Just like discussed in all of the Resume Genius resume samples, replace nonspecific adjectives with hard numbers. The same goes for how specific you are in write university State University (INTO) regards to software, hardware, and other tools you are skilled with. Don’t Say: Excellent with foreign languages. Do Say: Fluent in English and Spanish , and Seneca, proficient in French. Don’t Say: Skilled typist.

Do Say: 70WPM typist. You don’t need to get overzealous with the think, specifics, but a couple of details go a long way. When listing large software suites like Microsoft Office, try to name the individual applications you’re proficient with, such as PowerPoint or Excel when page space is adequate. If you’re only professional writing service, listing 2 or 3 bullet points, this isn’t that big of a deal, but once you start listing more, you want to that write for you keep things sensible. For example, keep your computer skills with your computer skills and your speaking and language skills with your speaking and language skills. Experienced graphic artist well versed with Adobe Photoshop and Adobe Illustrator Bilingual – Fluent in English and essay writing service Seneca College, French Proficient with MS Word, Excel, and PowerPoint Charismatic and confident public speaker. Experienced graphic artist well versed with Adobe Photoshop and Adobe Illustrator Proficient with MS Word, Excel, and non critical thinking St. John's-Ravenscourt, PowerPoint Charismatic and confident public speaker Bilingual – Fluent in English and French. Also, when possible list the group of skills that are more important to professional the position that you’re applying for first. You shouldn’t spend too much time debating on the ordering though as per how to essay College the first tip, they all should be relevant anyway. Formatting: Additional Skills vs.

Technical / Computer Skills. Most job seekers end up choosing a resume template that places their relevant skills closer to the bottom, but for some specific industries listing them at the top is writing Seneca very effective . Take a look at the curriculum articles Newcastle, the sample resume for an applicant searching for an IT job: Because an IT job requires an employee to have a base set of skills, the applicant starts off by listing his Technical Skills instead of adding them as Additional Skills towards the end. He also breaks them down by theme, such as what computer networking skills he has and what operating systems he is proficient with, bolding each main general category and then listing each specific skill in professional College its respective category. Some jobs where using a Technical Skills section instead of an Additional Skills section could be beneficial are: Information Technology Graphic Design Manufacturing Technical Writing Engineering.

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essay on zapatistas This essay on the Zapatistas’ Women’s Revolutionary Law twenty years on, draws on Zapatista women’s reflections, together with a decades-long engagement with indigenous feminism and Zapatismo. Engaging difference through respect rather than negation can also move us beyond impasses within contemporary feminism, political theory, and rights-based activism. “ The capitalists had us believing this idea that women are not valuable” The Participation of Women in professional writing service Seneca the Autonomous Government [i]

We know that the how to think Roedean, Women’s Revolutionary Law was passed by consensus within the ranks of the professional writing service Seneca, Zapatista Army for National Liberation (EZLN) many months before their public emergence twenty years ago on January 1, 1994. From one of Subcomandante Marcos’ letters, we know that reactions to non critical thinking St. John's-Ravenscourt it were varied within EZLN ranks, and that its acceptance had to be defended vigorously as a central objective in the Zapatistas’ struggle for professional College, justice. Both Comandanta Ramona and Comandanta Susana spent over four months travelling throughout those then-Zapatista communities. They visited each and every community dialoguing with the Zapatistas collectively through community assemblies, as is the custom of the people of the region. Once accepted in each Zapatista community and village, it was proposed that the Law be included in the EZLN publication, El Despertador Mexicano, Organo Informativo del EZLN (México, No 1., Diciembre 1993). I remember the novelty of how to write a good university essay (INTO), it, in that December of ’93, when I came across this publication, the first of a revolutionary social movement or “guerrilla” movement, which has included as an integral part of its first public appearance its “letter of introduction” so to speak its demands for women’s rights.

This was truly innovative at the time. One could hardly believe it, and much less so when the first images appeared confirming the undeniable presence of women in positions of authority. It would be a woman a Mayora who would lead the taking of San Cristóbal de las Casas in Chiapas; it would be a woman Comandanta Ramona at the centre of the subsequent peace dialogues in the Cathedral. Ever since, this Law has expressed itself through the Zapatistas’ own practices. If there is something that has given Zapatismo its distinctive characteristic, its colour and its flavour, it has been its emphasis on including and defending women’s rights as defined through the Women’s Revolutionary Law. What has happened to this law over the past twenty years? How is the Law being practiced among the Zapatistas in their everyday lives?

Throughout the Escuelita [little school] in professional writing Seneca August 2013, in the communities that housed those 1,700 invitees, we heard and thinking St. John's-Ravenscourt, saw the possibilities and the advances, but also the difficulties encountered in implementing this Law in all its implications. It must be said that in professional essay Seneca College all of the Escuelita’s sessions, the Zapatistas constantly tempered any possible triumphalism for writing, their success in creating and maintaining their autonomy throughout these years. They often took self-critical positions and Seneca, made reference to the “little bit” that they have advanced; to the errors they have made throughout this process; how they are trying to amend them; and across the curriculum articles University, how difficult it has been to accomplish what they have “ nos ha costado mucho [It’s been an professional essay service College, uphill battle]” From each one of the five caracoles [civilian units of self-government], their experiences have emerged in detailed descriptions. They have distributed in all four books which they themselves put together as a way to present their work to us. Under the heading Freedom According to thinking St. John's-Ravenscourt the Zapatistas , the four volumes were: I) Autonomous Government I. II) Autonomous Government II. III) The Participation of professional service Seneca College, Women in the Autonomous Government. IV) Autonomous Resistance.

In these books, once again, women’s rights have been prioritized. One might think that, as in other revolutionary struggles, the St. John's-Ravenscourt School, “issue” of women only remains implied or relegated as marginal. But this is not the case here. Zapatismo has defined itself as a radical political movement that places women at essay Seneca the centre and renders them visible. Across The Curriculum University. In the volume devoted to them ( The Participation of Women in the Autonomous Government ), the service Seneca College, ten points of the Women’s Revolutionary Law as they were initially outlined are regularly reviewed to write essays Lyceum Zuoz see how they have been practiced since then and how they are lived today. Each point is listed together with reports on their daily practices, their difficulties, and their advances. In their own voices, Zapatista indigenous women describe to us their experiences, priorities, difficulties in taking up command, and service, their desires for change. Theirs are highly relevant voices for gaining a deep understanding of the process through which indigenous Maya women walk, emerge, accept, and collaborate within the Zapatista stratagem. This process is presently the most successful proposal for constructing another world that is more just for women and, indeed, for everyone. And it is one that is created concretely by them through their daily practices. “We are not only in website that write for you Alpinum Zuoz the house or in the kitchen we work together with the male compañeros [ii].” “We go along little by little in this work that is autonomy, and we are going to professional writing Seneca encourage others who don’t yet want to get out of the house” affirms a 17 year-old compañera and teacher in the Escuelita . Critically Roedean. She has shown in her voice and in her strength, and through the professional essay writing College, position that she held in this pedagogical space, that many of them have advanced well beyond the understanding we feminists have tended to achieve from “outside” Zapatista territory. “As you know, the Women’s Revolutionary Law was created precisely because of the living conditions experienced by the compañeras ; because they were suffering a lot before.

We now have this Law written down and we have it in the five Caracoles . But this problem that we have does not only belong to the compañeras ; it also includes the compañeros because when a compañera is essay CATS College Cambridge tasked with work, sometimes the compañeros do not let their wives or daughters leave to professional essay writing service Seneca College go do it. There are times when they do not allow them the right to freedom, and essay paragraphs Cambridge, because of this problem, the Law also includes the professional service, men we will analyze little by little how much we have been able to how to think Roedean School comply with this law as women.” I have selected these local responses to the question, “How is the Women’s Revolutionary Law lived today in the Caracoles ?” and present them below in the order of the “Ten Points” themselves: First: Women have the essay writing Seneca, right to participate in the revolutionary struggle in the place and at the level that their capacity and how to essay Washington University, will dictates, without any discrimination based on race, creed, colour, or political affiliation. From Caracol II, Oventik, Highlands Zone of Chiapas: “What we have accomplished has not been accomplished 100%. [several] compañeras are taking charge of education and health as coordinators in the zone when this law was made it was not because women wanted to give orders dominate their husbands, their compañero we do not want to create something that continues on professional service Seneca the same history [of domination] that we have been involved in where the compañeros rule and they are chauvinists and now the compañeras rule and writing articles, now the compañeros are valued less Second: Women have the right to work and to writing Seneca College receive a just salary.

From Caracol III, La Garrucha: “Women have the same rights as men to receive the same salary because we are of the same blood here there are no salaries in the organization, whether to males or to females” From Oventik: “ nobody within the organization is salaried unless the compañera goes to non critical St. John's-Ravenscourt the city” From Caracol V, Roberto Barrios: “those who deserve a salary are those women who work in professional essay writing service the cities They are the School, ones that deserve a just salary”[iii] Third: Women have the right to Seneca decide how many children they will have and take care of. From Caracol III, La Garrucha: “We as women have the right to decide how to live in our homes and how to essay paragraphs Cambridge, we have the right to decide with our partner how many children we can have and take care of. We have the right to service Seneca College not be obligated by anyone to have more or less children, not to be obligated to use birth control if we don’t want to, and we have the right to have our decisions and opinions respected. In our autonomy, we want all of these rights to be respected. Before, the bad government in a good university Washington State University (INTO) our villages would promote a lot of bad ideas, saying that women are worthless and that they have no right to speak.” From Caracol V, Roberto Barrios: “We saw it was better if decisions were made between partners”

Fourth: Women have the right to essay writing service participate in essay courses American School-Salzburg community affairs and professional essay service Seneca College, hold positions of authority if they are freely and democratically elected. From Caracol II, Oventik: “Here we are able to say that this is how to now being achieved” From Caracol III, La Garrucha: “As women we have the same rights as men, we have the right to decide which duties we can carry out in the communities as we can now take up positions as agentas , comisariadas , and promotoras of professional Seneca, health, sexual reproduction and education.” From Caracol V, Roberto Barrios: “We see that this is being fulfilled in our zone” Fifth: Women have the right to primary care with regard to their health and nutrition . From Caracol V, Roberto Barrios: “On this point, we see that some communities do have their health clinics. Where health clinics exist, it is not difficult to find the compañeras in CATS College good health, and essay College, they can also find medical attention for their children there. The women go with the health promotoras to the clinic, and here is where this point is being realized in some communities if there are no clinics they go to other nearby communities that do have clinics.” “In terms of feeding ourselves in our zone, our food is not far away from us. We compañeros and compañeras ourselves must follow our ancestors’ customs, how they lived before, how they ate. Essay Courses International School-Salzburg. It is what we see in professional essay College our zone, that we do not abandon farming what is non critical thinking School ours, the chayote , the writing Seneca College, yucca (manioc/cassava), the squash, and everything else that exists in our community. If we do not do this, if we do not produce, then we will die of how to critically, hunger.

It is professional writing service Seneca College there where malnutrition comes from, when we do not eat what we have” From Caracol III, La Garrucha: “we work in the field, harvesting our natural foods such as corn, beans, coffee, and other things.” From Caracol II, Oventik: “With women who are nursing their child or are pregnant, it is important to how to write essay College Cambridge eat well, rather than how sometimes women are the last ones to eat, that is, if food was leftover and if not, then no we see that this is professional Seneca College already being changed.” Sixth: Women have the right to education. From Caracol II, Oventik: “In the case of girls, when they are in their community this is accomplished all the more because they attend the Zapatista Rebel Autonomous Primary Schools (EPRAZ). From Caracol III, La Garrucha: “we do not want it to be like before when we were really exploited, when we did not have a good education as we have today with women we also continue moving forward in education.”

From Caracol V, Roberto Barrios: “In our zone, we talk about how women did not go to school before. How To Write (INTO). When older women were asked about professional essay writing Seneca it, they said that they did not go to school because their mothers or fathers did not send them. It is thinking St. John's-Ravenscourt School not their fault if they did not learn to read and write, and professional essay service Seneca, we realized that it was also not their mothers’ fault. The capitalists had us believing this idea, their story that women are not valuable; that if a girl is born then she is worthless. Non Critical Thinking St. John's-Ravenscourt. We realized that the parents of the family were not at fault. The blame is essay writing service Seneca College with this bad idea that they have put into how to write essay our heads.” “in our struggle we have everything, we have education.” Seventh: Women have the right to choose their partners and not be forced to marry. From Caracol V, Roberto Barrios: “On this point, as we see today, the compañeras decide who they would like to marry. But there are other ideas coming from College, elders that believe that the past custom should be respected. And so there are occasions when young women have not exercised this right yet, it must be exercised with the writing courses School-Salzburg, revolutionary struggle in mind.” From Caracol III, La Garrucha: “It is no longer how it used to be when the professional essay service College, fathers and mothers would force us women to marry someone they chose we have the right to the curriculum articles University decide who our partner is and who we want to writing service Seneca marry.”

From Caracol II, Oventik: “We know that before they could not decide they were traded in for liquor, for animals, for money the majority of the fathers now ask their daughters if they want to marry or who they want to marry, and website essays Lyceum Alpinum, this is essay writing Seneca why we say that we have made progress on this point.” Eighth: No woman will be beaten or physically mistreated by either family members or strangers. American International. The crimes of rape and attempted rape will be severely punished . From Caracol V, Roberto Barrios: “There are still cases of essay writing service Seneca College, this in our communities because that is a bad custom that persists in the mind, that contaminates, where machismo still exists: ‘I am stronger than you, so you have to respect me,’ are words that still exist Those of us who have been authorities, the ones that have spent some time working, perhaps we understand all of the talks that we receive but there are some compañeros that do not” From Caracol IV, Morelia: “there are also some things that are not being carried out; there are still compañeras that are mistreated and there is still fear in demanding rights.” From Caracol III, La Garrucha: “When we travel, we sometimes come across accidents, and sometimes the men do not behave while travelling Some men from thinking School, other organizations mock those of us women who go out to fill a post, laughing when they hear that we are tasked with responsibilities they say that what we are doing is worthless. Essay Writing Service. This is where the problem is, but in those organizations there are many problems of rape and mistreatment, while with us, Zapatistas, it is not that way because we are always explaining the Women’s Law.” Ninth: Women can occupy positions of authority in the organization and across Newcastle, earn military rank in the revolutionary armed forces.

From Caracol IV, Morelia: “as women we hold authority posts in areas such as autonomous health, education, and service Seneca College, production. There are compañeras who have understood the work well, although there have been obstacles that we encounter as we go about our work. But we have come out to how to write spread our efforts” From Caracol V, Roberto Barrios: “Over in the northern zone, this is being done as we say, although we are moving along slowly in participation. We have compañeras as regional authorities, and some also participate as milicianas , so this is being carried out. ”

From Caracol II, Oventik: “we say that this point is essay writing Seneca College being carried out how to university essay Washington University (INTO) because there are compañeras integrated in all authority positions. There are women at essay writing the local, regional, and zone level positions . And there are compañeras occupying different military ranks they have exercised their rights depending on their will and capacity.” Tenth: Women have all the rights and obligations set out by the revolutionary laws and regulations. From Caracol III, La Garrucha: “We well know that in our Zapatista struggle, that we don’t only say that we have rights, but that in our autonomous struggle, we have obligations to realize these rights as we want to within our villages by how to think, way of organizing.” “In 1994 it became known that we had the professional essay writing Seneca, Women’s Law. It is so good that this law existed and that we have been able to participate The compañeras suffered a lot before ’94: humiliation, mistreatment, rape.

But none of that ever mattered to website Lyceum Alpinum Zuoz the government and neither to the landowners. Neither of essay service, them ever took women into consideration. The landowners had the compañeros in peonage, and the compañeras had to get up very early to work. Those poor women had to continue working alongside the men. There was much slavery, but we don’t want this anymore and that’s why we as compañeras began to participate. What we want now is for our autonomy to function, for women to how to participate, to not stay behind. We will continue to go forward so that the writing Seneca, bad government can see that we will not let them exploit us as they exploited our ancestors.” From Caracol II, Oventik: “What we seek is something like a re-construction of humanity that is what we are trying to how to think change; another world is what we want it is the struggle that we are all a part of, men and writing service Seneca College, women, because it is not a struggle of women and it is not a struggle of men. When one speaks of a good university essay (INTO), a revolution, they go together, among men and women, and that is the writing service Seneca, struggle.” “We women who are here today know who made that Revolutionary Law. Somebody had to struggle for it and how to a good University (INTO), somebody defended us.

Who was that somebody who struggled for us, the professional writing service, compañeras ? Comandanta Ramona was the one who put that effort in for us. Non Critical. She did not know how to professional writing service read or write, or speak Spanish. The Curriculum Articles Newcastle. But why do we, as compañeras , not make the essay writing Seneca College, effort? She is an example, that compañera who already made the effort, for us to continue moving forward and keep on working in order to demonstrate what we know in how to a good university Washington University our organization.” Reflections from “outside” Zapatista territory. Through the phrases in the above reports, we can track the progress made today with respect to the so-called “Women’s Law.” A prime example is when a compañera says that it is professional essay Seneca College not the fault of the non critical thinking St. John's-Ravenscourt, fathers and professional service Seneca, mothers who did not send their daughters to essay American International school previously. This attitude, they tell us, is a product of “the capitalists [who] had us believing this idea their story that women are not valuable.” They affirm that it was capitalist ideology that infused their minds with this devaluation. It is not the fault of the mothers or the fathers who did not allow women to study, nor was it their own fault when they did not put in efforts to essay Seneca study.

It is across Newcastle a product of the slave condition they were forced to live. Here a sophisticated analysis appears, one which some psychologists call the professional writing service Seneca College, “internalization of oppression.” It expresses itself when we ourselves become convinced of our own lack of value as we appropriate and American International, reproduce the values of the dominant order that reduces and exploits us.[iv] The process of self-awareness appears in various responses throughout Volume III: Participation of Women in Autonomous Government , where they recount their experiences as Zapatistas. Seneca. As they have mentioned many times, they are “working under sheer political awareness,” putting into how to write a good university State University practice their demands for Seneca College, autonomy and writing Newcastle, freedom as women. Today they recognize that this internalization/appropriation of the dominant values continues to be present in the minds of professional writing service Seneca College, their cultural environment, in males, fathers, brothers, sons, and the curriculum Newcastle, even within themselves because it “contaminates” the writing service, mind. Rights and duties, individual and thinking School, collective. Also worthy of comment is the professional essay writing service Seneca College, recognition, by the compañeras , that it is not only rights that are demanded, but that they also have a counterpart: accepting these rights’ corresponding obligations and duties.

This has been theorized as the “inter-relational” aspect of rights.[v] This is a mature and reflexive appropriation of writing, what claiming women’s rights implies. Essay Service College. It is not about essay American International claiming “my rights” without limits, without measure, but about constructing them within a new normativity that emerges from the process of constructing their collective autonomy. Essay Writing Seneca College. “It is not my right only and how to critically, I get to do whatever I want.” This level of analysis also appears when they refer to girls’ freedom to writing service College decide whom they will marry. This right to select their partner, which most young girls today exercise, must adhere to essay CATS Cambridge and enter into harmony with the Zapatista struggle’s proposals and priorities. “It must be exercised with the revolutionary struggle in mind.” With these phrases, a profound collective and professional essay service College, inter-relational elaboration is thinking School expressed on how to go about walking along living women’s rights fully linked and interwoven with collective rights. These phrases clearly demonstrate that women’s rights are not conceptualized as the essay service, rights of individual entities that would respond only to the needs of an “individual” woman. They also do not refer to a collective made up exclusively of women.

Rather, they go “ juntos y a la par” [“together and side by think, side”]. “when one speaks of a revolution, they go together, among men and professional Seneca College, women, and that is the struggle.” The proposal here is that women’s struggle is not conceivable without men’s struggle. A revolutionary struggle consists of both men and women, and St. John's-Ravenscourt, there are many references throughout Volume III on the inextricability of all walking together. These references implicitly resolve the interrogations put forth by many academics over the exercise of human rights. Their analyses debate what is convenient and/or what are the appropriate ways of resolving the dilemma between prioritizing the individual or the collective subject of rights. They assume a hierarchical ordering to the priorities of struggle: either individual rights take priority, or collective rights do. Their philosophical reference is the “principle of the excluded third.” That is, they pit seemingly mutually exclusive categories against each other, understanding them within a hierarchical ordering: individual rights are first and later collective rights, or vice versa. The Zapatistas’ thinking has another reference. For them, individual rights and collective rights form a duality of essay service College, opposites that are at once complimentary.[vi] The foundation of and referent to this duality’s poles, fluidly opposed, allows them to speak and act according to website that essays Alpinum a fusion of both sets of professional essay writing Seneca, rights in their practice as well as in their thought. Writing Across The Curriculum Newcastle University. This fluid duality prevents hierarchization; its range is horizontal.

They speak and present us with a way of simultaneously living individual rights (of women) with those emerging from the collective rights of their people in struggle. “What we seek is something like a reconstruction of humanity” It is the very quest to create another world. In the writing, overall Zapatista proposal, the struggle for women’s rights is never arranged hierarchically as an across the curriculum articles Newcastle, inferior or secondary end. “This is why for us there is essay Seneca College no hierarchy of domains: we do not claim that the struggle for land takes priority over gender justice On the write essay paragraphs CATS College Cambridge, contrary, we think that all emphases are necessary”[vii] This inclusive form, based on simultaneity of doing/thinking, while seemingly paradoxical, is part of the Mesoamerican philosophical heritage that is also revealed in the story of the cat/dog or the dog/cat.[viii] This epistemic category of thought is present, in a certain way, in professional essay service Seneca the fusion of the university essay State University (INTO), cat/dog and its many metaphorical adventures that allow it to continue being a dog and a cat at the same time. This is how they move beyond the “encasing of the professional writing service Seneca College, entire world into non critical thinking St. John's-Ravenscourt a closed box of mutually exclusive options.” We have to rethink the world, struggle, and gender beyond binary dichotomies in order to “fully understand the grammar of the Zapatista rebellion.”[ix] Women walking in equilibrium and on a par with men. Continuing on in the professional essay writing service, analysis of the compañeras’ responses on how they live the Women’s Law today, some emphasize that their struggle against machismo does not imply that what they now seek is to dominate males or “value them less.” On the contrary, they are asking for writing across the curriculum articles, a “reconstruction” of society, a different ordering where dominant and dominated do not exist: whether they be women or men. They want to escape the inevitable hierarchies found in the world of essay service Seneca College, capitalist production and in any thought rooted in mutually exclusive categories. How To Roedean School. (The duality of opposites and professional service College, complimentary inspires and writing International, sustains their efforts as, again, this duality prevents hierarchization in that its range is horizontal.) It is another world they seek to essay Seneca College build through their demands as women, and in living their Revolutionary Law of Zapatista women. Beyond this proposal, another line of analysis would lead us to stress that there is pragmatic reason to include males. The compañeros , the women tell us, “sometimes do not allow them the right to freedom” to a compañera who has been assigned a task and “because of School, this problem, the Law has also to include men” so that the Law can be carried out. It is Seneca a search for critically, a masculinity without overtones of domination and with an understanding of how to live on a par, the fullness of the Women’s Revolutionary Law.

“They say that women are not worth anything.” This grievance comes to writing Seneca College us from the voice of Comandanta Esther at the plenary session of the Congreso de la Unión [House of Representatives] in Mexico City in 2001. She turned to writing the curriculum University the public audience in the Chamber of Deputies to speak about one of their “bad customs” that they were attempting to eradicate. She assured us “I don’t tell this story so that you feel sorry for professional essay writing College, us We are struggling to St. John's-Ravenscourt School change this and we will continue doing so”[x] What Zapatista women show us here is that culture is neither monolithic nor static. In their deliberations on how to essay Seneca implement the Women’s Law in the Caracoles today, we find an analytical element for further comprehension.

It is a historical review of how this devaluation of women originated. It is interesting to note the similarities that may exist between the Zapatistas’ reflections and website write Lyceum, scholars’ use of the professional writing service College, Psychohistorical analytical method, or that of the non critical thinking St. John's-Ravenscourt School, History of Mentalities. Essay Seneca College. From this perspective, it is no longer simply correcting a “bad custom” that exists in the Maya villages and communities where Zapatismo settled into. It is website that write essays for you Alpinum Zuoz also not about simply changing “bad customs.” The Zapatistas speak up denouncing its origin: the exploitative practices from the plantation and land owners. It was these plantation owners who considered women to be inferior. It was they who put “this bad idea into our heads.” One dramatic aspect of service Seneca, this devaluation of women is the university Washington (INTO), “ derecho de pernada ” [“right of the first night;” literally, “right of the thigh”] whereby landowners had the “right” to abuse and use young indigenous women for their sexual satisfaction. This wretched “right of the first night” was still in force recently, and the rape of indigenous women did not occur only on essay writing Seneca young virgins.[xi] Indigenous women can report multiple cases of abuse later in the lives of non critical thinking St. John's-Ravenscourt School, many of professional essay service College, their compañeras , for how to think Roedean School, example, when plantation owners, landowners, and coletos [urban males from San Cristóbal de las Casas] raped and abused Indian women claiming they were “improving the race.” Rosario Castellanos’ literary stories report these abuses in Chiapas.[xii] These violent chauvinistic customs tried to transform these women into essay writing College objects and property to be at the disposal of writing articles Newcastle, those macho rapists. They abused with impunity “those human beings” that are Indian, poor, and female, encouraging through their contempt, the devaluation of women by their own fathers, partners, brothers, sons and more broadly, within their customary habits. Marisol, a mature woman, and teacher during the August 2013 session of the Escuelita openly referred to the “right of the first night.” “Our grandmothers were raped,” she told us indignantly and explained further: “our grandfathers carried that same idea from their patrones y capataces [bosses and foremen] , not taking us women into consideration.” Reflections on the so-called “exchange” of women.

We know through multiple ethnographic studies and professional essay Seneca College, monographs that this exchange has existed in many cultures worldwide. Its basis, both in matrilineal and essay writing courses International, patrilineal societies, is that women are especially valuable for their capacity to bring new beings into the world. Moreover, ancient economies were often centered on professional essay writing service the family.[xiii] When a family member of the “productive core” abandons the family for example, to university essay Washington University (INTO) integrate into professional essay writing Seneca another familial network as would happen through marriage that member must be replaced by another or by goods that would compensate for think, the loss in the family’s subsistence production. These customs, in all their ethnic and historical variations, are based not on the devaluation of professional Seneca College, women but in their valuation, and consequently, in the desire to Roedean acquire compensation for the loss of their contributions to professional writing the production unit. Decisions over this sort of women’s worth and the compensation required in exchange for her leaving one domestic “productive” unit for another have generally been made under masculine dominance. Males decide what the compensation should be, and such decisions go through male-dominated gender hierarchies, although there exist some agrarian societies where male dominance does not take place, and where women are the ones who make these decisions. This exchange within households has been ritualized in multiple ways.

It is clear that the Zapatistas insist on transcending these patriarchal traditions. Anthropologically, the transformation of this custom, from a form of non critical School, compensation to something that can be considered as a “sale” of women is a process that has transited across time and professional College, cultures since antiquity. Under contemporary capitalist societal values, where everything is subject to sale and valuation under market logic, this change has been induced made necessary. How To Think School. It has taken diverse paths before reaching the point today that the professional writing service Seneca College, compañeras Zapatistas critique: “they were traded in for liquor, for animals, for money” Here, we might be able to initiate a type of clinical anamnesis reviewing this process as it happens in St. John's-Ravenscourt the Highlands Zone and throughout the State of professional service College, Chiapas more generally. Certainly, the website write Lyceum Alpinum Zuoz, intensification of essay writing College, patriarchal values reinforced this custom. In Chiapas they reached the point of essay paragraphs Cambridge, frenzy with the “right of the first night.”[xiv] The rape and abuse of women with impunity, coupled with the colonialist contempt for the “ indio ” [literally, “indian;” the label often holds derogatory undertones] and the slavery to which the indigenous peoples were subjected to, contributed to the transformation of women, patriarchally considered a “value” that must be adequately replaced; or an object of scorn to be discarded and exchanged for liquor, a cow, or money. Women’s productive and reproductive contributions to the domestic unit and to the community, as well as a review of the several kinds of patriarchal abuses suffered by women, have been theorized profusely within Marxist feminisms.[xv] Yet the main paradox of this custom is that one cannot sell what is professional service College considered worthless.[xvi] Through the Zapatistas’ organization, the compañeras have dramatically advanced in how to write a good university Washington State resisting this “bad custom” of writing service, exchanging women by putting forward constructive proposals for eradicating it. Field research in the same region reports that this is the area of Mexico where human rights violations are most frequent, precisely because of the so called “sale” of women.[xvii]

Agroecology and subsistence farming. In many of the how to a good State (INTO), Caracoles, they have developed original methods of farming for autonomous subsistence. This subsistence is never absolute, as these methods also generate surpluses that they sell on the market. New methods combine with traditional ones to generate novel contributions. Professional Service. This could be a proposal which, if replicated worldwide, might offer alternatives to the environmental crisis we are living now. Regenerating the fields through agroecological means could foster the survival of not only human beings but of the entire planet. Indeed, it could offer ways of ensuring food sovereignty. “Family Farming” is one theme driving the United Nations (UN) in 2014 throughout the world. The Zapatistas, well ahead of the UN’s project, having been promoting it for many years now. How To University Essay State University (INTO). “Culture is service Seneca working the thinking School, land.”[xviii] “They will not be able to take away our culture. We will not allow it.

We continue working in producing everything that we need, from seeds to everything else that is professional service Seneca necessary the seeds that we continue selecting and storing.” It is a call to St. John's-Ravenscourt support their own ancestral self-sustaining cultivation traditions which the Zapatistas know are appropriate to their lands. In this restored tradition, the improvement of professional essay writing, nutrition mentioned in the fifth point of the Women’s Revolutionary law takes hold. “In terms of feeding ourselves in our zone, our food is not far away from us. We compañeros and compañeras ourselves must follow our ancestors’ customs, how they lived before, how they ate that we do not abandon farming what is ours, the the curriculum articles, chayote , the yuca [manioc/cassava], the squash” In an era in service College which the a good university essay Washington State University (INTO), small farm has by essay College, now been obliterated in most countries, and in which peasants, in order to survive, must emigrate and abandon their land and crops for other activities in other places, the essay courses American, Zapatistas enact a better future on the land. These experiments and their successes, although still in their initial stages, promise a revitalization of traditional farming practices and a return to a survival agriculture that many alternative projects worldwide today seek. The Zapatistas have started on essay writing a path that contributes a future of hope, which does not only allow them to survive, but also serves as an writing American, example and as encouragement so that other people and other impoverished rural communities take their subsistence back into their own hands. Healthcare: revitalizing traditional methods.

The achievements of the Women’s Revolutionary Law on issues of the right to primary health care and nutrition reveal the Zapatistas’ path that at once offers a service and professional service Seneca College, a political contribution. They have created various health facilities, and in fact, just about thinking every community or village has its own “ casa de salud” that could be called a health clinic. Through them, the Zapatistas receive primary care, and they have insisted for years on revitalizing and relearning traditional Mesoamerican medical practices. Some illnesses are treated through herbal medicines, whose effectiveness have been proven in Mexico since the pre-Hispanic era. It is known, for example, that in professional essay service Seneca College Oaxtepec, a place in the State of Morelos, ancient Mexicans established a botanical garden with well over 400 species of medicinal and healing plants. How To Think Roedean School. They were experimenting with these herbs in order to find appropriate doses. Professional Essay Service College. This was all being practiced before the Spanish invasion.

In addition to the revitalization and recovery of knowledges through herbal teas and poultices, and through recipes of concentrated healing herbs, the tradition of midwifery has been reappropriated and today flourishes. It is American International School-Salzburg practiced in each casa de salud , together with massages and manteadas (manipulations of the essay writing College, foetus), attention is given to the process of pregnancy through the ingestion of medicinal teas. This traditional prenatal and think, childbirth care has been reclaimed through their very precise efforts to recover these techniques of professional essay writing service Seneca College, ancestral midwifery, whose level of writing courses American, success surprised Fray Bernardino de Sahagún in the sixteenth century, as detailed extensively in his General History of the Things of New Spain . The massages and manipulations that re-set bones and heal twisted or injured joints and tendons belong to another one of those ancient healing traditions that have been recovered. Professional Essay Service Seneca College. These are knowledges of female “bonesetters” that continue to be practiced in many parts of contemporary Mexico. Today, Zapatismo recovers and how to paragraphs CATS College, reappropriates them as part of their heritage. It is service a cultural recovery and a cultural defense, as they told us during the Escuelita . In Mexico, as in the Mesoamerican region in general, those who practice traditional medicine are mostly women. The bonesetters, midwives, and herbal healers are the medical service providers in both the casas de salud and the bigger health clinics throughout Zapatista territory.[xix] These healing capacities are much appreciated collectively, and provide women a community space of respect, self-esteem, and power. It is mostly Zapatista female health promoters who are engaged in these tasks and how to university essay State (INTO), preserve ancestral knowledges, relearning those that have been lost. This allows for a combination of traditional Maya medicine with allopathic care both in casas de salud and in Seneca the health clinics in each Caracol . The clinics that have been constructed in the Caracoles can then offer the highest quality attention, making allopathic medication accessible, as well as offering an non critical thinking School, infrastructure that allows for complicated and essay, delicate surgical interventions.

Tempering divisiveness: political gains through community services in education, health, and justice. The health care offered by the State is of bad quality and often inexistent. It is well known that in rural regions, many people must walk hours and how to write essay paragraphs CATS College Cambridge, hours before reaching the nearest Secretaria de Salubridad y Asistencia (SSA) health clinic. Frequently, when they arrive they find that there is no service, that the doctor is out, or that they do not have the medicine needed. The Zapatistas have made up for this absence and offer their own services, and it is well known that they provide medical attention to all adjacent villages and professional essay writing service College, communities, many of whom are non-Zapatistas.

They are indigenous “brothers” and “sisters” as they told us during the paragraphs College Cambridge, lessons at the Escuelita . Professional Essay Writing Seneca. They care for these non- and sometimes even anti-Zapatista brothers with the same care and speed. Needless to write essay paragraphs CATS say, in professional writing service offering quality services to all who need it in those areas abandoned by official services, the think Roedean, Zapatistas have been able to defeat rivalries and confrontations fomented by the three levels of state power (municipal, state, and federal) that seek to deal with the peasants’ struggles for justice by dismantling the professional essay writing service Seneca, solidarity links among them. The methods used to non critical thinking School divide the indigenous communities include every kind of handout (for example, the programs “Oportunidades” or “PROCEDE”), or even arming indigenous people so they become mercenaries who, in exchange for payment, function as paramilitaries at essay writing service the service of the State. Critically. Once becoming illegal soldiers, these indigenous attack the Zapatistas with the intention of ruining their autonomous project. The services the Zapatistas provide to indigenous people living in adjacent areas to essay writing Seneca College non-Zapatistas and even ex-Zapatistas include, beyond the write paragraphs College, health services mentioned above, the professional essay writing service College, possibility for children to study in the autonomous schools as well as participate in conflict resolution for all kinds of across, offenses through the Zapatistas’ own form of “autonomous justice.” Throughout the sessions of the August 2013 Escuelita , we also had the opportunity to learn in detail about how they resignify, broaden, and professional essay service, improve, autonomous education and autonomous justice, and how they redefine them conceptually by putting them into practice. Through their proposals that address community needs in health care, education, and justice, the Zapatistas move toward dissolving the inter-community clashes purposefully created by courses American, the State. Their calm response, given without violence and essay service Seneca College, even without raising their voice, without using force, and also offering a solution to the curriculum articles University the needs of their indigenous “brothers and sisters,” has been the most effective antidote against the fratricidal confrontations that the “bad government” and the geopolitical models of the Global North have fomented. Per the instructions found in the counterinsurgency manuals developed by the Global North, “ethnic wars” should be promoted or manufactured and essay service College, “religious fundamentalisms” should be created or intensified in order to divide, control, and critically Roedean School, destroy the justice struggles that start from professional essay writing Seneca, below.

What would we write today if we could attempt to sum up what the that write Alpinum Zuoz, Zapatista experience shows us about the women’s struggle to live and practice the writing College, Women’s Revolutionary Law? We can anticipate that these struggles do not end here. Non Critical. It is a process that continues on writing service College and on. It is that write for you Alpinum also a process that transforms itself. Returning now to the experience of the essay College, Escuelita , we recognize how the Women’s Revolutionary Law has advanced through practice. As it is Roedean School inserted into the Zapatistas’ collectivity, any conventional feminist approach, whether theoretical or practical, cannot help us here.

From the professional essay writing Seneca College, comments we have detailed and expounded upon here, we see that the writing American International School-Salzburg, Women’s Law escapes any rigid framework. Essay Writing. It proposes and resolves some practical feminist demands, such as women’s “empowerment” and the advance of how to critically School, women’s “reproductive rights.” Under the aegis of Zapatista autonomy, with the writing Seneca College, enormous differences this political context offers, what is found is an “other” type of St. John's-Ravenscourt, empowerment and professional writing service Seneca, an “other” type of sexual and reproductive rights, as they are transformed and website that write Alpinum, permeated by collective identity, interdependence, and inter-relatedness. The application of the service Seneca College, Women’s Revolutionary Law coincides with some feminists’ search for equality, widening the how to think critically Roedean, concept of “equality” with their notion that “we are equal because we are different.”[xx] It also seems to follow some theoretical legacies of the professional essay writing service, feminism of difference which it also subverts with the expression of the curriculum, “egalitarian aspirations.”[xxi] It broadens all referents, expands them, transgresses them, and joins them “illogically” with its practices of inclusion into the autonomous collectivity that exceeds, while seeming to professional essay embrace, the School, narrow categories of essay writing service, gender, binaries and the mutually exclusive notions of the St. John's-Ravenscourt School, feminine and the masculine, and those feminist pursuits to correct them. The Zapatista women’s struggles and demands for professional essay service Seneca College, their rights do not fit neatly in how to essay paragraphs any feminist theories or practices; they transcend them all. They sometimes sound like ecofeminism, egalitarianism, the essay writing College, revindication of difference, empowerment, reproductive rights, and sometimes like an elaboration of gender racialization in all its complex theorizations. If their own music “has the rhythm of polka-balada-corrido-ranchera-cumbia-rock-ska-metal-reggae-trova-punk-hiphop-rap-and any others that want to pile up,”[xxii] it is because their proposal, as it is lived today within Zapatista autonomous practice, contains every colour, sound, tonality, and dissonance.

And if we manage to perceive them: “there will then be new eyes and ears that understand our commitment.” Because, as in Subcomandante Marcos’ story of the cat-dog, a big challenge for writing across the curriculum articles, the deep understanding of essay service College, Zapatista women’s history is that “all categorical options are a trap The answer is essay courses American neither here nor there. It is professional essay Seneca better to make a new path that goes where one wants to go.” This new path is being created right now by Zapatista women. English translation by writing across Newcastle, Linda Quiquivix. Written in the months after attending the first round of the Zapatistas’ recent Little School initiative in August 2013, Marcos’ essay was first published in Spanish by the Universidad de la Tierra/CIDECI, Chiapas (2014) and essay writing Seneca, now appears in French as a chapter in a book entitled, Zapatisme: La rébellion qui dure (Paris, France: Syllepse/CETRI, 2014). How To Write CATS College. The English translation is published here for the first time. [i] EZLN, Freedom According to the Zapatistas, Volume III: Participation of Women in the Autonomous Government,” San Cristóbal de las Casas, Mexico, 2013, p.72. [ii] The Zapatistas often refer to a member of the organization as compañero (m.) or compañera (f.). [iii] op. cit. p. 67; Neither women nor men within Zapatista autonomous territory receive salaries for their service to the EZLN. In the professional College, autonomous Zapatista communities, as is true of American, ancestral and contemporary indigenous communities, all work done to benefit the collective is writing College conceived of as “service,” in line with servir y no servirse [to serve and write College Cambridge, not serve oneself], one of Zapatismo’s seven guiding principles.

The point in the Women’s Revolutionary Law that demands that women must receive a just salary for their work is a demand that applies to the context of Seneca College, work done in non-Zapatista territory, specifically in cities where women and men live according to the neoliberal market economy which devalues women’s work vis-à-vis men’s. [iv] Frantz Fanon, The Wretched of the Earth, 1965. [v] Joy, Morny, “Womens Rights and Religions: a Contemporary Review,” In Journal of Feminist Studies in Religions , Vol 29, No 1, Spring 2013, (p9) [vi] Sylvia Marcos, Tomado de los labios: genero y eros en Mesoamerica , Quito: Abya Yala, 2012, cap. 2. [vii] Subcomandante Marcos, “Ni el Centro ni la Periferia, Parte V.- Oler el negro. El calendario y la geografia del miedo” en Primer Coloquio Internacional In Memoriam Andrés Aubry , SCLC ,Cideci Unitierra Ediciones, Chiapas, México. 2009, p 230. [viii] Comunicado “Rebobinar 3” (1) del 17 de Noviembre 2013, Trigésimo aniversario de la fundación del EZLN www.enlacezapatista.org.mx. [x] Sylvia Marcos, “Las fronteras interiorres: El movimiento de mujeres indígenas y el feminismo en México” en Dialogo y Diferencia: Retos feministas a la globalización , CEIICH UNAM, México, 2008, p.205.

[xi] Olivera, M. 1977, Presentacion, Primer Congreso Estudios de la Mujer, México, DF. [xii] Rosario Castellanos, Oficio de Tinieblas, Miradas, México, 1962. [xiii] Claude Meillasoux Mujeres Graneros y Capitales , Siglo XXI, México, 1980. [xiv] Engels, El origen de la familia , la propiedad privada y el estado, 1884. [xv] Silvia Federici, La Revolucion Feminista Inacabada: Mujeres, reproducción social y lucha por lo común , Escuela Calpulli, México, 2013. [xvii] Rosario Valdez, Encuesta ENSADEMI: Encuesta de Salud y Derechos de las Mujeres Indígenas , Instituto Nacional de Salud Publica, México, 2008. [xviii] Jean Robert, notas de la Escuelita CIDECI, 2013, Profesor Joel.

[xix] Carlos Zolla citado en Sylvia Marcos “ Mujeres Cosmovisión y Medicina: Las curanderas mexicanas”, en Orlandina de Oliveira, ed. Trabajo. Poder, Sexualidad , PIEM Colegio de México, México, 1992 [1989]. [xx] Sylvia Marcos, “Las zapatistas caminan su palabra,” Ponencia Seminario Internacional , CIDECI Unitierra SCLC, enero 2012. [xxi] Lemus Doris, Revista Reflexión Política , Vol 15, No 30 (2013), y este está en las páginas 124 - 137, Bucaramanga, Colombia. [xxii] Comunicado “Rebobinar 3” (1) del 17 de Noviembre 2013, Trigésimo aniversario de la fundación del EZLN www.enlacezapatista.org.mx.

Please note that many people who photograph the EZLN do so anonymously and make their work sharable for how to think critically Roedean, non-commercial use. Such is the case here, so we do not have credits to attach. Sylvia Marcos is professional writing a scholar committed to indigenous movements throughout the Americas. As a university professor and researcher she has proposed a new vision in the field of feminist critical epistemology, Mesoamerican religions, and women within indigenous movements, while promoting an write a good university Washington University, anti-hegemonic feminist practice, theory, and hermeneutics. Her most recent books are a collection of essays entitled Mujeres, Indigenas, Rebeldes, Zapatistas (Distrito Federal, Mexico: Ediciones Eon, 2011) and a co-edited book Senti-pensar el genero (Taller del Mago, Mexico, 2013), co-edited with Georgina Mendez and Juan Lopez Intzin. We encourage anyone to comment, please consult the.

Civil Society Futures is a national conversation about how English civil society can flourish in a fast changing world. Full coverage of the non-hierarchical conference held in Barcelona on 18-22 June 2017.